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Mineral surfaces–RNA interactions

Mineral surfaces–RNA interactions | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors present the results of large-scale molecular simulations, run over several tens of nanoseconds, of 25-mer sequences of single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) in bulk water and at the surface of three hydrated positively charged MgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) minerals. The three LDHs differ in surface charge density, through varying the number of isomorphic Al substitutions.

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Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography

Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors, using atom probe tomography, have document the effects of crystal–plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements.

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Three-dimensional full-field X-ray orientation microscopy

Three-dimensional full-field X-ray orientation microscopy | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
A previously introduced mathematical framework for full-field X-ray orientation microscopy is for the first time applied to experimental near-field diffraction data acquired from a polycrystalline sample.
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The gem of the royal crown at the Musee de la Minéralogie in Paris

The gem of the royal crown at the Musee de la Minéralogie in Paris | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

For the first time, the Museum of Mineralogy of Paris, will exhibit dozen of exceptional quality gems which belonged to the French Royal crown.

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In-situ structural changes of amorphous diopside (CaMgSi2O6) up to 20 GPa

In-situ structural changes of amorphous diopside (CaMgSi2O6) up to 20 GPa | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

CaMgSi2O6, is an important analogue for depolymerized silicate melts.

Ath Godelitsas's insight:

XRS measurements at the O K-edge suggest that [5]Si is formed by 3 GPa. This formation is accompanied by a rapid decrease in the ∠∠Si-O-Si and a decrease in Q0 species. A linear increase in the geometric mean of the high frequency envelope, the χbχb value, from 999 to 1018 cm−1 suggests that the conversion of NBO to BO is continuous up to 14 GPa. Above 14 GPa, the Raman spectra show an obvious negative shift in both, the high frequency peak maximum, and the χbχb position. Simultaneously, the low frequency envelope looses its asymmetry at 14 GPa. This may be explained by either a loss of a vibrational mode in the range 1000 to 1200 cm−1 and/or the formation of [6]Si. The structural evolution of CaMgSi2O6 correlates well with a major change in the compressibility and diffusivity around 5 GPa.

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Lecture: Speleothems as paleoclimate indicators

Lecture given by Prof. Miryam Bar-Matthews at the Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, as part of the EAG Distin...
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Zinc Isotope Fractionation as an Indicator of Geochemical Attenuation Processes

Zinc Isotope Fractionation as an Indicator of Geochemical Attenuation Processes | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Isotope measurements confirmed an increasing trend in aqueous δ66Zn in solution during sphalerite (ZnS) formation, but a decreasing trend in δ66Zn during the precipitation of hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] and hopeite [Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O]. In contrast, time-dependent sorption of Zn onto ferrihydrite at a fixed pH did not cause isotopic fractionation in the solution over the duration of the experiments.

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Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase

Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Porphyry ore deposits are increasingly hard to discover. Geochemical analysis of minerals formed in porphyry systems worldwide shows that the most fertile deposits are associated with excess Al and water-rich magma injections.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing ‘excess’ aluminium.

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Bristol University | News | January: EAG awards

Bristol University | News | January: EAG awards | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Bristol dominates international geochemistry awards - Dr Kate Hendry and Professor Jon Blundy – both members of... https://t.co/ZR6iCdwP3Y

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Urey Award of European Association of Geochemistry to Professor Klaus Mezger

Urey Award of European Association of Geochemistry to Professor Klaus Mezger | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Klaus Mezger is a professor of Isotope Geology in the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland. His early research focused on the study of metamorphic processes in crustal rocks to understand their evolution as a function of pressure, temperature and time. This involved the use of radioactive decay schemes in metamorphic minerals for understanding the possible geologic significance of the ages provided by these chronometers.

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Fossil Hominin Teeth Using New Synchrotron Microtomography

Fossil Hominin Teeth Using New Synchrotron Microtomography | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors present a new approach combining Synchrotron virtual histology and high quality three-dimensional rendering of dental surfaces and internal interfaces.

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Witwatersrand Diamonds Suggest Plate Tectonics Started 3.5 Billion Years Ago (via @deepcarb)

Witwatersrand Diamonds Suggest Plate Tectonics Started 3.5 Billion Years Ago (via @deepcarb) | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Kim Leslie's curator insight, January 19, 5:43 PM

Earth Science Students - what do you think? These scientists obviously weren't alive 3.5 billion years ago to witness this - so how do they know? 

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Incidental nanomaterials in the environment, and why it is critical that we pay attention (GEOC59) by Michael Hochella

Incidental nanomaterials in the environment, and why it is critical that we pay attention (GEOC59) by Michael Hochella | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Microbially assisted recording of the Earth/'s magnetic field in sediment

Microbially assisted recording of the Earth/'s magnetic field in sediment | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Sediments continuously record variations of the Earth’s magnetic field and thus provide an important archive for studying the geodynamo.
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Selective silicate-directed motility in diatoms

Selective silicate-directed motility in diatoms | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors show that benthic diatoms selectively perceive and behaviourally react to gradients of dSi. Cell speed increases under dSi-limited conditions in a chemokinetic response and, if gradients of this resource are present, increased directionality of cell movement promotes chemotaxis.

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Cooling and societal change during the Late Antique Little Ice Age from 536 to around 660 AD

Cooling and societal change during the Late Antique Little Ice Age from 536 to around 660 AD | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors have used tree-ring chronologies from the Russian Altai and European Alps to reconstruct summer temperatures over the past two millennia.

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Earth Sciences for Cultural Heritage - ELEMENTS MAGAZINE

Earth Sciences for Cultural Heritage - ELEMENTS MAGAZINE | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Elements, An International Magazine of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

This issue of Elements celebrates the diverse contributions that the Earth sciences have made to characterizing, interpreting, conserving, and valorizing cultural heritage.

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Arsenic: Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology

Arsenic: Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes.

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Pathways for nitrogen cycling in Earth’s crust and upper mantle: A review and new results for microporous beryl and cordierite

Pathways for nitrogen cycling in Earth’s crust and upper mantle: A review and new results for microporous beryl and cordierite | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Building on their discussion of N behavior in continental crust, the authors present new measurements on the N concentrations and isotopic compositions of microporous beryl and cordierite from medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks and pegmatites, both phases containing molecular N2, and NH4+-bearing micas coexisting with them.

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A spin on lower mantle mineralogy

A spin on lower mantle mineralogy | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

© 2016 Mineralogical Society of America A spin on lower mantle mineralogy Jeffrey S.

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In the October 2015 issue of American Mineralogist, Dorfman et al. present an experimental study of the effect of iron concentration on the spin transition in bridgmanite.

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Enhancing the rate of ex situ mineral carbonation in dunites via ball milling

Enhancing the rate of ex situ mineral carbonation in dunites via ball milling | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

The optimum conditions are 12 h of BM with 50 wt% ethanol as process control agent.

Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The investigation of potential options for CO2 sequestration is of vital importance for alleviating the ongoing climate problem. This paper presents an efficient method for enhancing the ex situ carbonation of dunites. The ball milling process was applied to a dunite from the Troodos ophiolite (Cyprus), in order to create a new type of material with enhanced CO2 uptake. Through CO2 chemisorption followed by temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD) experiments, optimum ball milling conditions were found (12 h of wet ball milling with 50 wt% ethanol as process control agent), leading to an increase of CO2 uptake of dunite by a factor of 6.9. A further increase of CO2 uptake by 10% was accomplished after 4 h of additional ball milling with smaller balls. Additionally, CO2-TPD along with in situ DRIFTS studies indicated that the CO2 uptake of the dunitic materials can be substantially enhanced by the presence of H2O during CO2 chemisorption. The positive effect of H2O on CO2 chemisorption becomes much more evident after the ball milling process. Specifically, the CO2 uptake of the ball-milled sample (BM45) was enhanced by a factor of 5.8 (from 181.9 to 1047.5 μmol g−1), when CO2 chemisorption was performed in the presence of 20 vol% H2O.

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Direct observation of mineral-organic composite formation reveals occlusion mechanism

Direct observation of mineral-organic composite formation reveals occlusion mechanism | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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By investigating micelle incorporation in calcite with in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micromechanical simulations, the authors show that different mechanisms govern nanoscale occlusion.

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Geochemical reaction kinetics using nanometer-sized metal-hydroxide and -oxide ions (GEOC62) by William Casey

Geochemical reaction kinetics using nanometer-sized metal-hydroxide and -oxide ions (GEOC62) by William Casey | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Visualizing atoms of perovskite crystals

Visualizing atoms of perovskite crystals | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

See also: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160108134326.htm

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