Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience
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Neither rare, nor earths

Neither rare, nor earths | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
You have probably never heard of most of the so-called rare earth elements yet they have insinuated themselves deep into the fabric of modern life.
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In his laboratory in University College London, Prof Andrea Sella's face lights up when asked about rare earths. Clearly this family of elements is particularly close to the chemist's heart. The first thing you need to know is they are neither rare nor earths, he tells. They are known as "rare" because it is very unusual to find them in a pure form, but it turns out there are deposits of some of them all over the world - cerium, for example, is the 25th most common element on the planet. The term "earth" is simply an archaic term for something you can dissolve in acid.

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Network analysis of mineralogical systems

Network analysis of mineralogical systems | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Network analysis provides a dynamic, quantitative, and predictive visualization framework for employing “big data” to explore complex and otherwise hidden higher-dimensional patterns of diversity and distribution in such mineral systems. The authors introduce and explore applications of mineral network analysis, in which mineral species are represented by nodes, while coexistence of minerals is indicated by lines between nodes.
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Mineral fibres: Crystal chemistry, chemical-physical properties, biological interaction and toxicity

Mineral fibres: Crystal chemistry, chemical-physical properties, biological interaction and toxicity | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

This book presents the state of the art in the vast multidisciplinary research field of asbestos and of mineral fibres in general. The protagonists of the book are the mineral fibres with their immense complexity and poorly understood biochemical interactions. The approach of the chemist/mineralogist/crystallographer puts the fibre in focus whereas the approach of the biochemist/toxicologist/doctor assumes the perspective of the organism interacting with the fibre. The perspectives of both the ‘invader’ and the ‘invaded’ must be considered together to establish a conclusive model to explain the toxicity of mineral fibres. In fact, this sharing of different perspectives and working in a multidisciplinary way is the key to understanding the mechanism of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis.

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Hydrogen self-diffusion in single crystal olivine and electrical conductivity of the Earth’s mantle

Hydrogen self-diffusion in single crystal olivine and electrical conductivity of the Earth’s mantle | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Nominally anhydrous minerals formed deep in the mantle and transported to the Earth’s surface contain tens to hundreds of ppm wt H2O, providing evidence for the presence of dissolved water in the Earth’s interior.
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Elements of Eoarchean life trapped in mineral inclusions

Elements of Eoarchean life trapped in mineral inclusions | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors study carbonaceous inclusions armoured within garnet porphyroblasts, by in situ infrared absorption on approximately 10−21 m3 domains within these inclusions. They show that the absorption spectra are consistent with carbon bonded to nitrogen and oxygen, and probably also to phosphate.
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Why modern mortar crumbles, but Roman concrete lasts millennia

Why modern mortar crumbles, but Roman concrete lasts millennia | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Seawater is the secret behind the strength of the Pantheon and Colosseum
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Caves in Iran Forewarn of Water Availability

According to a new study in the Journal of Quaternary Science Reviews by Mehterian, et.al., stalagmites from Iran as geologic archives of Earth's climacti
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How seawater strengthens Roman concrete

The ancient Romans had a recipe for concrete that won't corrode in seawater. Scientists are trying to figure it out. Learn more a
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Energetics at the Nanoscale: Impacts for Geochemistry, the Environment and Materials

This presentation was made as part of the Symposium X series of keynote talks at the 2015 MRS Spring Meeting by Alexandra Navrotsky, University o
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Minerals found in shipwreck and museum drawer 'show we are living in new epoch'

Minerals found in shipwreck and museum drawer 'show we are living in new epoch' | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Researchers say 208 of more than 5,200 officially recognised minerals are exclusively, or largely, linked to human activity merely in last 200 years to indicate Anthropocene age
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Phillipsite #zeolite and Al-tobermorite in Roman marine concrete

Phillipsite #zeolite and Al-tobermorite in Roman marine concrete | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Synchrotron-based X-ray microdiffraction maps of cementitious microstructures in Baianus Sinus and Portus Neronis submarine breakwaters and a Portus Cosanus subaerial pier now reveal that Al-tobermorite also occurs in the leached perimeters of feldspar fragments, zeolitized pumice vesicles, and in situ phillipsite fabrics in relict pores.
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A Review of the Structures of Vaterite: The Impossible, the Possible, and the Likely

A Review of the Structures of Vaterite: The Impossible, the Possible, and the Likely | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
The importance of the metastable vaterite form of CaCO3 is increasingly appreciated as an intermediate between amorphous calcium carbonate and more stable crystalline polymorphs in biogenic calcification pathways.
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BR 2018 Conference – Red Mud – Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices Conference

BR 2018 Conference – Red Mud – Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices Conference | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

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Charged Surface: Case of Cs+/K+ on Hydrated Muscovite Mica

Charged Surface: Case of Cs+/K+ on Hydrated Muscovite Mica | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors performed molecular dynamics simulations of Cs+ and K+ adsorption at the hydrated muscovite surface and used quasi-one-dimensional site-specific potential of mean force calculations to quantify the energetics of ion exchange in this system for each individual site and for the entire muscovite surface on average.
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Initial pulse of Siberian Traps sills as the trigger of the end-Permian mass extinction

Initial pulse of Siberian Traps sills as the trigger of the end-Permian mass extinction | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Large igneous provinces characterized by sill complexes are more likely to trigger catastrophic global environmental change than their flood basalt- and/or dike-dominated counterparts.
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Geochemical constraints on the Hadean environment from mineral fingerprints of prokaryotes

Geochemical constraints on the Hadean environment from mineral fingerprints of prokaryotes | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

The geologic record of Earth’s first 500 Myr is confined mainly to Hadean detrital zircons. Newly discovered graphite inclusions in some of these zircons extend evidence for the emergence of life to 4.1 Ga. Deep-root models indicate that at ~4.2 Ga Eubacteria and Archaebacteria diverged from the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), which existed in Hadean between ~4.4-4.2 Ga. In addition, recent findings6 suggest that prokaryotic metabolism likely remained unchanged for billions of years. Hence, the common chemical features imprinted in the metabolic processes of both prokaryotic kingdoms may be inherited from LUCA.

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Continental shelves as potential resource of rare earth elements

Continental shelves as potential resource of rare earth elements | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Rare earth elements (REE) have received considerable attention in the past ten years, in part as a result of the tightening of export quotas from the monopolistic Chinese producers which has recently sparked a wave of speculation on REE prices, as observed in 2011. Nowadays, REE are still considered critical because they are a key component of the transition towards a competitive and low-carbon energy economy
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Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz

Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems.
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Geochemistry of coastal sands of Eastern Mediterranean: The case of Nisyros volcanic materials

Geochemistry of coastal sands of Eastern Mediterranean: The case of Nisyros volcanic materials | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Coastal sand samples collected from the northern part of Nisyros volcanic island (Dodecanese, Greece) were investigated for first time for their potential in strategic metals and compared with parental rocks of the island which are Quaternary volcanics with alternating lava flows, pyroclastic layers and lava domes and relevant materials located near granitoids of Northern Greece. The PXRD and SEM-EDS study of the sands revealed enhanced content of feldspars, Fe-Mn oxides, magnetite, tourmaline, pyroxenes, ilmenites, along with zircons, apatite and sulfide inclusions. The fresh hydrothermally deposited clayely material collected from the Nisyros caldera crater had a rather different mineralogical composition from the coastal one (alunite, anhydrite, opal-CT, quartz, kaolinite). UCC-normalized spidergrams indicated that the weathering processes contributed to accumulation of heavy minerals (mainly ilmenite), and strategic metals including V (1920 mg/kg) and Nb (245 mg/kg), in the coastal sand. The low REE concentration (ΣREE + Y = 240 mg/kg) could be attributed to the absence of REE-rich minerals. Moreover, the sands exhibit different geochemical patterns compared to the volcanic source rocks of the island, which are especially enriched in Large-Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE) and depleted in High Field Strength Elements (HFSE), such as Nb and Ta. On the other hand, the caldera material is enriched in volatile components, sulfur, chalcophile elements (Se, Bi, Hg, As, Pb) and Ba. Micro-XRF analyses of representative crystals showed that the high Nb content of the sands was associated with the Ti/Fe-rich phases (e.g. ilmenites). The geochemical composition of N Greece sands showed, because of their origin, enrichment not only in HFSE but also in REE. The study of the coastal heavy mineral sands originating from different geological environments of Greece provides information about the association of their mineral components with REE, other elements of economic interest (e.g. Co, Nb, Ta) and natural actinides. In addition, the study of the black sands of Nisyros island could be considered as a characteristic example of those from other parts of Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA) and other relevant Mediterranean regions.
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Tracking continental-scale modification of the Earth’s mantle using zircon megacrysts

Tracking continental-scale modification of the Earth’s mantle using zircon megacrysts | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Geochemical Perspectives Letters is a new journal of the European Association of Geochemistry.
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The authors utilise the Lu–Hf systematics of zircon megacrysts erupted in kimberlite magmas to discern two temporally and compositionally discrete metasomatic events in the mantle beneath southern Africa, each having an influence extending over an area exceeding one million km2.
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New Perspectives on Mineral Nucleation and Growth

New Perspectives on Mineral Nucleation and Growth | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
In the last decade, numerous studies have demonstrated the existence of alternative pathways to nucleation and crystallisation that oppose the classical
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Ancient hydrothermal seafloor deposits in Eridania basin on Mars

Ancient hydrothermal seafloor deposits in Eridania basin on Mars | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
This diagram shows an exaggerated MOLA topographic profile of a 450-km-long transect through Ariadnes basin (see Fig. 5 for context). Water levels are coloured to match the minimum (700 m) and maximum (1,100 m) elevations of the sea level in Fig. 5. Thick, clay-rich deposits formed through hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic volcanic materials in deep water. Deep-seated structural discontinuities could have facilitated the ascent of magma from a mantle source. Chloride deposits formed from evaporation of seawater at higher elevations in the basin.
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Humanity's Minerals and Localities | Deep Carbon Observatory Portal

Humanity's Minerals and Localities | Deep Carbon Observatory Portal | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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8th Bone Diagenesis Meeting

8th Bone Diagenesis Meeting | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
8th Bone Diagenesis Meeting, Sept 2017. A unique gathering of experts in palaeontology, archaeology, chronology, biochemistry, palaeoecology, and palaeoclimate.
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The EURARE Project: Development of a Sustainable Exploitation Scheme for Europe’s Rare Earth Ore Deposits

The EURARE Project: Development of a Sustainable Exploitation Scheme for Europe’s Rare Earth Ore Deposits | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
The EURARE project studied some of both the most advanced and promising REE resources in Europe
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Future ocean resources: metal-rich minerals and genetics

Future ocean resources: metal-rich minerals and genetics | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
The Royal Society’s ‘Future of oceans’ project considers the drivers, potential, and wider consequences of utilising the mineral and genetic wealth of the oceans.
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