The authors used pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to provide evidence that the local structure of ACC gradually changes as the pH of the synthesis solutions is increased from 10.6 to 12.7, at ambient conditions.
The dominant molecular host site of Mg and S obtained by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is applied to specify the hydrochemistry of hypersaline brines and the presence of diagenetic minerals, thus shedding light on evaporative concentration processes in the Caltanissetta Basin of Sicily.
Scanning electron micrographs present an interesting phenomenon of formation of microcracks in the nano-CaFeO2.5 pellet during oxidation, leading to nucleation of gypsum within the cracks. The hardness and compressive strength improved by a factor of 1.5 (63% higher) and 1.7, respectively.
Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work (i.e. metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust) produced intense O-H stretching bands at ~3400 cm-1, attenuated bands at ~3200 cm-1 and liquid-water-like bending band at ~1640 cm-1, irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a non-expandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C.
Some dusty parts of Mars get as cold at night year-round as the planet's poles do in winter, even regions near the equator in summer, according to new NASA findings based on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observations.
The singular occurrence, to date, of natural quasicrystals requires an explanation both of the possibility and of the rarity of their formation outside of the laboratory. Successful synthesis by an experimental shock, with starting materials similar to the exotic intermetallic alloys in the Khatyrka meteorite, demonstrates a mechanism that is feasible in space but not in any natural setting on Earth. The previously unrecognized composition of the synthesized quasicrystal, the first, to our knowledge, to be created by shocking discrete bulk starting materials, demonstrates a method for discovery of previously unknown quasicrystal compositions.
Combining spectral data with high-resolution images, the authors map a large (10 km × 5 km) alunite-bearing deposit in southwest Cross crater, widespread kaolin-bearing sediments with variable amounts of alunite that are layered in <10 m scale beds, and silica- and/or montmorillonite-bearing deposits that occupy topographically lower, heavily fractured units.
Here ultrafast nonlinear infrared (IR) techniques, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective pump–probe (PSPP) spectroscopies, were used to measure the dynamics and disorder of water of hydration in two minerals, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O).
Over the last hundred years, about 150 000 of inorganic crystal structures have been elucidated and visualized. In this review the author uses information theory to characterize complexity of inorganic structures in terms of their information content.
Using truly in situ and fast time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering, the authors quantify the four-stage solution-based nucleation and growth of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), an important mineral phase on Earth and Mars.
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