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Earth life 'may have come from Mars'

Earth life 'may have come from Mars' | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Life may have started on Mars before arriving on Earth, a major scientific conference has heard (Prof Steven Benner, Westheimer Institute for Science and Technology)

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New research supports an idea that the Red Planet was a better place to kick-start biology billions of years ago than the early Earth was. The evidence is based on how the first molecules necessary for life (RNA, DNA and proteins) were assembled. The evidence seems to be building that we are actually all Martians(!) and that life started on Mars and came to Earth on a rock...

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▶ Hydrothermal vents in the deep sea

In many areas of high volcanic activity, water seeps into the sub-surface where it is intensely heated and then finds its way to the surface again.

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Atom Probe Tomography Animation

Basic principle of atom probe tomography, a unique 3D nanoscale characterization tool for materials.
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Distribution and partitioning of major and trace elements in pyrite-bearing sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

Distribution and partitioning of major and trace elements in pyrite-bearing sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The high amounts of organic carbon (4.1–27.5%) result in the formation of Fe sulphides, predominantly pyrite, already at the surface sediment layers. Pyrite morphologies include monocrystals, polyframboids, and complex FeS–FeS2 aggregates. According to synchrotron-generated micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra, authigenically formed, Mn-containing, Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (goethite type) co-exist with pyrite in the sediments studied.

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Curtin University - Applied Geology. New Director Prof. Andrew Putnis

Curtin University - Applied Geology. New Director Prof. Andrew Putnis | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Andrew joined Curtin in 2015 as Director of The Institute for Geoscience Research (TIGeR). Between 1981 and 1995 he was a Lecturer in Earth Sciences in the University of Cambridge, and from 1995 until 2014 was Professor of Mineralogy at the University of Münster, Germany.

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16th International Conference on X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure, 23-28 August 2015

16th International Conference on X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure, 23-28 August 2015 | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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16th International Conference on X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure, 23-28 August 2015

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3D structure of individual nanocrystals in solution by electron microscopy

3D structure of individual nanocrystals in solution by electron microscopy | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Park, J. ; Elmlund, H. ; Ercius, P. ; Yuk, J. M. ; Limmer, D. T. ; Chen, Q. ; Kim, K. ; Han, S. H. ; Weitz, D. A. ; Zettl, A. ; et al. 3D Structure of Individual Nanocrystals in Solution by Electron Microscopy. Science 2015, 349, 290-295.
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See also: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/2015/07/16/single/

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▶ "Natural concrete" beneath Italian volcano explains mysterious uplift

A series of chemical reactions occurring beneath Italy's Campi Flegrei is creating lime that then reacts with volcanic ash in the caprock to form a concrete-...
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In Memoriam: Katrina J. Edwards

In Memoriam: Katrina J. Edwards | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Edwards made pioneering advances in understanding “intraterrestrials” or microbes living miles below the ocean’s crust and sediment. About one-third of the world’s biomass is thought to exist beneath the ocean floor, but prior to her explorations this rich biological world had seen little scientific study. Edwards’ research illuminated the reciprocal interactions between microbes, rocks and minerals in the ocean’s crust and how these interactions influence global biogeochemical processes.

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Thermally Induced Modifications and Phase Transformations of Red Coral Mg-Calcite Skeletons

Thermally Induced Modifications and Phase Transformations of Red Coral Mg-Calcite Skeletons | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

High-resolution X-ray powder diffraction and infrared spectroscopy show that biogenic Mg-calcite crystals in the red coral skeletons are anisotropically strained compared to synthetic Mg-calcite.

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The Global Anthropogenic Gallium System: Determinants of Demand, Supply and Efficiency Improvements

The Global Anthropogenic Gallium System: Determinants of Demand, Supply and Efficiency Improvements | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors estimated that gallium was produced from 8 to 21% of alumina plants in 2011. The most important applications of gallium are NdFeB permanent magnets, integrated circuits and GaAs/GaP-based light-emitting diodes, demanding 22–37%, 16–27%, and 11–21% of primary metal production, respectively.

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A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

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Globalize geoscience

Globalize geoscience | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Global distribution of Nature Geoscience author affiliations, January 2008 to May 2015.

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Cation Exchange Properties of Zeolites in Hyper Alkaline Aqueous Media

Cation Exchange Properties of Zeolites in Hyper Alkaline Aqueous Media | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Using Cs+ as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions.

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The mineral Aleksite: a naturally occurring topological insulator.

The mineral Aleksite: a naturally occurring topological insulator. | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors explore the size-dependent electronic properties of nanostructures made of the lead-containing mineral Aleksite, a naturally occurring topological insulator.

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Our new publication on blue smithsonite in PERIODICO di MINERALOGIA

Our new publication on blue smithsonite in PERIODICO di MINERALOGIA | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Connections between the bulk composition, geodynamics and habitability of Earth

Connections between the bulk composition, geodynamics and habitability of Earth | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Earth's composition differs from its meteoritic precursors. An evaluation of the evidence suggests that some material could have been lost to space during collisions, which may explain Earth's unusual plate tectonic regime and habitable climate.
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Copper isotope evidence for large-scale sulphide fractionation during Earth’s differentiation

Copper isotope evidence for large-scale sulphide fractionation during Earth’s differentiation | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Geochemical Perspectives Letters is a new journal of the European Association of Geochemistry.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

A putative light element in Earth’s core is sulphur; however, estimates of core S abundance vary significantly and, due to its volatile nature, no unequivocal S isotopic signature for core fractionation has thus far been detected. Here the authors present new high precision isotopic data for Cu, a chalcophile (sulphur-loving) element, which shows that Earth’s mantle is isotopically fractionated relative to bulk Earth. Results from high pressure equilibration experiments suggest that the sense of Cu isotopic fractionation between BSE and bulk Earth requires that a sulphide-rich liquid segregated from Earth’s mantle during differentiation, which likely entered the core.

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PIXE analysis of PM10 samples collected at the vicinity of lignite power plants and mines in Megalopolis, Greece

PIXE analysis of PM10 samples collected at the vicinity of lignite power plants and mines in Megalopolis, Greece | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The analysis revealed that major emission sources were soil dust 33% (7.94 ± 0.27 μg/m3), biomass burning 19% (4.43 ± 0.27 μg/m3), road dust 15% (3.63 ± 0.37 μg/m3), power plant emissions 13% (3.01 ± 0.44 μg/m3), traffic 12% (2.82 ± 0.37 μg/m3), and sea spray 8% (1.99 ± 0.41 μg/m3).

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Santorini volcano: the Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

Santorini volcano: the Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs.

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▶ Rock Physics of Fibrous Rocks Akin to Roman Concrete Explains Uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera

A series of chemical reactions occurring beneath Italy's Campi Flegrei is creating lime that then reacts with volcanic ash in the caprock to form a concrete-...
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Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean

Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

a, Dissolved iron. b, Dissolved manganese. c, Dissolved aluminium. d, Excess helium-3 (3Hexs). Station numbers and distance west of East Pacific Rise are indicated on uppermost panel.

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Manganese-Cycling Microbial Communities Inside Deep-Sea Manganese Nodules

Manganese-Cycling Microbial Communities Inside Deep-Sea Manganese Nodules | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors explored microbial communities inside nodules from the northeastern equatorial Pacific. The nodules have a large connected pore space with a huge inner surface of 120 m2/g as analyzed by computer tomography and BET measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron microprobe analysis revealed a complex chemical fine structure.

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Iron Atom Exchange between Hematite and Aqueous Fe(II)

Iron Atom Exchange between Hematite and Aqueous Fe(II) | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors have used an enriched 57Fe tracer to show that aqueous Fe(II) exchanges with structural Fe(III) in hematite at room temperature, and that the amount of exchange is influenced by particle size, pH, and Fe(II) concentration.

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Mineralogy prior to the 18th century

Mineralogy prior to the 18th century | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
So tell me about old school mineralogy. Well, it didn't look much like today's mineralogy. Our modern day sciences are, well, rooted in science. The earliest instances come from Babylon, greco-roma...
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