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Imaging hits noise barrier

Imaging hits noise barrier | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Physical limits mean that electron microscopy may be nearing highest possible resolution.
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Even with its current limits, the 0.5-Å TEAM microscope can do groundbreaking science. In April, physicist John Miao and his group at the University of California, Los Angeles, published the first atomic-scale images of crystal defects in a platinum nano­particle. Uli Dahmen, head of the US National Center for Electron Microscopy in Berkeley, where the microscope is housed, says that Miao’s team is close to mapping nanoparticles in three dimensions. That would meet Feynman’s ultimate goal of imaging materials atom-by-atom — even without achieving the resolution he called for. “I don’t see anyone pressing materials-science problems that can be solved at 0.3 Å but can’t be solved at 0.5 Å,” says Dahmen.

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Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience
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Self-similar mesostructure evolution of the growing mollusc shell

Self-similar mesostructure evolution of the growing mollusc shell | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
The morphology and mesostructure of the prismatic layer of a growing mollusc shell is observed by means of high-resolution synchrotron-based tomography and shown to be fully predicted by classical theories of normal grain growth.
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National Synchrotron Light Source II Achieves 'First Light'

National Synchrotron Light Source II Achieves 'First Light' | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
The National Synchrotron Light Source II detects its first photons, beginning a new phase of the facility's operations. Scientific experiments at NSLS-II are expected to begin before the end of the year. 
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Determining volcanic eruption styles on Earth and Mars from crystallinity measurements

Determining volcanic eruption styles on Earth and Mars from crystallinity measurements | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors showed that eruption styles can be broadly identified by relative variations in groundmass or bulk crystallinity determined by X-ray diffraction. Analysis of Mars Curiosity rover CheMin X-ray diffraction results from Gale crater indicate that the crystallinity of Martian sediment (52–54%) is similar to pyroclastic rocks from Gusev crater, Mars, and consistent with widespread distribution of basaltic strombolian or plinian volcanic ejecta.

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Incorporation and retention of 99-Technetium(IV) in magnetite

Incorporation and retention of 99-Technetium(IV) in magnetite | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Ferrihydrite was exposed to Tc(VII)(aq) containing cement leachates (pH 10.5–13.1), and crystallization of magnetite was induced via addition of Fe(II)aq. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical extraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques provided direct evidence that Tc(VII) was reduced and incorporated into the magnetite structure.

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An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals: Welcome Page

An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals: Welcome Page | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
An introduction to CrystalMaker Software, for readers of DHZ.
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ELO -- your cicerone to MAX IV Laboratory

ELO -- your cicerone to MAX IV Laboratory | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Meet ELO and find out more about MAX IV here: http://www.maxiv.se
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3D hydration layer mapping on the surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

3D hydration layer mapping on the surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas.

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In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface.

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Principles of Calcite Dissolution in Human and Artificial Otoconia

Principles of Calcite Dissolution in Human and Artificial Otoconia | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The aim of this study was to investigate the main principles of morphological changes in human otoconia in dissolution experiments by exposure to hydrochloric acid, EDTA, demineralized water and completely purified water respectively. For comparison reasons artificial (biomimetic) otoconia (calcite gelatin nanocomposits) and natural calcite were used. Morphological changes were detected in time steps by the use of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM).

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▶ Phytotechnology in the Present and Future: Remedies for Contaminated Soil and Water

Seminar given at the University of Notre Dame in the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering & Earth Sciences on April 18, 2013

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Phyllomanganate nanoparticles determined using high-energy X-ray scattering

Phyllomanganate nanoparticles determined using high-energy X-ray scattering | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

High-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS) is used to explore the pH-dependent structure of randomly stacked manganese oxide nanosheets of nominal formula delta-MnO2.

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Geochemistry of Alpine serpentinites

Geochemistry of Alpine serpentinites | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Serpentinites from several tectono-metamorphic units of the Western Alps were studied to constrain their origin and the tectonic setting of serpentinization.

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Variations in the uranium isotopic compositions of uranium ores from different types of uranium deposits

Variations in the uranium isotopic compositions of uranium ores from different types of uranium deposits | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Fractionation between 235U and 238U is a result of nuclear-field effects with enrichment of 238U in the reduced insoluble species (mostly UO2) and 235U in oxidised mobile species as uranyl ion, UO22+, and its complexes. Therefore, isotopic fractionation effects should be reflected in 238U/235U ratios in uranium ore minerals formed either by reduction of uranium to UO2 or chemical precipitation in the form of U6+ minerals.

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Nanoparticle deformation

Nanoparticle deformation | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Crystalline silver nanoparticles can be deformed at room temperature and without generating dislocations through the diffusion of surface atoms, as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomistic simulations show.
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Ultrafast Synchrotron X-ray imaging of carbonate melts at high pressures

Ultrafast Synchrotron X-ray imaging of carbonate melts at high pressures | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Thew authors report viscosities of carbonate melts up to 6.2 GPa using a newly developed technique of ultrafast synchrotron X-ray imaging. These carbonate melts display ultralow viscosities, much lower than previously thought, in the range of 0.006–0.010 Pa s, which are ~2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those of basaltic melts in the upper mantle.

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University of Nottingham-British Geological Survey Centre for Environmental Geochemistry

University of Nottingham-British Geological Survey Centre for Environmental Geochemistry | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
University of Nottingham-British Geological Survey Centre for Environmental Geochemistry
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Nucleation and growth of iron(III) (hydr)oxides on quartz

Nucleation and growth of iron(III) (hydr)oxides on quartz | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Utilizing grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), the authors studied heterogeneous iron(III) (hydr)oxide nucleation and growth on quartz substrates for systems containing arsenate and phosphate anions.

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My contribution in Goldschmidt 1996 in Heidelberg is still on-line!

My contribution in Goldschmidt 1996 in Heidelberg is still on-line! | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Well-formed prehnite crystals from Loanhead Quarry (Ayshire, Scotland), characterized by Powder-XRD, EPMA and TGA, have thoroughly been investigated using 1H-NMR, FT-IR, 29Si-MAS NMR, EPR and TPD. Especial emphasis was given to the correlation of the hydrogen content of the mineral determined by a 1H-NMR probe developed at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk) (Gabuda et al., 1989) with relevant data obtained using the 1H(15N,ag)12C nuclear reaction at the 7 MV van de Graaff accelerator of the Nuclear Physics Institute of the University of Frankfurt.

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Persistent Ion Pairing in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid

Persistent Ion Pairing in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Through comparison of recent extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements to state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) simulations, the authors were able to obtain a unique view into the molecular structure of medium-to-high concentrated electrolytes.

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Calcite–Gelatine Composites and Biogenic (Human) Otoconia

Calcite–Gelatine Composites and Biogenic (Human) Otoconia | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

SEM image of a human otoconial individual. The green bar indicates the cross-sectional FIB cut that runs parallel to the largest diameter of the branches. (b) TEM micrograph of the FIB cut with merging branches in the centre surrounded by the belly area.

Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Otoconia as calcite–protein composites display a cylindrical body with terminal rhombohedral faces intersecting at the pointed ends. As evidenced by TEM on focused ion beam cuts, both the artificial composites and human otoconia show a particular distribution of areas with different volume densities leading to a dumbbell-shape of the more dense parts consisting of rhombohedral branches (with end faces) and a less ordered, less dense area (the belly region).

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Nanopaleomagnetism of meteoritic Fe–Ni studied using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy

Nanopaleomagnetism of meteoritic Fe–Ni studied using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) enables natural remanent magnetisation to be imaged with ∼30 nm∼30 nm resolution across a field of view of 5–20 μm. The method is applied to structural features typical of the Widmanstätten microstructure (kamacite – tetrataenite rim – cloudy zone – plessite) in the Tazewell IIICD iron meteorite.

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Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of deep-sea Pacific polymetallic nodule

Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of deep-sea Pacific polymetallic nodule | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The measurements were conducted by micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (both XANES and EXAFS) on hydrogeneous and diagenetic regions of the nodule. The hydrogenetic-diagenetic interface was imaged by X-ray microfluorescence, after which regions of interest were chosen to represent mineralogical and chemical transformations that occurred at the early stage of suboxic diagenesis. In the hydrogenetic nodule (oxic environment), Mn is speciated as Fe-vernadite, a nanocomposite material composed of intergrown feroxyhite (δ-FeOOH) and monodispersed phyllomanganate layers having no interlayer Mn (vernadite). In the diagenetic nodule (suboxic environment), Mn is speciated dominantly as Mg-rich 10 Å vernadite, which consists of a random intergrowth of vernadite and its transformation product todorokite.

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In situ determination of K–Ar ages from minerals and rocks

In situ determination of K–Ar ages from minerals and rocks | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

This new technique combines the use of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for the determination of potassium, with noble gas mass spectrometry for the determination of argon, both extracted simultaneously by laser ablation.

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Oxidation of synthesized sub-micron pyrite (FeS2) in seawater

Oxidation of synthesized sub-micron pyrite (FeS2) in seawater | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The oxidation rates obtained through this study are up to two orders of magnitude slower than reported in previous pyrite oxidation studies using ground rather than synthesized pyrite at similar pH values.

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