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Imaging hits noise barrier

Imaging hits noise barrier | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Physical limits mean that electron microscopy may be nearing highest possible resolution.
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Even with its current limits, the 0.5-Å TEAM microscope can do groundbreaking science. In April, physicist John Miao and his group at the University of California, Los Angeles, published the first atomic-scale images of crystal defects in a platinum nano­particle. Uli Dahmen, head of the US National Center for Electron Microscopy in Berkeley, where the microscope is housed, says that Miao’s team is close to mapping nanoparticles in three dimensions. That would meet Feynman’s ultimate goal of imaging materials atom-by-atom — even without achieving the resolution he called for. “I don’t see anyone pressing materials-science problems that can be solved at 0.3 Å but can’t be solved at 0.5 Å,” says Dahmen.

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EAG Council Elections « European Association of Geochemistry

EAG Council Elections « European Association of Geochemistry | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
The European Association of Geochemistry, EAG, aims to promote geochemical research in Europe.
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16th International Conference on X‐ray Absorption Fine Structure, 23-28 August 2015, Karlsruhe

16th International Conference on X‐ray Absorption Fine Structure, 23-28 August 2015, Karlsruhe | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Nanoscale infrared spectroscopy as a non-destructive probe of extraterrestrial samples

Nanoscale infrared spectroscopy as a non-destructive probe of extraterrestrial samples | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors report on the successful implementation of infrared near-field imaging, spectroscopy and analysis techniques capable of sub-micron scale mineral identification within natural samples, including a chondrule from the Murchison meteorite and a cometary dust grain (Iris) from NASA's Stardust mission.

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Complex mineralogy on the Red Planet: First X-ray diffraction measurements on Mars

Complex mineralogy on the Red Planet: First X-ray diffraction measurements on Mars | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
In 2012 the Mars Science Laboratory landed in the fascinating Gale crater. The Gale crater is of such great interest because of the 5.5 km high mountain of layered materials in the middle.
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Nanoscopic X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Meteoritic Particles and Diamond Inclusions

Nanoscopic X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Meteoritic Particles and Diamond Inclusions | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The new ESRF ID16B-NA Nanoanalysis beamline has been applied for the first time for XRF imaging with a resolution level down to a few tens of nanometers on rare geological materials: meteoritic fragments from achondrite NWA 6693 and diamond inclusions.

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X-Ray Diffraction Helps Identify Dozen Martian Minerals

X-Ray Diffraction Helps Identify Dozen Martian Minerals | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Scientists analyzed recent data from the CheMin instrument on board NASA’s Curiosity rover to characterize the mineralogy of Martian soil and rocks.

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Naturally occurring arsenic enriched groundwater

Naturally occurring arsenic enriched groundwater | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Naturally occurring arsenic enriched groundwater (by Abhijit Mukherjee et al. 2014)

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Martian obsession

Martian obsession | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Black Beauty, is a shiny, scaly-skinned, 4.4-billion-year-old rock from Mars. It began its journey to Earth more than 5 million years ago, about the time humans and chimpanzees were splitting from a common ancestor. That is when an asteroid struck Mars, catapulting the rock into space. Sometime in the last thousand years or so, orbital mechanics and gravity delivered the wandering rock to Earth. Surviving an incendiary plunge through the atmosphere, it landed in more than a dozen pieces in the western Sahara. There the fragments sat, untouched except by wind and sand. Finally, a nomad plucked a piece from the dunes.

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Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite

Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors report the discovery of this important phase as a mineral in the Tenham L6 chondrite and approved by the International Mineralogical Association (specimen IMA 2014-017). MgSiO3-perovskite is now called bridgmanite.

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Lonsdaleite is faulted and twinned cubic diamond and does not exist as a discrete material

Lonsdaleite is faulted and twinned cubic diamond and does not exist as a discrete material | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors showed that defects in cubic diamond provide an explanation for the characteristic d-spacings and reflections reported for lonsdaleite. Ultrahigh-resolution electron microscope images demonstrate that samples displaying features attributed to lonsdaleite consist of cubic diamond dominated by extensive {113} twins and {111} stacking faults.

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Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

See also: http://www.mpi.stonybrook.edu/people/LawrieSkinner/index.html

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The authors have combined laser heating, sample levitation, and Synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2.

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Periodico di Mineralogia Vol. 83,2 september 2014 | Edizioni Nuova Cultura

Periodico di Mineralogia Vol. 83,2 september 2014 | Edizioni Nuova Cultura | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
CONTENTS Angelo De Min, Francesco Princivalle and Davide Lenaz Geochemistry of the Late Mesozoic - Early Cenozoic turbidites from the NE part of the Adria microplate Bogdan Constantinescu, Daniela Cristea-Stan, Imre Kovács and Zoltan...
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Nanoscale evidence for uranium mobility in zircon and the discordance of U–Pb chronometers

Nanoscale evidence for uranium mobility in zircon and the discordance of U–Pb chronometers | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Fractures and pores represent the vectors for fluid mediated open system behavior. STEM images demonstrate the presence of U-rich clusters (<70 nm) with uraninite structure within the porosity. At high magnification, pores are surrounded by a low density halo (<100 nm) and are coated by a high density wall (<50 nm) enriched in U or Ca or both.

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New instrument succeeds at XANES mapping of meteor impact melt bearing breccias

New instrument succeeds at XANES mapping of meteor impact melt bearing breccias | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

A recent collaboration with geologist Alaura Singleton, from Dr. Gordon Osinski’s research group at Western University in London Ontario (Canada), and CHESS scientists Matthew Ward, Arthur Woll, and Margaret Koker, has utilized the new CHESS Maia detector to perform full spectrum iron K-edge x-ray absorption mapping experiments on impact melt bearing breccias. Melt bearing breccia samples were taken from the Mistastin impact structure, which was formed by a meteorite impact in Northern Labrador, Canada ~36 million years ago.

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Synchrotron X-ray Scanning Probe Microscopy (SXSPM) | Advanced Photon Source

Synchrotron X-ray Scanning Probe Microscopy (SXSPM) | Advanced Photon Source | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Advanced Photon Source - an Office of Science user facility
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The colour of ceramics from Bell Beaker contexts in NW Spain: relation to elemental composition and mineralogy

"The colour of ceramics from Bell Beaker contexts in NW Spain: relation to elemental composition and mineralogy" http://t.co/weRKw079TJ
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Machine-learning techniques for geochemical discrimination of 2011 Tohoku tsunami deposits

Machine-learning techniques for geochemical discrimination of 2011 Tohoku tsunami deposits | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors propose a mathematical methodology for the geochemical discrimination of tsunami deposits using machine-learning techniques. The proposed method can determine the appropriate combinations of elements and the precise discrimination plane that best discerns tsunami deposits from non-tsunami deposits in high-dimensional compositional space through the use of data sets of bulk composition that have been categorised as tsunami or non-tsunami sediments.

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Mineralogical Society of America - Arsenic: Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology

Mineralogical Society of America - Arsenic: Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Mineralogical Society of America - Arsenic: Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology http://t.co/AgxSTJGWhS
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Lower-mantle water reservoir implied by the extreme stability of a hydrous aluminosilicate

Lower-mantle water reservoir implied by the extreme stability of a hydrous aluminosilicate | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Plumes are thought to transport water-rich material from the deep mantle to Earth/'s surface. High-pressure experiments identify a hydrous mineral phase that is stable under lower-mantle conditions and could provide a source for this water.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors performed high-pressure experiments to show that Al2SiO4(OH)2—the aluminium-rich endmember of dense, hydrous magnesium silicate phase D—is stable at temperatures extending to over 2,000 °C at 26 GPa.

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Mineralogy of the Martian Surface

Mineralogy of the Martian Surface | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Mars has a basaltic upper crust with regionally variable quantities of plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine associated with distinctive terrains.

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Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy: Computer Simulation Sharpens Insight into Molecules

Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy: Computer Simulation Sharpens Insight into Molecules | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

The resolution of scanning tunnelling microscopes can be improved dramatically by attaching small molecules or atoms to their tip. The resulting images were the first to show the geometric structure of molecules and have generated a lot of interest among scientists over the last few years. Scientists from Forschungszentrum Jülich and the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Prague have now used computer simulations to gain deeper insights into the physics of these new imaging techniques. One of these techniques was presented in the journal Science by American scientists this spring. The results have now been published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

 

Together with his colleagues from the Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-3), in 2008 Tautz introduced the method of attaching single molecules – initially hydrogen molecules, later molecules such as carbon monoxide – to the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope and using them as extremely sensitive measuring probes. The scientific community responded with great interest to this method, and the technique has since been continuously refined. It enables scanning tunneling microscopes to be used as a kind of atomic force microscope that is able to image the geometric structure of molecules with unprecedented accuracy.


In the last few years, such atomic sensors have also proven useful for work with atomic force microscopes. Then, in May 2014, scientists from the University of California, Irvine, showed for the first time that these sensors can also be used to improve signals in a related imaging mode known as inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. In this case, it is the vibration of the sensor molecule against the microscope tip that reacts sensitively to the surface potential of the scanned sample.


"Our calculations show the effect of the electrostatic forces on the high-resolution AFM, STM, and IETS images", explains Dr. Pavel Jelínek from the Institute of Physics at the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Prague. "We believe that the results of this work are an important contribution to the use of inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy that will allow the technique to be used as an additional source of information in materials science and to derive additional parameters from the images."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Deep-Earth carbon offers clues on origin of life

Deep-Earth carbon offers clues on origin of life | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
New findings by a Johns Hopkins University-led team reveal long unknown details about carbon deep beneath Earth's surface and suggest ways this subterranean carbon might have influenced the history of life on the planet.
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Porosity and distribution of water in perlite from the island of Milos, Greece

Porosity and distribution of water in perlite from the island of Milos, Greece | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The spatial distribution of water and/or pores was investigated using different methods (CT: computer tomography, FIB: scanning electron microscopy including focused ion beam technology, IRM: infrared microscopy). Computer tomography (CT) showed large macropores (20 – 100 μm) and additionally revealed a mottled microstructure of the silicate matrix with low density areas up to a few μm in diameter. Scanning electron microscopy (FIB) confirmed the presence of μm sized pores and IRM showed the filling of these pores with water. In summary, two types of pores were found.

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Organic carbon at depth

Organic carbon at depth | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Earth/'s deep carbon cycle is poorly constrained. Theoretical calculations suggest that large amounts of carbon are returned to Earth/'s surface as organic and inorganic carbon ions dissolved in subduction-zone fluids.
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Photovoltage of Iron Pyrite Single Crystals

Photovoltage of Iron Pyrite Single Crystals | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors report a comprehensive investigation on {100}-faceted n-type iron pyrite single crystals to understand its puzzling low VOC. They utilized electrical transport, optical spectroscopy, surface photovoltage, photoelectrochemical measurements in aqueous and acetonitrile electrolytes, UV and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Kelvin force microscopy to characterize the bulk and surface defect states and their influence on the semiconducting properties and solar conversion efficiency of iron pyrite single crystals. These insights were used to develop a circuit model analysis for the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy that allowed a complete characterization of the bulk and surface defect states and the construction of a detailed band energy diagram for iron pyrite crystals.

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