Earth's composition differs from its meteoritic precursors. An evaluation of the evidence suggests that some material could have been lost to space during collisions, which may explain Earth's unusual plate tectonic regime and habitable climate.
Geochemical Perspectives Letters is a new journal of the European Association of Geochemistry.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:
A putative light element in Earth’s core is sulphur; however, estimates of core S abundance vary significantly and, due to its volatile nature, no unequivocal S isotopic signature for core fractionation has thus far been detected. Here the authors present new high precision isotopic data for Cu, a chalcophile (sulphur-loving) element, which shows that Earth’s mantle is isotopically fractionated relative to bulk Earth. Results from high pressure equilibration experiments suggest that the sense of Cu isotopic fractionation between BSE and bulk Earth requires that a sulphide-rich liquid segregated from Earth’s mantle during differentiation, which likely entered the core.
The authors explored microbial communities inside nodules from the northeastern equatorial Pacific. The nodules have a large connected pore space with a huge inner surface of 120 m2/g as analyzed by computer tomography and BET measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron microprobe analysis revealed a complex chemical fine structure.
The authors have used an enriched 57Fe tracer to show that aqueous Fe(II) exchanges with structural Fe(III) in hematite at room temperature, and that the amount of exchange is influenced by particle size, pH, and Fe(II) concentration.
Widespread iron oxide precipitation from groundwater in fine-grained red beds displays various patterns, including nodulation, banding and scallops and fingers. The authors here show that such patterns can autonomously emerge from a previously unrecognized Ostwald ripening mechanism and they capture rich information regarding ancient chemical and hydrologic environments.
The high amounts of organic carbon (4.1–27.5%) result in the formation of Fe sulphides, predominantly pyrite, already at the surface sediment layers. Pyrite morphologies include monocrystals, polyframboids, and complex FeS–FeS2 aggregates. According to synchrotron-generated micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra, authigenically formed, Mn-containing, Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (goethite type) co-exist with pyrite in the sediments studied.
Andrew joined Curtin in 2015 as Director of The Institute for Geoscience Research (TIGeR). Between 1981 and 1995 he was a Lecturer in Earth Sciences in the University of Cambridge, and from 1995 until 2014 was Professor of Mineralogy at the University of Münster, Germany.
Park, J. ; Elmlund, H. ; Ercius, P. ; Yuk, J. M. ; Limmer, D. T. ; Chen, Q. ; Kim, K. ; Han, S. H. ; Weitz, D. A. ; Zettl, A. ; et al. 3D Structure of Individual Nanocrystals in Solution by Electron Microscopy. Science 2015, 349, 290-295.
Edwards made pioneering advances in understanding “intraterrestrials” or microbes living miles below the ocean’s crust and sediment. About one-third of the world’s biomass is thought to exist beneath the ocean floor, but prior to her explorations this rich biological world had seen little scientific study. Edwards’ research illuminated the reciprocal interactions between microbes, rocks and minerals in the ocean’s crust and how these interactions influence global biogeochemical processes.
The authors estimated that gallium was produced from 8 to 21% of alumina plants in 2011. The most important applications of gallium are NdFeB permanent magnets, integrated circuits and GaAs/GaP-based light-emitting diodes, demanding 22–37%, 16–27%, and 11–21% of primary metal production, respectively.
Yje authors have created three-dimensional simulations of ridge–flank hydrothermal circulation, flowing between and through seamounts, to determine what controls hydrogeological sustainability, flow rate and preferred flow direction in these systems.
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