Geochemical Perspectives Letters is a new journal of the European Association of Geochemistry.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:
The presence of dissolved molecular H2 in the minerals of the lower mantle could explain why magmas sourced in this region are rich in hydrogen, despite the fact that lower mantle minerals contain almost no OH groups.
Recent experiments show that the inverse spinel, magnetite [Fe(II)Fe(III)2O4], can incorporate Tc(IV) into its octahedral sublattice. In that same class of materials, trevorite [Ni(II)Fe(III)2O4] is also being investigated for its ability to host Tc(IV).
The authors obtained oriented Fe-XANES spectra on three amphibole bundles of fiber (i.e., asbestiform morphology), two single-crystal fragments (i.e., nonasbestiform morphology), and one aggregate of thousands of smaller particles (termed herein a “puffball”) by use of a spindle stage mounted on beamline X26A, National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Lab.
Here, by using in situ atomic-force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the dissolution of calcite (1014) faces, the authors show that the presence of G6P results in morphology changes of etch pits from the typical rhombohedral to a fan-shaped form.
The behavior of the chemical potential of the species CaCO3 and MgCO3 in proximity of the (10.4) crystal face of calcite and magnesite is determined at the quantum–mechanical level by adopting a recent calculation strategy conceived in our research laboratory. A very peculiar trend of this quantity from the (10.4) surface to the center of the calcite and magnesite crystals was observed.
The effect of As(III) on the adsorption of As(V) increased with an increase in pH, and the adsorption of As(V) was almost absent at pH 9 at an adsorbent dosage of 1 g/L and at pH 8 at an adsorbent dosage of 0.5 g/L. In the range of ferrihydrite dosages from 0.2 to 1.6 g/L, As(III) was adsorbed preferentially over As(V) under the availability of less adsorbent.
The topic of the specific surface area (SSA) of powders is not sufficiently described in the literature in spite of its nontrivial contribution to adsorption and dissolution processes. Fractal geometry provides a way to determine this parameter via relation SSA ~ x(D − 3)s(2 − D), where x (m) is the particle size and s (m) is a scale. Such a relation respects nano-, micro-, or macro-topography on the surface. Within this theory, the fractal dimension 2 ≤ D < 3 and scale parameter s plays a significant role. The parameter D may be determined from BET or dissolution measurements on several samples, changing the powder particle sizes or sizes of adsorbate molecules. If the fractality of the surface is high, the SSA does not depend on the particle size distribution and vice versa. In this paper, the SSA parameter is analyzed from the point of view of adsorption and dissolution processes. In the case of adsorption, a new equation for the SSA, depending on the term (2 − D)∙(s2 − sBET)/sBET, is derived, where sBET and s2 are effective cross-sectional diameters for BET and new adsorbates. Determination of the SSA for the dissolution process appears to be very complicated, since the fractality of the surface may change in the process. Nevertheless, the presented equations have good application potential.
METAL-AID is a European Horizon 2020 Marie Sklodowska Curie Initial Training Network (ITN) designed to address the problem of contaminated water sites across Europe. The project is coordinated by University of Copenhagen and involves 11 different beneficiaries throughout Europe. The project starts on July 1, 2016 and runs for four years. Over the course of the project, Metal-Aid will train 14 Early Stage Researchers.
"When did the continents grow?" The continental crust is a unique chemical and physical feature of the Earth. When it formed is a long-standing question that has been reinvigorated by new analytical methods.
High-precision tungsten isotopic data from rocks from two large igneous provinces, the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Ontong Java Plateau, reveal preservation to the Phanerozoic of tungsten isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle.
In this study, the authors characterized the mechanisms of chromate adsorption on boehmite (γ-AlOOH) using a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations.
• New surface reactivity results on tremolite asbestos by XPS, HR-TEM and ICP-AES • Surface morphology and composition change upon time after incubation at pH 7.4. • Presence of nano-clustered iron explains the high reactivity of these asbestos. • Low amounts of iron act as catalyzer of the ROS production.
The authors show, using in situ atomic force microscopy and complementary techniques, that faceted calcite can grow via a nonclassical particle-mediated colloidal crystal growth mechanism that at the nanoscale mirrors classical ion-mediated growth, and involves a layer-by-layer attachment of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) nanoparticles, followed by their restructuring and fusion with the calcite substrate in perfect crystallographic registry. The ACC-to-calcite transformation occurs by an interface-coupled dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism and obliterates or preserves the nanogranular texture of the colloidal growth layer in the absence or presence of organic (macro)molecules, respectively.
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