Sb isotopic analysis is presented as a novel technique to examine the raw material used to opacify the earliest glass. It is demonstrated that Egyptian and Mesopotamian glass factories likely used an identical source of Sb, possibly originating from the Caucasus.
In 24 dated stratigraphic sections in 10 countries of the Northern Hemisphere, the YDB layer contains a clearly defined abundance peak in nanodiamonds (NDs), a major cosmic-impact proxy. Observed ND polytypes include cubic diamonds, lonsdaleite-like crystals, and diamond-like carbon nanoparticles, called n-diamond and i-carbon.
The authors report full-vector paleointensity measurements of Archean to Hadean zircons bearing magnetic inclusions from the Jack Hills conglomerate (Western Australia) to reconstruct the early geodynamo history. Data from zircons between 3.3 billion and 4.2 billion years old record magnetic fields varying between 1.0 and 0.12 times recent equatorial field strengths.
Earth's composition differs from its meteoritic precursors. An evaluation of the evidence suggests that some material could have been lost to space during collisions, which may explain Earth's unusual plate tectonic regime and habitable climate.
Geochemical Perspectives Letters is a new journal of the European Association of Geochemistry.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:
A putative light element in Earth’s core is sulphur; however, estimates of core S abundance vary significantly and, due to its volatile nature, no unequivocal S isotopic signature for core fractionation has thus far been detected. Here the authors present new high precision isotopic data for Cu, a chalcophile (sulphur-loving) element, which shows that Earth’s mantle is isotopically fractionated relative to bulk Earth. Results from high pressure equilibration experiments suggest that the sense of Cu isotopic fractionation between BSE and bulk Earth requires that a sulphide-rich liquid segregated from Earth’s mantle during differentiation, which likely entered the core.
The authors explored microbial communities inside nodules from the northeastern equatorial Pacific. The nodules have a large connected pore space with a huge inner surface of 120 m2/g as analyzed by computer tomography and BET measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron microprobe analysis revealed a complex chemical fine structure.
by: Ross R. Large, Daniel D. Gregory, Jeffrey A. Steadman, Andrew G. Tomkins, Elena Lounejeva, Leonid V. Danyushevsky, Jacqueline A. Halpin, Valeriy Maslennikov, Patrick J. Sack, Indrani Mukherjee, Ron Berry, Arthur Hickman
Ath Godelitsas's insight:
LA-ICPMS analysis of over 4000 sedimentary pyrite grains in 308 samples from 33 locations around the world, grouped over 123 determined ages, has enabled the uathors to track, in a first order sense, the Au content of the ocean over the last 3.5 billion years.
The high amounts of organic carbon (4.1–27.5%) result in the formation of Fe sulphides, predominantly pyrite, already at the surface sediment layers. Pyrite morphologies include monocrystals, polyframboids, and complex FeS–FeS2 aggregates. According to synchrotron-generated micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra, authigenically formed, Mn-containing, Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (goethite type) co-exist with pyrite in the sediments studied.
Andrew joined Curtin in 2015 as Director of The Institute for Geoscience Research (TIGeR). Between 1981 and 1995 he was a Lecturer in Earth Sciences in the University of Cambridge, and from 1995 until 2014 was Professor of Mineralogy at the University of Münster, Germany.
Park, J. ; Elmlund, H. ; Ercius, P. ; Yuk, J. M. ; Limmer, D. T. ; Chen, Q. ; Kim, K. ; Han, S. H. ; Weitz, D. A. ; Zettl, A. ; et al. 3D Structure of Individual Nanocrystals in Solution by Electron Microscopy. Science 2015, 349, 290-295.
Edwards made pioneering advances in understanding “intraterrestrials” or microbes living miles below the ocean’s crust and sediment. About one-third of the world’s biomass is thought to exist beneath the ocean floor, but prior to her explorations this rich biological world had seen little scientific study. Edwards’ research illuminated the reciprocal interactions between microbes, rocks and minerals in the ocean’s crust and how these interactions influence global biogeochemical processes.
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