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Unique Micro-Organisms in High Andes Volcanoes Thriving on Gases vs Photosynthesis

Unique Micro-Organisms in High Andes Volcanoes Thriving on Gases vs Photosynthesis | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
A University of Colorado led team has discovered some rare, primitive microorganisms on high volcanoes in South America that may be fueled by drifting gases in the region rather than photosynthesis.
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Rescooped by Franc Viktor Nekrep from Microbiologie
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Microbiote: des bactéries qui nous veulent du bien

Microbiote: des bactéries qui nous veulent du bien | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Il pèse entre un et cinq kilos, vit dans vos intestins et se nourrit de ce que vous avalez. Mais loin de vous être hostile, le microbiote est votre indispensable allié.

Via Damien Steiner
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MALDI-TOF Identification of the Human Gut Microbiome in People with and without Diarrhea in Senegal

MALDI-TOF Identification of the Human Gut Microbiome in People with and without Diarrhea in Senegal | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.

Via Praveen Rahi, pvanhouts
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Praveen Rahi's curator insight, July 10, 9:15 PM

a quick identification of bacterial species

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Robert Kennedy's Dangerous Anti-Vaccine Activism

Robert Kennedy's Dangerous Anti-Vaccine Activism | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Robert F. Kennedy Jr. is coming out with a new book that claims thimerosal in vaccines causes autism. This claim has been thoroughly discredited, but RFK Jr. believes that it's all a big conspiracy and that he's right. His crazy anti-vaccine views coupled with his fame make for an especially dangerous combination.

Via Chris Upton + helpers
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New Findings in Environmental Microbiology Described from Oak ...

New Findings in Environmental Microbiology Described from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Comparative metagenomic and rRNA microbial diversity characterization using archaeal and bacterial synthetic communities) By a News Reporter- Staff News Editor...
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Anthrax Scare: CDC Announces Closure Of Two Labs, Halts Shipment Of ... - International Business Times

Anthrax Scare: CDC Announces Closure Of Two Labs, Halts Shipment Of ... - International Business Times | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
International Business Times
Anthrax Scare: CDC Announces Closure Of Two Labs, Halts Shipment Of ...
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The direction of evolution: The rise of cooperative organization

The direction of evolution: The rise of cooperative organization | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

Two great trends are evident in the evolution of life on Earth: towards increasing diversification and towards increasing integration. Diversification has spread living processes across the planet, progressively increasing the range of environments and free energy sources exploited by life. Integration has proceeded through a stepwise process in which living entities at one level are integrated into cooperative groups that become larger-scale entities at the next level, and so on, producing cooperative organizations of increasing scale (for example, cooperative groups of simple cells gave rise to the more complex eukaryote cells, groups of these gave rise to multi-cellular organisms, and cooperative groups of these organisms produced animal societies). The trend towards increasing integration has continued during human evolution with the progressive increase in the scale of human groups and societies. The trends towards increasing diversification and integration are both driven by selection. An understanding of the trajectory and causal drivers of the trends suggests that they are likely to culminate in the emergence of a global entity. This entity would emerge from the integration of the living processes, matter, energy and technology of the planet into a global cooperative organization. Such an integration of the results of previous diversifications would enable the global entity to exploit the widest possible range of resources across the varied circumstances of the planet. This paper demonstrates that it's case for directionality meets the tests and criticisms that have proven fatal to previous claims for directionality in evolution.

 

The direction of evolution: The rise of cooperative organization
John E. Stewart

Biosystems
Available online 1 June 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2014.05.006


Via Complexity Digest
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Eli Levine's curator insight, June 15, 7:06 PM

Cooperation is the best way to improve, sustain, maintain, and repair.  Competition is what drives everyone and everything towards something different, be it competition for resources or competition against the elements around us.

 

I don't get what the point of competition amongst the species is for.  Part of cooperation, after all, is knowing what works, learning about what could work better or doesn't work, and then letting the negative or sub-optimal slip back beneath the waves of ignorance, such that the new ways can rise to prominence.

 

Change is the only constant in this universe of universes.

 

Yet cooperation, I think, yields the higher and stronger of the universal structures that are out there, even if it means that there are still losers and winners.  The only difference is the level of consent and consensus that's reached within the social, ecological, economical, and/or political landscape.  One way works towards what is best.  The other way simply yields what is best at competing, which is not the same as being the actual best solution to a given problem or condition.

 

Think about it.

Luciano Lampi's curator insight, June 16, 6:51 AM

is this the end of stove pipes?

Ra's curator insight, June 22, 3:02 AM

Have I been reading too much science fiction?

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What Ecologists Can Tell Virologists - Annual Review of Microbiology, 68(1):

What Ecologists Can Tell Virologists - Annual Review of Microbiology, 68(1): | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

Ecology as a science evolved from natural history, the observational study of the interactions of plants and animals with each other and their environments. As natural history matured, it became increasingly quantitative, experimental, and taxonomically broad. Focus diversified beyond the Eukarya to include the hidden world of microbial life. Microbes, particularly viruses, were shown to exist in unfathomable numbers, affecting every living organism. Slowly viruses came to be viewed in an ecological context rather than as abstract, disease-causing agents.


Via Chris Upton + helpers
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Nature News: Bacterial tricks for turning plants into zombies (2014)

Nature News: Bacterial tricks for turning plants into zombies  (2014) | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

Many parasites commandeer the bodies of their hosts in order to spread. Examples of this include horsehair worms that reach water by forcing their cricket hosts to drown themselves, and liver flukes that drive infected ants to climb blades of grass, where cows can eat the insects, and so the flukes. But parasites can turn plants into zombies, too — and a team of scientists from the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK, has now discovered how they do it.

 

When plants are infected by parasitic bacteria called phytoplasmas, their flowers turn into leafy shoots, their petals turn green and they develop a mass of shoots called ‘witches’ brooms’. This transformation sterilizes the plant, while attracting the sap-sucking insects that carry the bacteria to new hosts. “The plant appears alive, but it’s only there for the good of the pathogen,” says plant pathologist Saskia Hogenhout from the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK. “In an evolutionary sense, the plant is dead and will not produce offspring.” “Many might baulk at the concept of a zombie plant because the idea of plants behaving is strange,” says David Hughes, a parasitologist at Pennsylvania State University in University Park. “But they do, and since they do, why wouldn't parasites have evolved to take over their behaviour, as they do for ants and crickets?”


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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The anti-detox: 'Poo therapy' will replace cleanses, fashionable detoxes, US ... - National Post

The anti-detox: 'Poo therapy' will replace cleanses, fashionable detoxes, US ... - National Post | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
National Post
The anti-detox: 'Poo therapy' will replace cleanses, fashionable detoxes, US ...
National Post
However, scientists in the U.S. have come up with the “anti-detox” — a treatment that involves putting waste back in.
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PLOS ONE: Archaea on Human Skin

PLOS ONE: Archaea on Human Skin | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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The hottest articles published in Trends in Biotechnology :: Peccoud ...

The hottest articles published in Trends in Biotechnology :: Peccoud ... | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
As member of the editorial board of Trends in Biotechnology, I thought it might be useful to identify the Trends in Biotechnology articles that generate the most buzz. Below are the articles that have been mentioned in social ...
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Basic Microbiology Laboratory Techniques

RT @Biocourseware: An interactive web app learning environment of basic microbiology lab techniques http://t.co/Zy709uMFPo http://t.co/y8nq…
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The Microbiology of Beer - LumiByte

The Microbiology of Beer - LumiByte | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Almost everywhere people have developed their own beer made from locally available grains.
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Comparative Phylogenomics Uncovers the Impact of Symbiotic Associations on Host Genome Evolution

Comparative Phylogenomics Uncovers the Impact of Symbiotic Associations on Host Genome Evolution | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

Abstract

 

Mutualistic symbioses between eukaryotes and beneficial microorganisms of their microbiome play an essential role in nutrition, protection against disease, and development of the host. However, the impact of beneficial symbionts on the evolution of host genomes remains poorly characterized. Here we used the independent loss of the most widespread plant–microbe symbiosis, arbuscular mycorrhization (AM), as a model to address this question. Using a large phenotypic approach and phylogenetic analyses, we present evidence that loss of AM symbiosis correlates with the loss of many symbiotic genes in the Arabidopsis lineage (Brassicales). Then, by analyzing the genome and/or transcriptomes of nine other phylogenetically divergent non-host plants, we show that this correlation occurred in a convergent manner in four additional plant lineages, demonstrating the existence of an evolutionary pattern specific to symbiotic genes. Finally, we use a global comparative phylogenomic approach to track this evolutionary pattern among land plants. Based on this approach, we identify a set of 174 highly conserved genes and demonstrate enrichment in symbiosis-related genes. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that beneficial symbionts maintain purifying selection on host gene networks during the evolution of entire lineages.


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Pierre-Marc Delaux's curator insight, July 17, 11:57 AM

Yeah!! Online finally :)

Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, July 17, 12:28 PM

Paper from our lab!

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New Catalog of Human Gut Microbes | The Scientist Magazine®

New Catalog of Human Gut Microbes | The Scientist Magazine® | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
An updated analysis of the gut microbiome extends the list of known bacterial genes to 9.8 million. 

Via Iain Haysom
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A revolutionary approach to studying the intestinal microbiota

A revolutionary approach to studying the intestinal microbiota | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
It is estimated that 100,000 billion bacteria populate the gut of each individual (or 10 to 100 times more than the number of cells in the human body), and their diversity is considerable, estimated to around a thousand different bacterial species...
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TWiM #82: Betrayal and Compromise

TWiM #82: Betrayal and Compromise | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson.  Vincent, Michael, Elio and Michele discuss how an endosymbiont betrays its aphid host to alert plant defenses, and a new immunosuppressive cell that allows infection...
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La grippe H1N1 devient invincible

La grippe H1N1 devient invincible | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Des chercheurs ont créé des virus H1N1 de la pandémie 2009 capables d'échapper au système immunitaire humain.

Via Damien Steiner
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BMC Bioinformatics | Full text | A highly conserved WDYPKCDRA epitope in the RNA directed RNA polymerase of human coronaviruses can be used as epitope-based universal vaccine design

Coronaviruses are the diverse group of RNA virus. From 1960, six strains of human coronaviruses have emerged that includes SARS-CoV and the recent infection by deadly MERS-CoV which is now going to cause another outbreak. Prevention of these viruses is urgent and a universal vaccine for all strain could be a promising solution in this circumstance. In this study we aimed to design an epitope based vaccine against all strain of human coronavirus.

Via Chris Upton + helpers
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Chris Upton + helpers's curator insight, June 11, 12:34 PM

Is SARS really a "human virus"?

Ed Rybicki's comment, June 11, 12:36 PM
I stopped paying attention at " Coronaviruses are the diverse group of RNA virus" and again at " we aimed to design an epitope based vaccine against all strain...".
Ed Rybicki's comment, June 11, 12:37 PM
PS: and no, Chris, it ain't. Nor's MERS.
Rescooped by Franc Viktor Nekrep from Plant Pathogenomics
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PLOS Pathogens: Mining Herbaria for Plant Pathogen Genomes: Back to the Future (2014)

PLOS Pathogens: Mining Herbaria for Plant Pathogen Genomes: Back to the Future (2014) | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

Since the dawn of agriculture, plant pathogens and pests have been a scourge of humanity. Yet we have come a long way since the Romans attempted to mitigate the effects of plant disease by worshipping and honoring the god Robigus. Books in the Middle Ages by Islamic and European scholars described various plant diseases and even proposed particular disease management strategies. Surprisingly, the causes of plant diseases remained a matter of debate over a long period. It took Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau's elegant demonstration in his 1728 “Explication Physique” paper that a “contagious” fungus was responsible for a saffron crocus disease to usher in an era of documented scientific inquiry. Confusion and debate about the exact nature of the causal agents of plant diseases continued until the 19th century, which not only saw the first detailed analyses of plant pathogens but also provided much-needed insight into the mechanisms of plant disease. An example of this is Anton de Bary's demonstration that a “fungus” is a cause, not a consequence, of plant disease. This coming of age of plant pathology was timely. In the 19th century, severe plant disease epidemics hit Europe and caused economic and social upheaval. These epidemics were not only widely covered in the press but also recognized as serious political issues by governments. Many of the diseases, including late blight of potato, powdery and downy mildew of grapevine, as well as phylloxera, were due to exotic introductions from the Americas and elsewhere. These and subsequent epidemics motivated scientific investigations into crop breeding and plant disease management that developed into modern plant pathology science over the 20th century.

 

Nowadays, our understanding of plant pathogens and the diseases they cause greatly benefits from molecular genetics and genomics. All aspects of plant pathology, from population biology and epidemiology to mechanistic research, are impacted. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) first enabled access to plant pathogen DNA sequences from historical specimens deposited in herbaria. Historical records in combination with herbarium specimens have turned out to provide powerful tools for understanding the course of past plant epidemics. Recently, thanks to new developments in DNA sequencing technology, it has become possible to reconstruct the genomes of plant pathogens in herbaria. In this article, we first summarize how whole genome analysis of ancient DNA has been recently used to reconstruct the 19th-century potato-blight epidemic that rapidly spread throughout Europe and triggered the Irish potato famine. We then discuss the exciting prospects offered by the emergence of the discipline of ancient plant pathogen genomics.


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Mary Williams's curator insight, April 25, 12:02 AM

Good overview for students - very accessible and interesting!

Freddy Monteiro's comment, April 25, 1:21 AM
This is a great source of teaching materials for potato late blight. Congrats on the work behind it.
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NASA's global warming factsheet

NASA's global warming factsheet | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Global warming is happening now, and scientists are confident that greenhouse gases are responsible. To understand what this means for humanity, it is necessary to understand what global warming is, how scientists know it's happening, and how they predict future climate.

 

Once the world’s fourth largest lake, the mighty Aral Sea is now in it’s death throws. Starved of it’s lifeblood of the waters of the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya rivers, the sea has been shrinking for the last 40 years.

 

Are the ozone hole and global warming related?What can we do about global warming?What if global warming isn’t as severe as predicted?Why is global warming a problem?Has the Sun been more active in recent decades, and could it be responsible for some global warming?If Earth has warmed and cooled throughout history, what makes scientists think that humans are causing global warming now?How do scientists know that Mauna Loa’s volcanic emissions don’t affect the carbon dioxide data collected there?Do satellite observations of atmospheric temperatures agree with surface-based observations and model predictions?What does NASA have to do with global warming?Are there natural processes that can amplify or limit global warming?If we immediately stopped emitting greenhouses gases, would global warming stop?If we stabilized greenhouse gas emissions at today’s rates, would global warming stop?


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Eli Levine's curator insight, April 8, 5:10 AM

It is an idiot who believes that humanity does not impact their own home through their activity.  It is also pretty stupid to select financial, material wealth over health, well being and sustainability, from a biological and sociological point of view.

 

Yet this is precisely what humanity has chosen to do.

 

At least, the sections of humanity who make decisions as to what happens in our world.  The rest of us are merely guilty of complacency and lack of access to real power (which is proactively enforced by those who currently hold defacto power in our world; the same people who are responsible for making the policy regimen that is causing global warming and greenhouse gas emissions to increase, remain the same or insignificantly decrease).

 

There's a reason how we're all going to die.  Looks like humanity is just going to be one brief little spark in the geological and cosmological history of our planet and universe.

 

A shame, since we have so much potential, if it weren't for those diseased brains sitting in places of power, consequence and authority.

 

Think about it.

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On Teaching

On Teaching | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
by Stanley Falkow
Fig. 1. Trouble jumping in? Source.
A graduate student came to my office recently to say that she was increasingly bothered by anxiety and the ‘terror’ of having to speak at laboratory meetings.
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The Tree of Life: Most important paper ever in microbiology? Woese & Fox, 1977, discovery of archaea

The Tree of Life: Most important paper ever in microbiology? Woese & Fox, 1977, discovery of archaea | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Covering this in EVE161 today: Most important paper ever in microbiology? Woese & Fox, 1977, discovery of archaea http://t.co/YwEDenoICK
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FAQ: Human Microbiome, January 2014

FAQ: Human Microbiome, January 2014 | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
In July 2013, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a panel of experts to help answer common questions people have about the human microbiome.
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A congruent phylogenomic signal places eukaryotes within the Archaea

For #EVE161 at #UCDavis today: A congruent phylogenomic signal places eukaryotes within the Archaea http://t.co/v5vcnxK7Oh
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