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Names for Life: species database

Names for Life: species database | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
A
good source of up-to-date microbial taxonomy is the website Names for Life.
NamesforLife
was founded to solve a long-standing problem in biology: resolution of the
ambiguity between nomenclature and biological objects and concepts.
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Plant signalling in symbiosis and immunity 

Plant signalling in symbiosis and immunity  | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Plants encounter a myriad of microorganisms, particularly at the root–soil interface, that can invade with detrimental or beneficial outcomes. Prevalent beneficial associations between plants and microorganisms include those that promote plant growth by facilitating the acquisition of limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. But while promoting such symbiotic relationships, plants must restrict the formation of pathogenic associations. Achieving this balance requires the perception of potential invading microorganisms through the signals that they produce, followed by the activation of either symbiotic responses that promote microbial colonization or immune responses that limit it.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, March 21, 4:18 PM

Very good review

Nicolas Denancé's curator insight, March 22, 10:59 AM

Very good review

Sanjay Swami's curator insight, March 23, 4:47 AM
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bioRxiv: Host autophagosomes are diverted to a plant-pathogen interface (2017)

bioRxiv: Host autophagosomes are diverted to a plant-pathogen interface (2017) | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

Filamentous plant pathogens and symbionts invade their host cells but remain enveloped by host-derived membranes. The mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and functions of these host-microbe interfaces are poorly understood. Recently, we showed that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation and deplete the selective autophagy receptor Joka2 from ATG8CL complexes. Here, we show that during P. infestans infection, ATG8CL autophagosomes are diverted to the pathogen interface. Our findings are consistent with the view that the pathogen coopts host selective autophagy for its own benefit.


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Audiobook: Environmental Pollution Control Microbiology

Get your free audiobook or ebook: http://zaxo.space/sabk/35/en/B000OI0Z8U/book Environmental Pollution Control Microbiology: A Fifty-year Perspectiv
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Audiobook: The Evolution of Logic

Get your free audiobook or ebook: http://yazz.space/sabk/35/en/B004G5YY20/info Examines the relations between logic and philosophy over the last 150 years
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The Viruses That Made Us Human — NOVA Next | PBS

The Viruses That Made Us Human — NOVA Next | PBS | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Viruses that infected our ancestors provided the genetic foundations for many traits that define us.

Via Neelima Sinha
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Zika may cause microcephaly by activating TLR3

Zika may cause microcephaly by activating TLR3 | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Research shows that inhibiting this mechanism reduces brain cell damage, hinting at a new therapy to mitigating the effects of prenatal Zika virus infection

Via Kenzibit
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Viruses help form biofilms

Viruses help form biofilms | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Bacteria frequently grow in communities called biofilms, which are aggregates of cells and polymers. Filamentous phages help them assemble.

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A Snippet: Who Invented Agriculture, the Ants or the Bees?

by Elio
Agriculture was invented at the time of the dinosaurs, long before there was anything resembling a primate on earth. Take the example of the leaf cutting ants.
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Protection Without a Vaccine

Protection Without a Vaccine | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
With a new type of gene therapy, scientists hope to engineer the body to resist infections.

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Kathleen McLeod's curator insight, August 6, 2015 2:30 PM

What do you think? Could this be effective? Can you think of any better viral vectors for incorporation of the antibody DNA?

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Scientists resolve debate over how many bacteria fight off invaders

Scientists resolve debate over how many bacteria fight off invaders | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Every inch of our body, inside and out, is oozing with bacteria. In fact, the human body carries 10 times the number of bacterial cells as human cells. Many are our friends, helping us digest food and fight off infections, for instance.
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Deep-ocean microbe is closest living relative of complex cells

Deep-ocean microbe is closest living relative of complex cells | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Genomic study of “Loki” supports a revisionist view of the origin of eukaryotes
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Implications of the Human Microbiome on Pharmaceutical Microbiology | American Pharmaceutical Review - The Review of American Pharmaceutical Business & Technology

Implications of the Human Microbiome on Pharmaceutical Microbiology | American Pharmaceutical Review - The Review of American Pharmaceutical Business & Technology | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Implications of the Human Microbiome on Pharmaceutical Microbiology
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Fecal transplants successful for treating C. difficile infection

Fecal transplants successful for treating C. difficile infection | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

Distasteful as it sounds, the transplantation of fecal matter is more successful for treating Clostridium difficile infections than previously thought. The research, published in the open access journal Microbiome, reveals that healthy changes to a patient's microbiome are sustained for up to 21 weeks after transplant, and has implications for the regulation of the treatment.

 

Clostridium difficile infections are a growing problem, leading to recurrent cases of diarrhea and severe abdominal pain, with thousands of fatalities worldwide every year. The infection is thought to work by overrunning the intestinal microbiome - the ecosystem of microorganisms that maintain a healthy intestine.

 

Fecal microbiota transplantation was developed as a method of treating C. difficile infection, and is particularly successful in patients who suffer repeat infections. Fecal matter is collected from a donor, purified, mixed with a saline solution and placed in a patient, usually by colonoscopy.

 

Previous research has shown that the fecal microbiota of patients resembles that of the donor, but not much is known about the short and long term stability of fecal microbiota transplanted into recipients.

In this research, Michael Sadowsky and colleagues at the University of Minnesota collected fecal samples from four patients before and after their fecal transplants. Three patients received freshly prepared microbiota from fecal matter and one patient received fecal microbiota that had previously been frozen. All received fecal microbiota from the same pre-qualified donor.

 

The team compared the pre- and post-transplant fecal microbial communities from the four patients, as well as from 10 additional patients with recurring C. difficile infections, to the sequences of normal subjects described in the Human Microbiome Project. In addition, they looked at the changes in fecal bacterial composition in recipients over time, and compared this to the changes observed within samples from the donor.

 

Surprisingly, after transplantation, patient samples appeared to sustain changes in their microbiome for up to 21 weeks and remained within the spectrum of fecal microbiota characterized as healthy.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses prevents cholera infection in animal models

Cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses prevents cholera infection in animal models | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

Oral administration of a cocktail of three viruses, all of which specifically kill cholera bacteria, prevents infection and cholera-like symptoms in animal model experiments, report scientists from Tufts University School of Medicine (TUSM) and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts inNature Communications on Feb. 1. The findings are the first to demonstrate the potential efficacy of bacteria-killing viruses—known as bacteriophages, or phages—as an orally administered preventive therapy against an acute gastrointestinal bacterial disease.

 

“While phage therapy has existed for decades, our study is proof-of-principle that it can be used to protect against infection and intervene in the transmission of disease,” said senior study author Andrew Camilli, Ph.D., Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and professor of molecular biology and microbiology at TUSM. “We are hopeful that phages can someday be a tool in the public health arsenal that helps decrease the global burden of cholera, which affects up to four million people around the world each year.”

 

In previous work, Camilli and colleagues searched for phages that are specific for Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera—a potentially lethal infectious disease marked by severe diarrhea and dehydration. While phages that kill V. cholerae are abundant in nature, the team identified three strains that uniquely retained the ability to kill V. cholerae within the small intestine, the site of infection in humans. These phages function by targeting bacterial surface receptors normally involved in infectiousness, making them ideal therapeutic candidates—to develop resistance, cholera bacteria must acquire mutations in these receptors, which cause the bacteria to become less infectious.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, February 13, 5:08 AM
While this great, it is a modern vindication of something no less a person that the co-discoverer of phages himself, Felix d'Herelle, advocated as a cure for dysentery - and put into practice in India in the 1920s, apparently (https://rybicki.wordpress.com/2015/02/17/happy-centenary-phages/). He was also the godfather of work done at the Eliava Institute in Georgia, which really laid the foundation of phage therapy.
Ed Rybicki's comment, February 13, 5:09 AM
Thanks! Great stuff.
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Audiobook: Evolution and Victorian Culture

Get your free audiobook or ebook: http://skyble.space/sabk/35/en/B00JXIIBO2/book In this collection of essays from leading scholars, the dynamic interpla
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Audiobook: Marsh and Martin's Oral Microbiology

Get your free audiobook or ebook: http://zaxo.space/sabk/35/en/B01K4UK9N8/book Now expanded with the latest information of relevance to current denta
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Audiobook: Microbiology and Immunology

Get your free audiobook or ebook: http://zaxo.space/sabk/35/en/B00EYMN412/book After purchasing this product, Amazon will e-mail you an Access Code an
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Nature Microbiology: Fungal pathogenesis: Host modulation every which way (2016)

Nature Microbiology: Fungal pathogenesis: Host modulation every which way (2016) | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum secretes an effector that is similar to a plant peptide hormone, underscoring the variety of mechanisms that plant pathogens have evolved to tamper with host physiology.

 

Plant pathogens cause devastating diseases of crop plants and threaten food security in an era of continuous population growth. Annual losses due to fungal and oomycete diseases amount to enough food calories to feed at least half a billion people. Understanding how plant pathogens infect and colonize plants should help to develop disease-resistant crops. It appears that plant pathogens are sophisticated manipulators of their hosts. They secrete effector molecules that alter host biological processes in a variety of ways, generally promoting the pathogen lifestyle. A new study by Masachis, Segorbe and colleagues describes a new mechanism by which plant pathogens interfere with plant physiology. They discovered that the root-infecting fungus F. oxysporum secretes a peptide similar to the plant regulatory peptide RALF (rapid alkalinization factor) to induce host tissue alkalinization and enhance plant colonization. This study demonstrates that in addition to secreting classical plant hormones (or mimics thereof), fungi have also evolved functional homologues of plant peptides to alter host cellular processes.


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Synthetic Biology: Engineering Microbes to Solve Global Challenges - Jay Keasling

http://www.ibiology.org/ibioeducation/taking-courses/synthetic-biology-course.html Dr.


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Mystery microbes in our gut could be a whole new form of life - New Scientist

Mystery microbes in our gut could be a whole new form of life - New Scientist | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Genetic analysis of microbial DNA from our guts suggests there is a whole new domain of life lurking inside our own bodies – the dark matter of life
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Microbiomes in light of traits: A phylogenetic perspective

Microbiomes in light of traits: A phylogenetic perspective | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
Microbial communities—microbiomes—are intricately linked to human health and critical ecosystem services. New technologies allow the rapid characterization of hundreds of samples at a time and provide a sweeping perspective on microbiome patterns. However, a systematic understanding of what determines microbiome diversity and composition and its implications for system functioning is still lacking. A focus on the phenotypic characteristics of microorganisms—their traits—offers a path for interpreting the growing amount of microbiome data. Indeed, a variety of trait-based approaches have been proposed for plants and animal communities, and this approach has helped to clarify the mechanisms underlying community assembly, diversity-process relationships, and ecosystem responses to environmental change.

Although there is a growing emphasis on microbial traits, the concept has not been fully appreciated in microbiology. However, a trait focus for microorganisms may present an even larger research opportunity than for macro-organisms. Not only do microorganisms play a central role in nutrient and energy cycling in most systems, but the techniques used to characterize microbiomes usually provide extensive molecular and phylogenetic information.

ADVANCES
One major difference between macro- and microorganisms is the potential for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in microbes. Higher rates of HGT mean that many microbial traits might be unrelated to the history of the vertically descended parts of the genome. If true, then the taxonomic composition of a microbiome might reveal little about the health or functioning of a system. We first review key aspects of microbial traits and then recent studies that document the distribution of microbial traits onto the tree of life. A synthesis of these studies reveals that, despite the promiscuity of HGT, microbial traits appear to be phylogenetically conserved, or not distributed randomly across the tree of life. Further, microbial traits appear to be conserved in a hierarchical fashion, possibly linked to their biochemical and genetic complexity. For instance, traits such as pH and salinity preference are relatively deeply conserved, such that taxa within deep clades tend to share the trait. In contrast, other traits like the ability to use simple carbon substrates or to take up organic phosphorus are shallowly conserved, and taxa share these traits only within small, shallow clades.

OUTLOOK
The phylogenetic, trait-based framework that emerges offers a path to interpret microbiome variation and its connection to the health and functioning of environmental, engineered, and human systems. In particular, the taxonomic resolution of biogeographic patterns provides information about the traits under selection, even across entirely different systems. Parallels observed among human and free-living communities support this idea. For instance, microbial traits related to growth on different substrates (e.g., proteins, fats, and carbohydrates) in the human gut appear to be conserved at approximately the genus level, a resolution associated with the level of conservation of glycoside hydrolase genes in bacteria generally. A focus on two particular types of traits—response and effect traits—may also aid in microbiome management, whether that means maintaining human health or mitigating climate change impacts. Future work on microbial traits must consider three challenges: the influence of different trait measurements on cross-study comparisons; correlations between traits within and among microorganisms; and interactions among microbial traits, the environment, and other organisms. Our conclusions also have implications for the growing field of community phylogenetics beyond applications to microorganisms.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Comprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a synthetic human virome

Comprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a synthetic human virome | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT

The human virome plays important roles in health and immunity. However, current methods for detecting viral infections and antiviral responses have limited throughput and coverage. Here, we present VirScan, a high-throughput method to comprehensively analyze antiviral antibodies using immunoprecipitation and massively parallel DNA sequencing of a bacteriophage library displaying proteome-wide peptides from all human viruses. We assayed over 108 antibody-peptide interactions in 569 humans across four continents, nearly doubling the number of previously established viral epitopes. We detected antibodies to an average of 10 viral species per person and 84 species in at least two individuals. Although rates of specific virus exposure were heterogeneous across populations, antibody responses targeted strongly conserved “public epitopes” for each virus, suggesting that they may elicit highly similar antibodies. VirScan is a powerful approach for studying interactions between the virome and the immune system.


Via Krishan Maggon
Franc Viktor Nekrep's insight:

Science 5 June 2015: 
Vol. 348 no. 6239 
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa0698RESEARCH ARTICLEComprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a synthetic human viromeGeorge J. Xu1,2,3,4,*, Tomasz Kula3,4,5,*, Qikai Xu3,4, Mamie Z. Li3,4, Suzanne D. Vernon6, Thumbi Ndung’u7,8,9,10,Kiat Ruxrungtham11, Jorge Sanchez12, Christian Brander13, Raymond T. Chung14, Kevin C. O’Connor15,Bruce Walker8,9, H. Benjamin Larman16, Stephen J. Elledge3,4,6,†

+Author Affiliations

1Program in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02115, USA.2Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.3Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.4Department of Genetics, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.5Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02115, USA.6Solve ME/CFS Initiative, Los Angeles, CA 90036, USA.7KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.8HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa.9Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.10Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Chariteplatz, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.11Vaccine and Cellular Immunology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; and Chula-Vaccine Research Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.12Asociación Civil IMPACTA Salud y Educación, Lima, Peru.13AIDS Research Institute-IrsiCaixa and AIDS Unit, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.14Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.15Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.16Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.↵†Corresponding author. E-mail: selledge@genetics.med.harvard.edu

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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, June 5, 2015 3:23 PM
Science 5 June 2015: 
Vol. 348 no. 6239 
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa0698RESEARCH ARTICLEComprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a synthetic human viromeGeorge J. Xu1,2,3,4,*, Tomasz Kula3,4,5,*, Qikai Xu3,4, Mamie Z. Li3,4, Suzanne D. Vernon6, Thumbi Ndung’u7,8,9,10,Kiat Ruxrungtham11, Jorge Sanchez12, Christian Brander13, Raymond T. Chung14, Kevin C. O’Connor15,Bruce Walker8,9, H. Benjamin Larman16, Stephen J. Elledge3,4,6,†

+Author Affiliations

1Program in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02115, USA.2Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.3Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.4Department of Genetics, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.5Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02115, USA.6Solve ME/CFS Initiative, Los Angeles, CA 90036, USA.7KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.8HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa.9Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.10Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Chariteplatz, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.11Vaccine and Cellular Immunology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; and Chula-Vaccine Research Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.12Asociación Civil IMPACTA Salud y Educación, Lima, Peru.13AIDS Research Institute-IrsiCaixa and AIDS Unit, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.14Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.15Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.16Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.↵†Corresponding author. E-mail: selledge@genetics.med.harvard.edu
Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, June 5, 2015 3:24 PM
Science 5 June 2015: 
Vol. 348 no. 6239 
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa0698RESEARCH ARTICLEComprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a synthetic human viromeGeorge J. Xu1,2,3,4,*, Tomasz Kula3,4,5,*, Qikai Xu3,4, Mamie Z. Li3,4, Suzanne D. Vernon6, Thumbi Ndung’u7,8,9,10,Kiat Ruxrungtham11, Jorge Sanchez12, Christian Brander13, Raymond T. Chung14, Kevin C. O’Connor15,Bruce Walker8,9, H. Benjamin Larman16, Stephen J. Elledge3,4,6,†

+Author Affiliations

1Program in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02115, USA.2Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.3Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.4Department of Genetics, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.5Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02115, USA.6Solve ME/CFS Initiative, Los Angeles, CA 90036, USA.7KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.8HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa.9Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.10Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Chariteplatz, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.11Vaccine and Cellular Immunology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; and Chula-Vaccine Research Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.12Asociación Civil IMPACTA Salud y Educación, Lima, Peru.13AIDS Research Institute-IrsiCaixa and AIDS Unit, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.14Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.15Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.16Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.↵†Corresponding author. E-mail: selledge@genetics.med.harvard.edu

 

Systematic viral epitope scanning (VirScan).

This method allows comprehensive analysis of antiviral antibodies in human sera. VirScan combines DNA microarray synthesis and bacteriophage display to create a uniform, synthetic representation of peptide epitopes comprising the human virome. Immunoprecipitation and high-throughput DNA sequencing reveal the peptides recognized by antibodies in the sample. The color of each cell in the heatmap depicts the relative number of antigenic epitopes detected for a virus (rows) in each sample (columns).

Khashayar Farrokhzad's curator insight, July 31, 2015 9:24 AM

Science 5 June 2015: 
Vol. 348 no. 6239 
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa0698RESEARCH ARTICLEComprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a synthetic human viromeGeorge J. Xu1,2,3,4,*, Tomasz Kula3,4,5,*, Qikai Xu3,4, Mamie Z. Li3,4, Suzanne D. Vernon6, Thumbi Ndung’u7,8,9,10,Kiat Ruxrungtham11, Jorge Sanchez12, Christian Brander13, Raymond T. Chung14, Kevin C. O’Connor15,Bruce Walker8,9, H. Benjamin Larman16, Stephen J. Elledge3,4,6,†

+Author Affiliations

1Program in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02115, USA.2Harvard-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.3Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.4Department of Genetics, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.5Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02115, USA.6Solve ME/CFS Initiative, Los Angeles, CA 90036, USA.7KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.8HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa.9Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.10Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Chariteplatz, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.11Vaccine and Cellular Immunology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine; and Chula-Vaccine Research Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.12Asociación Civil IMPACTA Salud y Educación, Lima, Peru.13AIDS Research Institute-IrsiCaixa and AIDS Unit, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.14Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.15Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.16Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.↵†Corresponding author. E-mail: selledge@genetics.med.harvard.edu

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New Type of Archaea Represents Missing Link of Evolution from Bacteria to Eukaryotics

New Type of Archaea Represents Missing Link of Evolution from Bacteria to Eukaryotics | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
In a new study, published in Nature this week, a research team led from Uppsala University in Sweden presents the discovery of a new microbe that represents a missing link in the evolution of complex life.
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Microbe is relative of complex life

Microbe is relative of complex life | mikrobiologija | Scoop.it
The new group of archaea was discovered in sediments along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge A newly discovered life form could help resolve one of the most contentious conundrums in modern biology.All organisms on Earth are classified as either...
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Phylogenomic analyses indicate that early fungi evolved digesting cell walls of algal ancestors of land plants

As decomposers, fungi are key players in recycling plant material in global carbon cycles. We hypothesized that genomes of early diverging fungi may have inherited pectinases from an ancestral species that had been able to extract nutrients from pectin-containing land plants and their algal allies (Streptophytes). We aimed to infer, based on pectinase gene expansions and on the organismal phylogeny, the geological timing of the plant-fungus association. We analyzed 40 fungal genomes, three of which, including Gonapodya prolifera, were sequenced for this study. In the organismal phylogeny from 136 housekeeping loci, Rozella diverged first from all other fungi. Gonapodya prolifera was included among the flagellated, predominantly aquatic fungal species in Chytridiomycota. Sister to the Chytridiomycota were the predominantly terrestrial fungi including zygomycota I and II, along with the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that comprise Dikarya. The Gonapodya genome has 27 genes representing five of the seven classes of pectin-specific enzymes known from fungi. Most of these share a common ancestry with pectinases from Dikarya. Indicating functional as well as sequence similarity,Gonapodya, like many Dikarya, can use pectin as a carbon source for growth in pure culture. Shared pectinases of Dikarya and Gonapodyaprovide evidence that even ancient aquatic fungi had adapted to extract nutrients from the plants in the green lineage. This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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