In many people with type 2 diabetes, the disease vanished almost immediately after a gastric by-pass, too quickly to be explained by the gradual weight loss that happens later. The authors decribes taht weight loss and operation ar acompanied with a boost in three types of bacteria called Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Proteobacteria. These findings provide empirical support for the claim that changes in the gut microbiota contribute to reduced host weight and adiposity after gastric bypass surgery.
analysis showed that patients with type 2 diabetes were characterized by a moderate degree of gut microbial dysbiosis, a decrease in the abundance of some universal butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in various opportunistic pathogens, as well as an enrichment of other microbial functions conferring sulphate reduction and oxidative stress resistance.
Mucosal Immunology is the official publication of the Society of Mucosal Immunology (SMI). It aims to provide a forum for both basic and clinical scientists to discuss all aspects of immunity and inflammation involving mucosal tissues.
In just the past several years, SIgA has been identified as having the capacity to directly quench bacterial virulence factors, influence composition of the intestinal microbiota by Fab-dependent and Fab-independent mechanisms, promote retro-transport of antigens across the intestinal epithelium to dendritic cell subsets in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and, finally, to downregulate proinflammatory responses normally associated with the uptake of highly pathogenic bacteria and potentially allergenic antigens.
Gallimore AM, Godkin A. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 17;368(3):282-4
The authors suggest that colorectal cancer arises from a series of events that are initiated through the combined effects of mutation and microbes. Genetic mutations accrue in epithelial cells, leading to a loss of junctional proteins and mucus and hence diminished mucosal integrity. This allows the translocation of bacteria from the lumen to the lamina propria, where bacterial products can bind to toll-like receptors on myeloid cells and trigger the release of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and, critically, interleukin-23, which drive development of a pathogenic type 17 helper T-cell response. This response impinges on the aberrant epithelium, driving STAT3 activation and hence proliferation, invasion, and survival, allowing further genetic mutations to accrue. The epithelium eventually progresses from dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. These epithelial changes further compromise barrier integrity, thus sustaining the cycle of bacterial translocation, inflammation, and cancer progression.
"...Women's gut microbe populations change as pregnancy advances, becoming more like those of people who might develop diabetes. These changes, which do not seem to damage maternal health, correspond with increases in blood glucose and fat deposition thought to help a mother nourish her child...."
Antiviral sugars in human milkEmory Health Now (blog)“The anti-flu glycans are not induced to our knowledge, but are part of a naturally occurring 'liquid innate immune system' in human milk,” Cummings says.
Eight weeks after antibiotic treatment of infants, the diversity of gastrointestinal flora remained diminished, although the number of individual bacteria was back to normal, according to a paper in the November 2012 issue of the journal...
Bacterial colonization of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signaling. Despite a significant interpersonal variation in the enteric microbiota, there seems to be a balance that confers health benefits and an alteration in beneficial bacteria can negatively influence the wellbeing of the individual
The animal and human intestinal mucosa secretes an assortment of compounds to establish a physical barrier between the host tissue and intestinal contents, a separation that is vital for health. Some members of the commensal intestinal microbiota have been shown to be able to break down these secreted compounds.The authors show that two bacterial species, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila, are important host-protein foragers and provide other microbiota members with energie sources by degrading mucus.
The researchers found that infants born by cesarean delivery were lacking a specific group of bacteria found in infants delivered vaginally, even if they were breastfed. Infants strictly formula-fed, compared with babies that were exclusively or partially breastfed, also had significant differences in their gut bacteria.
Eczema in Infants Linked to Gut Bacteria Science Daily (press release) Lotta Nylund, Reetta Satokari, Janne Nikkilä, Mirjana Rajilic-Stojanovic, Marko Kalliomäki, Erika Isolauri, Seppo Salminen and Willem M de Vos (in press).
Clara Belzer's insight:
at six months all the infants had the same types of bacteria but by 18 months old the children with eczema had more of a type of bacteria normally associated with adults (Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa) while the healthy children had a greater amount of Bacteroidetes.
Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation in early infancy was observed to have minor long-term effects on the microbiota composition.
Gut flora plays significant role in infants with colic, Carolina de Weerth, PhD, of Radboud University in Nijmegen, and colleagues from Wageningen University, , analyzed the development of intestinal microbiota in 24 infants,...
Clara Belzer's insight:
The results indicate the presence of microbial signatures in the first weeks of life in infants who later develop colic. These microbial signatures may be used to understand the excessive crying. The results offer opportunities for early diagnostics as well as for developing specific therapies.
Original Article from The New England Journal of Medicine — Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium difficile
Clara Belzer's insight:
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. Th eauthors studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. The infusion of donor feces was significantly more effective for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection than the use of vancomycin.
In a recent study, it has been suggested that human milk microbiota may play a major role in the health of the infants.1 It educates the infant immune system and confers a certain degree of protection against pathogens.2 These effects reflect the synergistic action of many bioactive molecules which are present in colostrum and milk such as: immunocompetent cells, immunoglobulins, fatty acids, polyamines, oligosaccharides, lysozyme, lactoferrin and other glycoproteins and antimicrobial peptides.3 These molecules inactivate pathogens individually, additively, and synergistically.4 Many studies have recently suggested that colostrum and breast milk are continuous sources of probiotic bacteria to the infant gut.5-12
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