Microbes Inside
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Microbes Inside
how the omnipresent nature and function of microbes, including bacteria, archaea and fungi, affects our life
Curated by Clara Belzer
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Conserved Shifts in the Gut Microbiota Due to Gastric Bypass Reduce Host Weight and Adiposity

Conserved Shifts in the Gut Microbiota Due to Gastric Bypass Reduce Host Weight and Adiposity | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Clara Belzer's insight:

In many people with type 2 diabetes, the disease vanished almost immediately after a gastric by-pass, too quickly to be explained by the gradual weight loss that happens later. The authors decribes taht weight loss and operation ar acompanied with a boost in three types of bacteria called Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Proteobacteria. These findings provide  empirical support for the claim that changes in the gut microbiota contribute to reduced host weight and adiposity after gastric bypass surgery.

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Association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes

Association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Clara Belzer's insight:

analysis showed that patients with type 2 diabetes were characterized by a moderate degree of gut microbial dysbiosis, a decrease in the abundance of some universal butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in various opportunistic pathogens, as well as an enrichment of other microbial functions conferring sulphate reduction and oxidative stress resistance.

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Gut Bacteria Conspired in Melamine Poisonings - ScienceNOW

Gut Bacteria Conspired in Melamine Poisonings - ScienceNOW | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Gut Bacteria Conspired in Melamine Poisonings - ScienceNOW

Via Guus Roeselers
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Guus Roeselers's curator insight, February 17, 2013 8:14 PM

Remember the 2008 melamine contamination of formula in China? Nearly 300,000 infants got sick, at least six died. Now, a study in rats implicates toxicity arises from gut microbiota converting melamine to cyanuric acid.

[Zheng et al., (2013) Science 5:172ra22]

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Mucosal Immunology - Secretory IgA's complex roles in immunity and mucosal homeostasis in the gut

Mucosal Immunology - Secretory IgA's complex roles in immunity and mucosal homeostasis in the gut | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Mucosal Immunology is the official publication of the Society of Mucosal Immunology (SMI). It aims to provide a forum for both basic and clinical scientists to discuss all aspects of immunity and inflammation involving mucosal tissues.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
Clara Belzer's insight:

In just the past several years, SIgA has been identified as having the capacity to directly quench bacterial virulence factors, influence composition of the intestinal microbiota by Fab-dependent and Fab-independent mechanisms, promote retro-transport of antigens across the intestinal epithelium to dendritic cell subsets in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and, finally, to downregulate proinflammatory responses normally associated with the uptake of highly pathogenic bacteria and potentially allergenic antigens.

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Immunology in the Gut Mucosa

The gut mucosa hosts the body's largest population of immune cells. Nature Immunology in collaboration with Arkitek Studios have produced an animation unrave...
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Clara Belzer's comment, February 8, 2013 12:17 PM
A good overwiew and the link with bacteria and IBD is made.
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Epithelial Barriers, Microbiota, and Colorectal Cancer

Epithelial Barriers, Microbiota, and Colorectal Cancer | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Clara Belzer's insight:

Gallimore AM, Godkin A. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 17;368(3):282-4

 

The authors suggest that colorectal cancer arises from a series of events that are initiated through the combined effects of mutation and microbes. Genetic mutations accrue in epithelial cells, leading to a loss of junctional proteins and mucus and hence diminished mucosal integrity. This allows the translocation of bacteria from the lumen to the lamina propria, where bacterial products can bind to toll-like receptors on myeloid cells and trigger the release of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and, critically, interleukin-23, which drive development of a pathogenic type 17 helper T-cell response. This response impinges on the aberrant epithelium, driving STAT3 activation and hence proliferation, invasion, and survival, allowing further genetic mutations to accrue. The epithelium eventually progresses from dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. These epithelial changes further compromise barrier integrity, thus sustaining the cycle of bacterial translocation, inflammation, and cancer progression.

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Dmitry Alexeev's curator insight, February 4, 2013 7:03 AM

hard to prove - easy to imagine

Krishna Kumar's curator insight, January 8, 5:32 PM

This article may be quite revealing on the role of gut bacteria in colorectal cancer

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Microbiome | Full text | Stool substitute transplant therapy for the eradication of Clostridium difficile infection: "RePOOPulating" the gut

Fecal bacteriotherapy (‘stool transplant’) can be effective in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but concerns of donor infection transmission and patient acceptance limit its use.
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Breast Milk Contains Over 700 Bacterial Species

Breast Milk Contains Over 700 Bacterial Species | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Researchers created a map of the bacterial microbiota in new mothers' breast milk. (Breast Milk Contains Over 700 Bacterial Species: Researchers created a map of the bacterial microbiota in new mo...
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Pregnancy alters resident gut microbes

Pregnancy alters resident gut microbes | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it

"...Women's gut microbe populations change as pregnancy advances, becoming more like those of people who might develop diabetes. These changes, which do not seem to damage maternal health, correspond with increases in blood glucose and fat deposition thought to help a mother nourish her child...."


Via Guus Roeselers
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Antiviral sugars in human milk

Antiviral sugars in human milk | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Antiviral sugars in human milkEmory Health Now (blog)“The anti-flu glycans are not induced to our knowledge, but are part of a naturally occurring 'liquid innate immune system' in human milk,” Cummings says.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Antibiotics Disrupt Gut Flora in Infants: Recovery Still Incomplete After 8 Weeks

Antibiotics Disrupt Gut Flora in Infants: Recovery Still Incomplete After 8 Weeks | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Eight weeks after antibiotic treatment of infants, the diversity of gastrointestinal flora remained diminished, although the number of individual bacteria was back to normal, according to a paper in the November 2012 issue of the journal...
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Development of the microbiome in early life

Development of the microbiome in early life | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it

Bacterial colonization of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signaling. Despite a significant interpersonal variation in the enteric microbiota, there seems to be a balance that confers health benefits and an alteration in beneficial bacteria can negatively influence the wellbeing of the individual

 

Grenham etal., 2012. Front. Physio., 07 December 2011 | doi: 10.3389/fphys.2011.00094

Frontiers | Brain–Gut–Microbe Communication in Health and Disease | Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Sciences

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Host-compound (mucus) foraging by intestinal microbiota

Host-compound (mucus) foraging by intestinal microbiota | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Clara Belzer's insight:

The animal and human intestinal mucosa secretes an assortment of compounds to establish a physical barrier between the host tissue and intestinal contents, a separation that is vital for health. Some members of the commensal intestinal microbiota have been shown to be able to break down these secreted compounds.The authors show that two bacterial species, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila, are important host-protein foragers and provide other microbiota members with energie sources by degrading mucus.

Berry et al., 2013 PNAS

http://www.pnas.org/content/110/12/4720.long

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Dmitry Alexeev's curator insight, March 28, 2013 5:45 AM

should we look for similar organisms but from anither genera in Russia?

Suggested by Andrew Whitfield-Cook
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Human milk: a source of more life than we ima... [Benef Microbes. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

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‘Mini gut’ technology aims to make probiotic research more efficient and cheaper, says TNO

‘Mini gut’ technology aims to make probiotic research more efficient and cheaper, says TNO | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
A new technology that utilises intestinal stem cells to grown mini gut structures in the lab promises to help probiotic researchers achieve efficient and cost effective research, according to TNO.

Via Guus Roeselers
Clara Belzer's insight:

I imagine it could also be helpfull in studying microbiota associated disases

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Gut microbiota: profiles by mode of delivery and diet

Clara Belzer's insight:

The researchers found that infants born by cesarean delivery were lacking a specific group of bacteria found in infants delivered vaginally, even if they were breastfed. Infants strictly formula-fed, compared with babies that were exclusively or partially breastfed, also had significant differences in their gut bacteria.

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Eczema in Infants Linked to Gut Bacteria - Science Daily (press release)

Eczema in Infants Linked to Gut Bacteria - Science Daily (press release) | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Eczema in Infants Linked to Gut Bacteria
Science Daily (press release)
Lotta Nylund, Reetta Satokari, Janne Nikkilä, Mirjana Rajilic-Stojanovic, Marko Kalliomäki, Erika Isolauri, Seppo Salminen and Willem M de Vos (in press).
Clara Belzer's insight:

at six months all the infants had the same types of bacteria but by 18 months old the children with eczema had more of a type of bacteria normally associated with adults (Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa) while the healthy children had a greater amount of Bacteroidetes.

Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation in early infancy was observed to have minor long-term effects on the microbiota composition.

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Intestinal Microbiota of Infants With Colic: Development and Specific Signatures

Intestinal Microbiota of Infants With Colic: Development and Specific Signatures | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it

Gut flora plays significant role in infants with colic,  Carolina de Weerth, PhD, of Radboud University in Nijmegen, and colleagues from Wageningen University, , analyzed the development of intestinal microbiota in 24 infants,...

Clara Belzer's insight:

The results indicate the presence of microbial signatures in the first weeks of life in infants who later develop colic. These microbial signatures may be used to understand the excessive crying. The results offer opportunities for early diagnostics as well as for developing specific therapies.

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Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium difficile — NEJM

Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium difficile — NEJM | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Original Article from The New England Journal of Medicine — Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium difficile
Clara Belzer's insight:

Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. Th eauthors studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. The infusion of donor feces was significantly more effective for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection than the use of vancomycin.

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Visionary UI biologist Carl Woese, 84, dies | News-Gazette.com

Visionary UI biologist Carl Woese, 84, dies | News-Gazette.com | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Carl Woese, the University of Illinois microbiology professor credited with the discovery of a “third domain” of life, died Sunday at his home in Urbana. He was 84.
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The human milk microbiota plays a role in health of the infant | InfantRisk Center

The human milk microbiota plays a role in health of the infant | InfantRisk Center | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it

In a recent study, it has been suggested that human milk microbiota may play a major role in the health of the infants.1 It educates the infant immune system and confers a certain degree of protection against pathogens.2 These effects reflect the synergistic action of many bioactive molecules which are present in colostrum and milk such as: immunocompetent cells, immunoglobulins, fatty acids, polyamines, oligosaccharides, lysozyme, lactoferrin and other glycoproteins and antimicrobial peptides.3 These molecules inactivate pathogens individually, additively, and synergistically.4 Many studies have recently suggested that colostrum and breast milk are continuous sources of probiotic bacteria to the infant gut.5-12

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Gut microbiota and pregnancy

Gut microbiota and pregnancy | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
A study recently published in Cell (August 3rd, 2012) monitored 91 pregnant women to characterise more precisely the evolution of gut microbiota composition during pregnancy.
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Nature Reviews : focus on gut microbiota

Nature Reviews : focus on gut microbiota | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
Published in October 2012, Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology focuses on gut microbiota pictured by several research highlight.
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Chimp and Human Gut Bacteria Nearly Identical

Chimp and Human Gut Bacteria Nearly Identical | Microbes Inside | Scoop.it
The findings suggest gut bacteria patterns evolved before chimps and humans split.

Via The QI Elves, Guus Roeselers
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FOOD TECHNOLOGIST's curator insight, June 14, 2013 2:47 AM

Chimp and Human Gut Bacteria Nearly Identical