The Human Microbiome Gets A Big Pharma Investment Forbes “This is an area of great importance for our R&D strategy for immunology because we believe it can bring in the mid-term and long-term value toward our goal of addressing unmet medical need,”...
New immune system discovered - Medical Xpress Medical Xpress "We envision BAM influencing the prevention and treatment of mucosal infections seen in the gut and lungs, having applications for phage therapy and even directly interacting with the...
We recently isolated Akkermansia muciniphila, which is a mucin-degrading bacterium that resides in the mucus layer. The presence of this bacterium inversely correlates with body weight in rodents and humans. This study demonstrated that the abundance of A. muciniphila decreased in obese and type 2 diabetic mice. We demonstrated that A. muciniphila treatment reversed high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, including fat-mass gain, metabolic endotoxemia, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance. A. muciniphila administration increased the intestinal levels of endocannabinoids that control inflammation, the gut barrier, and gut peptide secretion. Everard et al., PNAS 2013
MONTREAL, April 26, 2013 /PRNewswire-iReach/ --Micropharma Limited, a pioneer in the development of innovative and effective products based on the human microbiome, today announced that after three years of development it has a timeline for launch of its ingestible gastrointestinal sampling technology.
Manipulation of the gut microbiome is becoming an important way to treat immune, gastrointestinal and metabolic disease. Probiotic therapies affecting the human gut microbiome have gained regulatory approval and are now included as part of clinical guidelines for a wide range of indications. Further, there are now a number of microbiome focused companies actively developing microbiome based diagnostics, identifying uses for small molecules acting through the microbiome and developing GMO stains to affect the microbiome.
We interviewed Prof.Joël Doré, Head of Research at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), at the 2nd Gut Microbiota for Health Summit, in order to find out more about gut...
Clara Belzer's insight:
I agree we should use the term microbiota to indicate the microorganisms in our intestine because microbes are not teh same as plants . Also be aware that microbiome is not the same as microbiota. Microbiome is all microorgansims including their genetic content.
The animal and human intestinal mucosa secretes an assortment of compounds to establish a physical barrier between the host tissue and intestinal contents, a separation that is vital for health. Some members of the commensal intestinal microbiota have been shown to be able to break down these secreted compounds.The authors show that two bacterial species, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila, are important host-protein foragers and provide other microbiota members with energie sources by degrading mucus.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease that afflicts 10% of extremely preterm infants.
Clara Belzer's insight:
"Early dysbiosis is strongly involved in the pathobiology of NEC. These striking findings require validation in larger studies but indicate that early microbi al and metabolomic signatures may provide highly predictive biomarkers of NEC."Morrowet al.,Microbiome: 2013,1:13 doi:10.1186/2049-2618-1-13
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Clara Belzer's insight:
When broad sugar utilization was compared within the five major body sites, the gastrointestinal track contained the highest potential for total sugar degradation, while dextran and peptidoglycan degradation were highest in oral and vaginal sites respectively.
The analysis suggests that the carbohydrate composition of each body site has a profound influence and probably constitutes one of the major driving forces that shapes the community composition and therefore the CAZyme profile of the local microbial communities, which in turn reflects the microbiome fitness to a body site.
In many people with type 2 diabetes, the disease vanished almost immediately after a gastric by-pass, too quickly to be explained by the gradual weight loss that happens later. The authors decribes taht weight loss and operation ar acompanied with a boost in three types of bacteria called Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Proteobacteria. These findings provide empirical support for the claim that changes in the gut microbiota contribute to reduced host weight and adiposity after gastric bypass surgery.
analysis showed that patients with type 2 diabetes were characterized by a moderate degree of gut microbial dysbiosis, a decrease in the abundance of some universal butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in various opportunistic pathogens, as well as an enrichment of other microbial functions conferring sulphate reduction and oxidative stress resistance.