There are many diseases and disorders that are effectively coded white or black, depending on whether they are associated with modernity (white) or socially backward (black) ways of life. The prevailing view is that black Africans living in Western countries are the diseased other who pose a threat to the health of whites. In Israel, blood donated by Africans was, until 2007, discarded by Israeli hospitals because of the belief that Africans are diseased. In New Zealand, mandatory HIV testing was demanded from the first settlement of African refugees. Today at least a dozen West Africans with mild flu symptoms are being isolated in European countries such as Spain, Ireland, Germany and Austria even though Ebola explosions largely afflict African people living in poverty and the health care workers who serve them.