Scaffolding (vom Englischen "scaffold" oder "scaffolding" = Gerüst) bezeichnet im pädagogisch-psychologischen Kontext die Unterstützung des Lernprozesses durch die Bereitstellung einer ersten vollständigen Orientierungsgrundlage in Form von Anleitungen, Denkanstößen und anderen Hilfestellungen. Sobald der Lernende fähig ist, eine bestimmte Teilaufgabe eigenständig zu bearbeiten, entfernt man dieses „Gerüst“ schrittweise wieder.
1930 beschrieb der russische Psychologe Lew Wygotski in seiner Arbeit „Mind In Society“ die Idee einer Zone der proximalen Entwicklung (ZPD), welche die theoretische Grundlage für das heutige Verständnis von Scaffolding bildet.
Daniel in his post of a criticism of computer science models or modeles says: The problem is made worse by the fact that researchers working on modèles more easily get the upper hand. They are nev...
The problem is made worse by the fact that researchers working on modèles more easily get the upper hand. They are never wrong. They can endlessly refine their modèles and re-evaluate them. As long as there is no actual problem to be solved, the modèles will tend to displace the models. Cargo cult science wins.
Of course, the reverse phenomenon may exist within industry. People working with modèles are at a disadvantage. They can’t make useful predictions. They can only explain, in retrospect, what is observed. All their sophistication fails to help them when real-world results are what matters.
I agreed with Daniel’s views. How would this scientific model be applicable to Higher Education? Or can we really explain the MOOCs phenomena using the scientific modelling?
May I share some ideas below, which I think is relevant to the building of models in education?
What I noted in recent years is that ideas and concepts seem to be more convincing than the empirical data and experimental proof, especially in “social science”. Why?
Agarwal ultimately sees "learning sequences," a series of videos integrated with interactive exercises, replacing the age-old lecture. Learning sequences promote active learning, and when you engage students, they learn much better. Agarwal views MOOCs as a next-generation textbook--university students get content through a MOOC-style course, and then come to class where the professor helps them process the material and apply what they learned. Agarwal calls this "the socratization of education."
edX is already figuring it out. Agarwal says students love edX's autograded exercises because they crave instant feedback on their work. edX's analytics tracked students' studying behavior and found that students most likely to use the textbook to study for exams and more likely to use the lecture videos and discussions forums to do their homework. But bigger questions remain: How do you teach creativity? How do you grade free-form essays? How do you recreate the small group feel?
Heiko Idensen's insight:
.. "active learning" comcepts, learning seqences, learning objectrs and settings are the most important feature of MOOC didactics ...
10 Dos and Don'ts For Group Work & Student Grouping
Educators have learned much about the benefits of using projects for learning, and collaboration is easily recognized as an important skill for students to build. There are very few arguments against having students work together in class and on assignments.
However, the challenge facing many educators is not in wanting their students to work together, but in figuring out how to group students together in the most effective ways. We do not want to create groups that hinder the progress of any of our students!
This simple guide can help you the next time you are creating groups for an assignment or task in your classroom!
How is such "education revolution" foregrounded? As I have shared in my past post, it was likely the result of butterfly effect, where small changes at a local level, with lower-level components"
Pedagogy. MOOCs relate to the use of technology and innovation in education. The importance of technology has been justified as a push to change the pedagogy as in MOOCs. The need to process large masses of students, requiring automatic control and monitoring with minimal human intervention. Flipped learning appears as a revolution in pedagogy, not because it is more efficient, but because it is needed to handle large number of students (Epelboin, 2012).
In this post MOOCs relating to the innovation:
the majority of the innovation has gone into the technology, not creating better content or more effective learning experiences. Most of these online courses are basically video replays of existing lectures with accompanying class PowerPoint slides, notes and assignments. That’s not really new; people have been doing that, beginning with TV, as far back as the 1960s.
3. The MOOC structure needs to be adaptive in nature, and may exhibit the complex adaptive system where the actors and system co-evolve as the course progresses. This means that a breakdown into mini-OOC may be more practical, especially if the interests of the participants are too diverse, leading to fragmentation of MOOC. Traditional, objective and learning outcomes based online course may need to be changed in order to adapt to a high in flux, highly complex and adaptive sort of MOOC where each participant is developing their own unique PLN and “MOOC” in mind. This alignment of online course to an emergent structure with MOOC will allow for a decrease in drop out amongst networkers, and an increase in understanding of the netagogy as proposed and problem and project based learning. It could also be based on lots of fun, as shared by Michael Wesch and his students, producing the artifacts (videos and wikis) under Michael Wesch’s guide on the side when learning in an online environment.
4. That there are open educational resources available and open for access, remix, reuse and repurpose for the creation or feedforwarding of artifacts to the networks, as shared by Stephen Downes.
5. The teaching, social and cognitive presence are all supported throughout the MOOC and beyond. These could be based on distance education pedagogy. It would best be based on a learning experience as discussed by Jenny Mackness where the process is open and community based – with an emergent landscape of practice as value proposition and value creation with communities of practice." ...
Posted by suifaijohnmak in Connectivism, Education, Learning, MOOC
"27 Cognitive Actions That Promote Self-Directed Learning
Challenge somethingMake an observationDraw a conclusionQuestion somethingRevise a question based on observation & dataCritique somethingObserve somethingRevise somethingTransfer a lesson or philosophical stance from one situation to anotherImprove a designIdentify a cause and effectCompare and contrast somethingTest the validity of a modelSeparate causes from symptomsIdentify the primary and secondary causes of a problemAdapt something for something newMake a prediction and observe what occursNarrate a sequenceStudy and visually demonstrate nuanceIdentify and explain a patternStudy the relationship between text and subtextElegantly emphasize nuanceCritically evaluate a socially-accepted ideaExtract a lesson from natureTake & defend a positionRecord notes during and after observation of somethingForm a theory & revise it based on observation and/or data"
Technology is a tool that can be used to help teachers facilitate learning experiences that address the diverse learning needs of all students and help them develop 21st Century Skills, an idea supported by the Common Core. At it's most basic level, digital tools can be used to help students find, understand and use information. When combined with student-driven learning experiences fueled by Essential Questions offering flexible learning paths, it can be the ticket to success. Here is a closer look at three components of effectively using technology as a tool for digital differentiation. The goal is to design student-driven learning experiences that are fueled by standards-based Essential Questions and facilitated by digital tools to provide students with flexible learning paths.
To me the biggest difference is in how flipping adds context. For instance, working with a particular piece of literature, say, Romeo & Juliet, offers many ways to use the flipped format to add learning experiences beyond what one might have time to share within the restraints of the class hour. Some examples of what could be flipped for students reading Romeo & Juliet:
Google maps of the area of Italy where the play is setHistorical info on Queen Elizabeth I, London, or William Shakespeare3D rendering of the Globe TheaterGoogle Lit Trip, which uses Google Earth to move through the play’s localesVideo clips from West Side Story, Shakespeare in Love, or any available version of the playRenaissance food recipes and photosVideo and image parodies, such as this one.Your own screen casts explaining texts, like this one, using Jing.com.Online texts, including side-by-side modern translations, e.g. No FearBlogging as Romeo or JulietDiscussion boards regarding choices the characters makeVocabulary practice via Spelling and Vocabulary City, for instance.Suggesting students create a quick rap using uJam.com
Of course, the possibilities are nearly endless. While no teacher wants to replace the core discussions and interactions of the language arts class (nor should they), adding a flipped element creates opportunity to craft meaning and connection to the world in ways simply not possible by sending home worksheets or packets with information.
The management of this material requires a strong interactive platform for teachers to easily share these resources. There are several free or inexpensive options for this. Moodle, Edmodo,Schoology, Google Sites, Wikispaces and several others could form that connective tissue to allow for these flipped resources. I prefer Schoology, even though I used Edmodo for years, because the design is very clean, and students always know where to find resources, even if they were from many weeks ago. I think it is a matter of preference.
"In this short contribution I would like to address the question of assessing the quality of massive open online courses. The assessment of the quality of anything is fraught with difficulties, depending as it does on some commonly understood account of what would count as a good example of the thing, what factors constitute success, and how that success against that standard is to be measured."
Ich habe auf zwei Seiten die Übersetzung einiger Begriffe in Edmodo zusammengestellt, die leider nicht übersetzt worden sind: 1. Die Bereiche der smartphone App, die ja leider komplett nur „in english“ ist :-( und 2. Die Bewertung der Aufgaben (… als Feedback an die Kursleiterin, wie die Teilnehmer die Aufgaben finden).. mit den netten Bildchen und den Unterschriften awesome,like it, Interesting, Tough / Challenging, Not taught in Class, Need more Time, Bored, Need Help ... ... .. für viele sicherlich kein Problem, aber ich habe gerade eine Teilnehmergruppe, für die das schon schwierig war ... ... Es wäre sehr hilfreich, wenn die deutschsprachigen Teilnehmer als Kommentar in Google-Play eine Übersetzung der App verlangen ... und auch sonst ein Feedback an den Edmodo-Support, damit Edmodo sich auch im deutschsprachigen Raum weiter verbreiten kann ... Heiko
In this post I’ve included the key developments of this past week that will keep readers in-the-know on education news. Another new MOOC platform,NovoEd launched by Stanford this week offers challenging courses and takes a unique approach to team projects and peer grading, and the machine grading of essays—the debate continues and is an issue that prevents one school from joining edX. Also, I’ll introduce a new tool that bring interactivity to online learning.
Web resources designed to help you embrace Moodle...
RISE (Resources – Activity – Support – Evaluation) is a pedagogical model developed to support teachers to use Moodle in effective, student-centered and engaging way to achieve intended learning outcomes in their courses.
Central idea behind RASE is that content RESOURCES are not sufficient for full achievement of learning outcomes. We also need to plan:
ACTIVITY for students to engaged in using resources,SUPPORT to ensure that students are provided help and tools to independently solve emerging difficulties, andEVALUATION to inform about students' progress and serve us as tool to understand what else we need to do in other to ensure that learning outcomes are being achieved.
The figure bellow is a visual representation and a summary of the model. Pay attention to all of its components and think of ways how these can be integrated in holistic learning unit in your curriculum delivery.
In this workshop, we will explore each of these components in more details.
In this paper from pedagogy to andragogy the author says: The andragogical model as conceived by Knowles is predicated on four basic assumptions about learners, all of which have some relationship ...
Netagogy places emphasis on learning how to learn, with multiple loop learning, personal, social, global and nebulous learning opportunities, a multi-purpose and non-linear complex and emergent process. A multi-learner interaction coupled with self-directed Netagogy requires that educational and learning initiatives include the innovative and improvement practice of network and internet-based learning and technological skills, as well as learning experience on the multi-faceted perspectives and interpretations on various subject domains in the networks and internet. These could includeConnectivism, Networked Learning, Social Media Learning, PLE/N (PLENK), Virtual Learning Environment, LMS, Web 2.0, Information and Communication Technology, Mobile Learning and Digital/Online Learning."
"Creativity is a simple concept that can be difficult to get your head around. In its most basic sense, creative means "original and of high quality" (Perkins, 1981, p. 6). The girl's school spirit poem was of high quality, but it was workmanlike and derivative. The boy's self-analysis poem was original, and the poetic composition and word choice were fine; he just needed to attend to the quality of the mechanics. Of course, a poem that is uninterpretable or meaningless, no matter how original, can't be creative.
"What does it look like when schoolwork is original and of high quality? Probably the foremost characteristic of creative students is that they put things together in new ways (Brookhart, 2010). For example, while writing a poem about a sunset, a student who observes that moment when the sunset looks very much like a sunrise and makes the connection to other endings that can also foreshadow beginnings is more creative than a student who describes that moment as "red and fiery."
"Students who are able to put things together in new ways can observe things others might miss, construct more novel products, give more novel performances, use more unusual or unconventional imagery to make points, observe ordinary things and find in them an area to wonder about or a problem to solve, and the like.
"Not all schoolwork, even performance assessments, supports this sort of thinking. Before you can assess creativity, you need to make sure that the tasks you set for students are conducive to creativity."