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Blood Test May Predict How Long People with Melanoma Will Live

Melanoma rates are climbing worldwide, intensifying the urgency to find biomarkers that will help doctors optimize treatment. New research suggests that a simple blood test may detect a biomarker of survival in people with melanoma. The researchers counted tumor cells in blood samples from 101 people with melanomas that had spread and found that those with fewer tumor cells in their blood lived longer. When people had under two tumor cells per 7.5 mL of blood, they survived on average more than twice as long as those with two or more tumor cells per 7.5 mL of blood (7.2 vs 2.6 months). The researchers reported this finding in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology and recommend larger studies to confirm their work.

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Journal of Investigative Dermatology│June, 2013

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Clinical Trial Reveals Patients' Willingness to Undergo Genetic Testing for Personalized Cancer Treatment

Clinical Trial Reveals Patients' Willingness to Undergo Genetic Testing for Personalized Cancer Treatment | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

A recently completed clinical trial examining the use of genetic testing to direct cancer treatment was able to exceed its enrollment goal of 600 participants in less than 2 years instead of the expected 5 years. Patients were willing to participate even though they had to undergo an additional biopsy, revealing considerable interest in personalized treatment based on genetic tests. The trial confirmed that erlotinib (Tarceva) is highly effective in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with a mutation in the EGFR gene. It also found that NSCLC patients with mutations in the KRAS gene did not benefit from the novel cancer drug selumetinib. In contrast, not enough small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients had any of the investigated mutations to properly test how they responded to treatments. Such mutations will require trials involving thousands of patients to draw reliable conclusions.

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ScienceDaily | May 15, 2013

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ScienceDaily | May 15, 2013

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ScienceDaily | May 15, 2013

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Two Immune System Boosters May Be Better Than One for Melanoma

Two Immune System Boosters May Be Better Than One for Melanoma | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

A phase I clinical trial suggests that the combination of two immunotherapy drugs—ipilimumab and nivolumab—may shrink melanomas far more than either does alone. Ipilimumab is the standard melanoma treatment in much of the world; nivolumab is an experimental drug developed by the pharmaceutical firm Bristol-Myers Squibb. The researchers treated 52 melanoma patients with the combination and found that tumors shrank in about half of them. This shrinkage exceeded 80% in nearly one-third of the patients. These results will be presented at the upcoming annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and a phase III trial of the combination ipilimumab/nivolumab treatment is scheduled to start in June 2013.

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The ASCO Post│May 16, 2013

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FDA Speeds Review of Experimental Immunotherapy for Melanoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has fast-tracked the review of lambrolizumab, an immunotherapy drug for melanoma being developed by the pharmaceutical company Merck. Lambrolizumab, also called MK-3475, disrupts a protein called PD-1 that allows tumor cells to evade the immune system. The expedited review was granted on the strength of promising early results from a clinical trial: tumors shrank in half of those treated with lambrolizumab (43 out of 85), and disappeared in another 9%. Encouragingly, tumors also shrank in 11 of the 27 patients (41%) who had previously been treated with ipilimumab, another immunotherapy drug that is currently used to treat melanomas that have spread. Clinical trials with lambrolizumab are also underway for other types of cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

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RX Times │ Apr 24, 2013

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ACE Inhibitor Protects Heart and Lungs from Radiation Damage in Rats

Lung and breast cancers are often treated with radiation, but repeated high doses can also harm healthy tissues in the lungs and heart. New research suggests that both organs can be protected during radiation with a drug called captopril, an ACE inhibitor that is commonly used to treat cardiovascular disease. Radiation causes fibrosis (excess connective tissue) in the heart, diminishing blood flow to—and so damaging—the lungs. However, captopril decreases fibrosis in irradiated hearts and, therefore, also protects the lungs in rats, researchers reported at the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology's 2013 forum. The researchers are now designing a clinical trial to see if captopril also protects against radiation damage in people.

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Science Daily│Apr 21, 2013

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Science Daily│Apr 21, 2013

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Science Daily│Apr 21, 2013

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Imaging Tumor Blood Vessels Could Help Optimize Melanoma Treatment

Melanomas that have spread can be treated by cutting off their blood supplies, but this only works in some people. Now there may be a way to predict who this anti-angiogenic therapy will benefit, according to findings reported at the American Association for Cancer Research's 2013 meeting. The researchers analyzed computed tomography (CT) images of melanomas from 46 people who had undergone anti-angiogenic treatment. The images revealed that loss of tumor blood vessels was linked to survival, particularly in people who also had low levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Next, the researchers plan to test their findings in clinical studies.

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Science Daily│Apr 17, 2013

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New Drug Overcomes Resistance to BRAF Inhibitors in Mice and Cultured Human Cells

An experimental drug may strengthen treatments that target melanomas with mutations in the BRAF gene, reported researchers from the pharmaceutical company Merck at the American Association for Cancer Research's 2013 meeting. Treatments that target BRAF often stop working because tumors activate a related protein called ERK, which is the target of Merck's new drug. Called SCH772984, the drug inhibits ERK in cultured human tumor cells with BRAF, NRAS, or KRAS mutations; slows cell division in human tumor cells that resist treatments that target BRAF or MEK; and shrinks tumors in mice. The researchers have begun a phase I clinical trial of an ERK inhibitor in people with tumors.

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American Association for Cancer Research│Apr 7, 2013

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Too Many Melanoma Survivors Still Get Too Much Sun

Too Many Melanoma Survivors Still Get Too Much Sun | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

Researchers were surprised to discover that many melanoma survivors fail to protect themselves from ultraviolet (UV) rays, which are the biggest risk factor for this cancer. About 27% of melanoma survivors never wear sunscreen, 14% don't stay in the shade, and 2% actually go to tanning salons, according to an analysis of the 2010 National Health Interview Survey that was presented at the 2013 meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. Public health experts call for refuting common myths about tanning, stressing that it is not safer to tan inside than outdoors, and that tans from a salon do not reduce the risk of sunburn.

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Los Angeles Times│Apr 8, 2013

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Exercise Increases Quality of Life for People with Cancer

Exercise Increases Quality of Life for People with Cancer | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

Cancer and its treatment can diminish quality of life, but two recent reviews of past clinical trials show that exercise can help restore a sense of well-being in both cancer patients and survivors. Measures of quality of life included fatigue, anxiety, and pain, while types of exercise included walking, bicycling, and yoga. The first review looked at 56 trials with a total of 4,826 people who were undergoing cancer treatment. This review showed, for example, that exercise reduced anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disturbances and that the more intense the exercise, the greater the benefits. The second review examined 40 trials with a total of 3,500 people who had completed cancer treatment. This review showed, for example, that people who exercised were less worried and felt less fatigue and pain. They also had better self images, which is key to avoiding the social isolation that can come with changes in appearance due to cancer treatments.

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Medical Xpress│Apr 5, 2013

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Melanoma in Children is Rare—But Rising

Melanoma in Children is Rare—But Rising | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

Melanoma, which currently accounts for 3% of cancers in children, is increasing by about 2% a year amongst newborns to 19-year-olds, according to a new study in Pediatrics. The researchers studied 1,230 white children and found that the biggest jump in melanoma rates was in those aged 15 to 19 years. Girls were particularly at-risk,and were more likely to have melanomas on their lower legs and hips. Boys were more likely to have melanomas on their faces and trunks. Melanoma is also on the rise in adults and the increase in this cancer among both children and adults may be driven by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. Doctors recommend frequent application of sunscreen that blocks both UV A and UV B rays and urge parents to watch for new or changing moles on their children.


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Medical Xpress│Apr 3, 2013

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First Treatment for Pain Caused by Chemotherapy

First Treatment for Pain Caused by Chemotherapy | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

Conventional chemotherapy can damage nerves, causing pain and numbness, particularly in the hands and feet. Called neuropathy, this side effect can last months or even years after the completion of chemotherapy and there are currently no effective treatments. A new JAMA study shows that chemotherapy-induced neuropathy can be lessened with a drug called duloxetine (Cymbalta), which has also been shown to alleviate neuropathy in people with diabetes. The new study included 231 people who reported pain of at least 4 (on a scale of 0 to 10) after treatment with oxaliplatin or taxanes such as paclitaxel. Nearly 60% of those treated with duloxetine reported pain relief and those who had been treated with oxaliplatin may have benefited the most.

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Medical Xpress│Apr 2, 2013

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Medical Express│Apr 2, 2013

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Medical Express│Apr 2, 2013

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Looking Good Helps People with Cancer Feel Better, Too

Cancer treatments can extend and even save lives, but the cosmetic side effects can devastate a person's sense of self. These changes in appearance—from dry, itchy skin to loss of hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes to disfiguring surgery—can also lead to social isolation. Understandably, changes to the face are particularly distressing. Ways of coping with altered looks include makeup and wigs as well as physical activity and therapy. Women with cancer can get free beauty tips from makeup artists and wig stylists through the Look Good…Feel Better program, which is offered at more than 3,000 hospitals and community centers across the country.



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National Cancer Institute │ Mar 27, 2013

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National Cancer Institute│Mar 27, 2013

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National Cancer Institute│Mar 27, 2013

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Cancer Patients Should Take Online Diet Advice with a Grain of Salt

Cancer Patients Should Take Online Diet Advice with a Grain of Salt | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

What people eat may affect the outcome of their cancer treatment, and 60% of cancer patients look online for diet guidance. But they may be getting bad advice. Only 11 out of 21 major U.S. cancer centers have websites that either give nutrition advice or link to other sites that do, according to a recent study. Worse, the advice is contradictory—half of the websites recommend a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, while the other half recommend equal amounts of fat and carbohydrates. In addition, recommendations should be tailored to individual patients because nutritional needs vary by cancer type and stage. The researchers call for studies to develop sound guidelines for people's diets during and after cancer treatment. 


Research article: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01635581.2013.757629

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Medical News Today│ Mar 28, 2013

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Cancer Patients Want Doctors to Discuss Treatment Costs

Cancer Patients Want Doctors to Discuss Treatment Costs | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

While most people with cancer want to talk about the costs of care with their doctors, they often don't, due to fears that this will compromise their quality of care. A survey of 300 insured cancer patients showed that 57% wanted to discuss costs with their doctors, but only 19% actually had, report researchers at the Duke Cancer Institute. This work will be presented on June 3 at the 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting. The researchers recommend that doctors routinely discuss treatment costs with cancer patients, adding that knowing patients want to talk about finances will make it easier for doctors to broach the subject.


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Medical Xpress│May 17, 2013

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Experimental Drug Shrinks Many Tumor Types and Decreases Need for Narcotics

Experimental Drug Shrinks Many Tumor Types and Decreases Need for Narcotics | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

A new immunotherapy drug may shrink many different kinds of cancer tumors, including melanoma, lung, kidney, colorectal, and gastric. Called MPDL3280 and developed by pharmaceutical company Genentech, the drug targets a protein that lets cancer cells evade the immune system. In a phase I study, the new drug shrank tumors in 21% of 140 cancer patients and was most effective on melanoma and lung cancer. The drug also alleviated cancer-related symptoms, decreasing the need for oxygen supplementation and for narcotics to control pain. These results will be presented at the upcoming annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. The study has been expanded to include more kinds of tumors, as well as blood cancers.

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The ASCO Post│May 16, 2013

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New Clinical Trial Tests Combine Targeted Treatment and Immunotherapy for Melanoma

Pharmaceutical company Prometheus Laboratories has launched a phase IV clinical trial of interleukin, which boosts the immune system, combined with vemurafenib, an FDA-approved drug that targets melanomas that have BRAF V600 mutations. Vemurafenib shrinks tumors rapidly at first, but this is temporary, while interleukin can shrink tumors for years, but only in 16% of people with melanoma. The researchers hope that the combination treatment will both work in more people and be longer lasting. The trial will be done in about 25 sites in the U.S. and is currently accepting participants.

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Prometheus Laboratories Inc.│May 9, 2013

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Radiotherapy Relieves Pain from Bone Tumors in Elderly Patients

Radiotherapy Relieves Pain from Bone Tumors in Elderly Patients | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

Cancer that spreads to the bones can cause debilitating pain that is often treated with morphine, an opioid drug that has its own downsides, from grogginess to nausea to constipation. But radiotherapy could lessen the need for morphine among elderly individuals with bone tumors, researchers reported at the 2013 forum of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology. The researchers gave radiotherapy to patients aged 75 years and up whose cancer (primarily breast, lung, or prostate) had spread to their bones. Regular follow-up surveys revealed that a single radiotherapy treatment helped relieve pain. The surveys also showed that despite their physical impairments, the elderly patients treated with radiotherapy were as satisfied with their quality of life as younger patients.

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Medical News Today│Apr 24, 2013

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Medical News Today│Apr 24, 2013

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Cancer Survivors' Lifestyles Put Them at Risk for Heart Disease

Cancer Survivors' Lifestyles Put Them at Risk for Heart Disease | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

A new study suggests that cancer survivors are at greater risk for heart disease, highlighting the need for incorporating lifestyle changes into their continuing care. In a self-reported survey, the researchers found that 1,582 people who had survived cancer (breast, colorectal, gynecologic, or prostate) also had more risk factors for cardiovascular disease including smoking, high body mass index, physical inactivity, hypertension, and diabetes. Hispanic and black survivors had more of these risk factors than white survivors. In addition, nearly one-third of those surveyed said that their health care provider had not suggested reducing their risk of heart disease by, for example, exercising and losing weight.

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Medical News Today│Apr 18, 2013

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Medical News Today│Apr 18, 2013

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Medical News Today│Apr 18, 2013

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First Evidence That Taking Breaks from Treatment May Prevent Vemurafenib Resistance in People

The drug vemurafenib targets melanomas with BRAF mutations, but treatment usually stops working after just 6 to 8 months because tumors become drug-resistant. However, resistance could be avoided by giving people periodic breaks from treatment, suggests work presented at the 2013 meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. The researchers found that stopping treatment slowed tumor growth in 14 out of 19 people with vemurafenib-resistant melanomas. They also found that intermittent treatment (4 weeks on and 2 weeks off) prevented vemurafenib resistance in human melanomas implanted in mice. This strengthens the researchers' previous work showing that vemurafenib-resistant melanomas actually depend on the drug to grow.

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American Association for Cancer Research │ Apr 7, 2013

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Three Genes Linked to Nerve Damage from Chemotherapy

Three Genes Linked to Nerve Damage from Chemotherapy | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

Chemotherapy damages nerves in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy) of up to one-third of those treated, but there's no way to tell who will suffer this side effect. That may change soon—three genes are linked to peripheral neuropathy, researchers reported at the American Association for Cancer Research's 2013 meeting. The researchers sequenced 20,000 genes from 119 people and found those who developed peripheral neuropathy during chemotherapy were also more likely to have mutations in genes called EPHA5, ARHGEF10, and PRX. Next, the researchers plan to expand the study to the entire genomes of up to 1,000 people being treated with chemotherapy.

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Mayo Clinic│Apr 9, 2013

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Mayo Clinic│Apr 9, 2013

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Mayo Clinic│Apr 9, 2013

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BRAF Mutations Less Likely in Melanomas in Ireland

BRAF mutations, which are found in about half of melanomas, are far less common amongst Irish people, suggests a study presented at the American Association for Cancer Research's annual meeting. The researchers compared the melanomas of people in Ireland and Belgium and found that BRAF mutations occurred in only 21% of the former compared to the more typical 52% of the latter. This could be due to other genetic differences between the two countries. First, Irish patients had more NRAS mutations (21% vs 13%), which do not occur in melanomas with BRAF mutations. Second, 12% percent of the Irish patients had c-MET mutations, which are rare in melanomas, while none of the Belgian patients did. This work shows that treatments should be targeted to reflect genetic differences among populations.

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American Association for Cancer Research│Apr 7, 2013

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It Takes a Village to Personalize Cancer Treatments

It Takes a Village to Personalize Cancer Treatments | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

To match tumors having particular mutations with the best treatments, cancer centers are beginning to set up interdisciplinary teams. The experts range from oncologists who treat patients, to bioinformaticians who interpret genetic data, to researchers who study cancer genetics. The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, MA, sequences DNA from tumors and then advises patients of their options for targeted treatments based on the latest studies. Similarly, the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, uses genetic analysis to identify tumors with known targeted treatments and also links cancer patients with clinical trials. Besides benefiting people with cancer in real time, this team approach helps scientists zero in on the research questions that will help future patients the most.

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New Scientist│Apr 3, 2013

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New Scientist│Apr 3, 2013

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New Scientist│Apr 3, 2013

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Tumor-shrinking Drug Moves to Clinical Trials

Tumor-shrinking Drug Moves to Clinical Trials | Melanoma Dispatch | Scoop.it

Last year, a PNAS study showed that the surfaces of many tumor cells have a protein called CD47, which protects them from the immune system. But when these tumors are treated with a drug that inhibits CD47, they get attacked by immune system cells. The researchers transplanted seven kinds of human tumors into mice and treated them with the CD47-targeting drug. All of the tumors—bladder, brain, breast, colon, liver, ovary, and prostate—shrank or disappeared, which kept them from spreading. Now, the research will progress to clinical trials, thanks to a $20 million grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. CD47 was originally found on leukemia and lymphoma cells; the initial trial will target the stem cells that perpetuate acute myeloid leukemia. This cancer of the blood and bone marrow is fatal within months if untreated, and the 5-year survival rate is only 30% to 40%, even with aggressive treatments including chemotherapy and bone marrow transplants.


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Huffington Post Healthy Living│Apr 3, 2013

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Huffington Post Healthy Living│Apr 3, 2013

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Huffington Post Healthy Living│Apr 3, 2013

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Cancer Drug Shortages in the U.S. Are Harmful and Costly

Cancer drug shortages are widespread and have tangible negative effects, according to a nationwide survey of U.S. health professionals who manage cancer drugs. Ninety-eight percent of those surveyed had experienced a shortage of at least one essential cancer-related drug in the past year; 93% reported that these shortages resulted in delays or changes in treatment. Sixteen percent said the shortages had detrimental effects, such as disease progression or treatment complications, including one death due to a medication mistake. Drug shortages can also disrupt clinical trials and increase health care costs by driving up drug prices and tying up health care provider time. Federal legislation was passed in 2012 to enable the FDA to better address drug shortages, but the study’s authors believe that further action is needed. Full survey report at: http://www.ajhp.org/content/70/7/609.abstract

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ScienceDaily | Mar 21, 2013

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ScienceDaily | Mar 21, 2013

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ScienceDaily | Mar 21, 2013

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U.S. Cancer Survivors Projected to Jump 30% over Next Decade

The number of cancer survivors in the U.S. will rise from 13.7 million today to 18.0 million in 2022, according to the American Association for Cancer Research. This increase will be driven by the aging population, with two-thirds of cancer survivors being age 65 years or older within 10 years. Today, women with breast cancer account for about one-fifth of survivors and men with prostate cancer account for another one-fifth, reflecting strides in diagnosis and treatment. Five-year survival rates are now nearly 89% for breast cancer and nearly 100% for prostate cancer. However, people with lung cancer account for just 3% of today’s survivors, underscoring the need for better ways of diagnosing and treating this illness.




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American Association for Cancer Research │ Mar 27, 2013

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American Association for Cancer Research│Mar 27, 2013

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American Association for Cancer Research│Mar 27, 2013