People who are melanoma-free a decade after diagnosis are generally thought to be 'cured'—but a new study shows this isn’t necessarily true. The researchers followed 4,731 people after diagnosis with melanoma and found that this cancer recurred in about 7% of them at 15 years and in 11% at 20 years. Compared to people with recurrences in the first 3 years, those with late recurrences were 40% more likely to survive. In addition, their initial melanomas were thinner, less likely to be on the head or neck, had not spread to the lymph nodes, and occurred when they were younger (averaging age 41 years vs 51 years for those with early recurrences). The researchers recommend that people who have had melanoma get lifelong yearly skin checks by physicians even if there is no sign of this cancer.