Initial results of a phase II trial suggest that melanoma tumors shrink when treated with both chemotherapy and an experimental drug called Reolysin. Developed by the pharmaceutical firm Oncolytics Biotech, Reolysin is a virus that that doesn't harm healthy cells, but kills cancer cells with RAS mutations, which have defective antiviral defenses. The researchers treated 14 melanoma patients with the drug combination and found that tumors shrank in 3 of them and did not get bigger in 7 more. Next, the researchers will test Reolysin combined with drugs that target melanomas with BRAF mutations.