Scholasticism is defined as "the school of thought that used logic and reason to support Christian belief." The thinkers who used scholasticism used logic to resolve the conflict between faith and reason. A famous scholastic, Thomas Aquinas, concluded that faith and reason exist in harmony. He brought together Christian faith and classical Greek philosophy. Scholasticism was a very important advancement for the medieval society, and is still very important today.
William of Normandy was an English king. He was related to King Edward, who supposedly had promised William the throne. William was formerly a Duke of Normandy in France. He raised an army and won the backing of the pope. After this, at the Battle of Hastings, his army triumphed over Harold, King Edward's brother-in-law who also claimed a right to the throne. This is where William earned himself the title 'William the Conqueror". After defeating Harold, William became King of England on Christmas day, 1066. As the King of England, he wrote the 'Domesday Book' (pronounced 'doomsday'), granted fiefs to his vassals and the Church, and built an efficient system of tax collection.
The 100 Years' War began in 1337. England and France were fighting for control of land. England won early victories with their longbows, but France made a comeback in 1429, thanks to Joan of Arc. She told the uncrowned king of France that God had sent her, so he authorized her to lead an army. She won several battles, but she was captured and burned at the stake. Her death rallied the French, and they were able to drive the English out of most of France.
Henry IV (the fourth) was crowned the King of Germany in 1054; he later became Holy Roman Emperor. As the emperor, he argued against Pope Gregory's ban on lay investiture. He claimed that bishops held their lands as royal fiefs. Being their overlord, Henry felt entitled to give them symbols of office. The feud intensified as the two men exchanged insulting letters. In 1076, Gregory grew tired of Henry and had him excommunicated. Faced with revolts, Henry was forced to make peace and presented himself to the pope as a repentant sinner in January of 1077. Gregory knew he was just trying to regain his throne, but as a priest he was forced to forgive a confessed sinner. Neither of them really won the battle, but it was a good fight all the same.
Written from the point of view of a Muslim after the crusades.
Julia Montville's insight:
The crusades were a huge waste of time and energy. The Christians were fighting a losing battle, and the should've just given up. They only had control of Jerusalem for 88 years before the Muslims tore it from them. The Christians couldn't even run a city for a single century without messing it up. On top of being downright stupid, the crusades left a bitter legacy of religious hatred. Christians and Muslims and Jew were all pitted against one another. A lot of time, effort, energy, money, and lives could have been saved if the Christians had just stayed away from Jerusalem.
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