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'Tricorder' closer to reality: Portable X-ray source could put medical diagnosis and terrorism prevention in the palm of the hand

'Tricorder' closer to reality: Portable X-ray source could put medical diagnosis and terrorism prevention in the palm of the hand | Medical X-ray | Scoop.it
The hand-held scanners, or tricorders, of the Star Trek movies and television series are one step closer to reality now that an engineering team has invented a compact source of X-rays and other forms of radiation.

Via LeapMind
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This has shown up everywhere.  Need to include as a very current development

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Medical X-ray
Aggregate articles that will contribute to a report on the evolution of medical x-ray technology
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'Tricorder' closer to reality: Portable X-ray source could put medical diagnosis and terrorism prevention in the palm of the hand

'Tricorder' closer to reality: Portable X-ray source could put medical diagnosis and terrorism prevention in the palm of the hand | Medical X-ray | Scoop.it
The hand-held scanners, or tricorders, of the Star Trek movies and television series are one step closer to reality now that an engineering team has invented a compact source of X-rays and other forms of radiation.

Via LeapMind
Bart Schutte's insight:

This has shown up everywhere.  Need to include as a very current development

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Radiation therapy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Radiation therapy (in American English), radiation oncology, or radiotherapy (in the UK, Canada and Australia), sometimes abbreviated to XRT or DXT, is the medical use of ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells. Radiation therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of curative therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer). Radiation therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy, and has been used before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers.

Radiation therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumor because of its ability to control cell growth. Ionizing radiation works by damaging the DNA of exposed tissue leading to cellular death. To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs which radiation must pass through to treat the tumor), shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles of exposure to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger absorbed dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue. Besides the tumour itself, the radiation fields may also include the draining lymph nodes if they are clinically or radiologically involved with tumor, or if there is thought to be a risk of subclinical malignant spread. It is necessary to include a margin of normal tissue around the tumor to allow for uncertainties in daily set-up and internal tumor motion. These uncertainties can be caused by internal movement (for example, respiration and bladder filling) and movement of external skin marks relative to the tumor position.

Radiation oncology is the medical specialty concerned with prescribing radiation, and is distinct from radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis. Radiation may be prescribed by a radiation oncologist with intent to cure ("curative") or for adjuvant therapy. It may also be used as palliative treatment (where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic relief) or as therapeutic treatment (where the therapy has survival benefit and it can be curative). It is also common to combine radiation therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy or some mixture of the four. Most common cancer types can be treated with radiation therapy in some way. The precise treatment intent (curative, adjuvant, neoadjuvant, therapeutic, or palliative) will depend on the tumor type, location, and stage, as well as the general health of the patient. Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiation therapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. Brachytherapy, in which a radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, is another form of radiation therapy that minimizes exposure to healthy tissue during procedures to treat cancers of the breast, prostate and other organs.

Bart Schutte's insight:

Wikipedia artical on Radiation therapy.  Explains the benefits and techniques as well as the risks.  For example, while it is a technique for curing a cancer, it can also cause cancer later on in life.  But the immediate benefits far out weigh the potential future risks.  

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X-ray - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. They are shorter in wavelength than UV rays and longer than gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is called Röntgen radiation, after Wilhelm Röntgen,[1] who is usually credited as its discoverer, and who had named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation.[2] Correct spelling of X-ray(s) in the English language includes the variants x-ray(s) and X ray(s).[3]

X-rays with photon energies above 5-10 keV (below 0.2-0.1 nm wavelength), are called hard X-rays, while those with lower energy are called soft X-rays.[4] Due to their penetrating ability hard X-rays are widely used to image the inside of objects e.g. in medical radiography and airport security. As a result, the term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself. Since the wavelength of hard X-rays are similar to the size of atoms they are also useful for determining crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, soft X-rays are easily absorbed in air and the attenuation length of 600 eV (~2 nm) X-rays in water is less than 1 micrometer.[5]

The distinction between X-rays and gamma rays is not universal. One often sees the two types of radiation separated by their origin: X-rays are emitted by electrons, while gamma rays are emitted by the atomic nucleus.[6][7][8][9] An alternative method for distinguishing between X- and gamma radiation is on the basis of wavelength, with radiation shorter than some arbitrary wavelength, such as 10−11 m, defined as gamma rays.[10] These definitions usually coincide since the electromagnetic radiation emitted by X-ray tubes generally has a longer wavelength and lower photon energy than the radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei.[6]

Bart Schutte's insight:

Wikipedia article on X-rays.  Gives their definition and how they differ from gamma rays.  need to know this.  

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GE Healthcare-Product Technology-Interventional X-ray

GE Healthcare-Product Technology-Interventional X-ray | Medical X-ray | Scoop.it
GE Healthcare offers a broad and deep presence in the interventional suite with a wide array of products, systems, and solutions from a single source.
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Videos and presentations that show how new technologies make diagnoisi better and easier.  

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SHIMADZU Corporation : History in Medical Field

SHIMADZU Corporation : History in Medical Field | Medical X-ray | Scoop.it
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A history of technology evolution from one of the largest manufacturers.  Unfortunately, limited detail.

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Fluoroscopy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope. In its simplest form, a fluoroscope consists of an X-ray source and fluorescent screen between which a patient is placed. However, modern fluoroscopes couple the screen to an X-ray image intensifier and CCD video camera allowing the images to be recorded and played on a monitor.

The use of X-rays, a form of ionizing radiation, requires the potential risks from a procedure to be carefully balanced with the benefits of the procedure to the patient. While physicians always try to use low dose rates during fluoroscopic procedures, the length of a typical procedure often results in a relatively high absorbed dose to the patient. Recent advances include the digitization of the images captured and flat panel detector systems which reduce the radiation dose to the patient still further.

The beginning of fluoroscopy can be traced back to 8 November 1895 when Wilhelm Röntgen noticed a barium platinocyanide screen fluorescing as a result of being exposed to what he would later call x-rays. Within months of this discovery, the first fluoroscopes were created. Early fluoroscopes were simply cardboard funnels, open at narrow end for the eyes of the observer, while the wide end was closed with a thin cardboard piece that had been coated on the inside with a layer of fluorescent metal salt. The fluoroscopic image obtained in this way is rather faint. Thomas Edison quickly discovered that calcium tungstate screens produced brighter images and is credited with designing and producing the first commercially available fluoroscope. In its infancy, many incorrectly predicted that the moving images from fluoroscopy would completely replace the still x-ray radiographs, but the superior diagnostic quality of the earlier radiographs prevented this from occurring.

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Wikipedia article on Fluoroscopy

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Radiology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Radiology is a medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualised within the human body. Radiologists use an array of imaging technologies (such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. The acquisition of medical imaging is usually carried out by the radiographer or radiologic technologist. The radiologist then interprets or "reads" the images and produces a report of their findings and impression or diagnosis. This report is then transmitted to the ordering physician, either routinely or emergently.

The following imaging modalities are used in the field of diagnostic radiology:

Radiographs (or roentgenographs, named after the discoverer of X-rays, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen) are produced by transmitting X-rays through a patient. A capture device then converts them into visible light, which then forms an image for review and diagnosis and health management. The original, and still common, imaging procedure uses silver-impregnated films. Roentgen discovered X-rays on November 8,1895 and received the first Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery in 1901.

Bart Schutte's insight:

Wikipeida article on radiology, which is the use of x-rays in medical imaging.  

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Medical Imaging Markets: X,Ray, Digital X,Ray, CT & Other Radiography Systems, Market Research Reports|2013

Medical Imaging Markets: X,Ray, Digital X,Ray, CT & Other Radiography Systems, Market Research Reports|2013 | Medical X-ray | Scoop.it
Medical Imaging Markets: X,Ray, Digital X,Ray, CT & Other Radiography Systems
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Report that lists the major providers of X-Ray euqipement.  Can then go to their sites ofr more informaiton.  

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How GE Healthcare Can Help – GE Healthcare Responsible Image

GE offers educational training, maintenance services, support programs and a growing portfolio of expert and data management solutions to support the efforts of healthcare professionals to create “low radiation dose” imaging centers of excellence...
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GE talks about what they do to reduce levels of exposure

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US FDA on Medical X-Rays

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Gives a good, short overview on the types of uses, the potential for risks, who is at risk, and then links to other rleated sources of information. 

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