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Researchers Discover Innate Virus-killing Power in Mammals

Researchers Discover Innate Virus-killing Power in Mammals | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

Findings by UC Riverside's Shou-Wei Ding could help create vaccines against deadly infections, including SARS, West Nile, dengue, Hepatitis C and influenza.

 

Viruses have been outwitting that innate protection in our cells by using proteins to suppress our virus-killing mechanism. Remove the suppressor protein from the virus, Ding’s research discovered, and the subject’s body will quickly eliminate the virus using the RNAi process, which sends out small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to kill the disease.

 

In their research on young mice, for instance, all the subjects died when they were infected with the Nodamura virus, but when Ding’s researchers removed the suppressor protein called B2 from the virus, the infected mice began producing huge armies of the virus-attacking siRNAs and lived, unaffected by the otherwise lethal infection.

 

“Many have tried to do this, that is, find the viral siRNAs in mammals, but they could not find the key,” said Ding. “The key was our prior knowledge of the B2 protein in the Nodamura virus, a virus few people know about. Other scientists asked me, ‘What is the Nodamura virus?’ They have been studying the more well-known human viruses, but Nodamura virus infection of mice proves to be the best model.”

 

How did Ding know where to look? The China native was partly acting on a hunch that started when he was a graduate student at the Australia National University in the late 1980s. There, during a lecture, he learned that the genomes of viruses infecting plants and animals are actually very similar, even though plants and animals are very different.

 

That, and further discussions with his mentor Adrian Gibbs, an expert on molecular evolution of viruses and a fellow of the Australian Academy of Sciences, “made me think there must be a common anti-viral mechanism in plants and animals to keep their viruses similar,” he said.

 

Ding produced the first evidence for that hypothesis while working with Bob Symons in the Waite Institute in South Australia, studying cucumber mosaic virus, a devastating, aphid-carried disease that infects more than 1,000 plant species, including many important crops.

 

Using computational analytical skills learned from Gibbs, Ding discovered a small gene in the virus other scientists had overlooked. He named the gene 2b and showed that it plays an essential role in helping the virus spread within the host plant. Based on his results, and published studies on the B2 protein of Flock house virus, an insect pathogen, Ding proposed in a 1995 paper that 2b and B2 proteins act by suppressing the host’s antiviral defense.

 

Fueled by that idea, Ding moved to Singapore in 1996 to set up his own laboratory in the Institute of Molecular Agrobiology. There, in collaboration with a British group led by RNAi-expert David Baulcombe, Ding’s group discovered that the 2b protein did indeed suppress the RNAi virus-fighting properties in plants. Further, the group found that the 2b proteins of the related viruses all have the suppressor activity even though they share limited sequence similarities.

 

Ding joined the faculty at UCR in December of 2000 to test the other half of his hypothesis: does the B2 protein of Flock house virus suppress RNAi in its animal host? Although RNAi was known as a major antiviral mechanism in plants by that time, few believed it was also true in the animal kingdom, which was known to fight viral infections by many other well-defined mechanisms. Over the next five years, Ding used Flock house virus to discover that fruit flies and C. elegans nematodes have the same RNAi virus-killing properties as plants, but the B2 in the virus stop their RNAi defenses from working. Remove the B2, and the hosts produce massive amounts of siRNAs and rapidly destroy the virus.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

This is an amazing global breakthrough that may lead to a Nobel Prize. Simply Brilliant !

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5 Time-Saving Ways Teachers Can Use Google Forms | Edudemic

5 Time-Saving Ways Teachers Can Use Google Forms | Edudemic | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
One of my favorite features of Google Drive is Google Forms. If you’re unfamiliar with this, think of it as a way to create quick surveys that can be used for a number of applications. Google automatically aggregates this data into a Google Spreadsheet, making forms a great way to quickly collect and share information. …
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

This is a good article on the wide range of free Google resources for your 21st Century teaching and learning resources.

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WHO declares Ebola epidemic an international health emergency

WHO declares Ebola epidemic an international health emergency | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
By Kate Kelland LONDON (Reuters) - West Africa's Ebola epidemic is an "extraordinary event" and now constitutes an international health risk, the World Health Organisation (WHO) said on Friday. The Geneva-based U.N. health agency said the possible consequences of a further international spread of the outbreak, which has killed almost 1,000 people in four West African countries, were "particularly serious" in view of the virulence of the virus. The agency added that while all states with Ebola transmission - so far Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone - should declare a national emergency, there should be no general ban on international travel or trade. Keiji Fukuda, the WHO's head of health security, stressed that, with the right steps and measures to deal with infected people, Ebola's spread could be stopped.
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

"A coordinated international response is deemed essential to stop and reverse the international spread of Ebola," WHO

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Ebola can spread like 'forest fire,' US warns

Ebola can spread like 'forest fire,' US warns | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
The deadly Ebola virus can spread like a forest fire, US health authorities said Monday, urging travelers to West Africa to take extra precautions amid the largest outbreak in history. Since March, there have been 1,201 cases of Ebola and 672 deaths in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said. Two Americans -- one doctor and one healthcare worker -- in Monrovia, Liberia have come down with the virus, characterized by fever, joint pain, diarrhea, vomiting and often fatal bleeding. "The likelihood of this outbreak spreading beyond West Africa is very low," admitted Stephan Monroe, deputy director of the CDC's National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

" The largest outbreak in history" and yet little is being done...

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Emerging Technologies Enhance Nursing Education | Standard Examiner

Emerging Technologies Enhance Nursing Education | Standard Examiner | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

With courses in fundamental nursing techniques such as patient safety, maternal and child health and medical and surgical conditions, 36 women attended the first nursing class at Weber College in 1953. WSU was part of a pilot program to see if it was possible to educate nurses in a junior or community college setting.

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

Blended learning with Problem / Evidence-based teaching and learning approaches help development of the 21st Century classroom and clinical environments.

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'Drastic action is needed' now to stop Ebola epidemic WHO | CNN

'Drastic action is needed' now to stop Ebola epidemic WHO | CNN | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
The World Health Organization says "drastic action is needed" to stop the Ebola virus outbreak.

 

(CNN) -- The World Health Organization says "drastic action is needed" to stop the deadly Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa. It has sent teams of experts to help locals deal with the epidemic and WHO plans to meet next week to discuss how to contain it.

 

Relief workers on the ground said the epidemic has hit unprecedented proportions.

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

This is becoming very dangerous requires immediate international attention and support for containment. NOW! 

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Pedagogy in Health Promotion: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

Pedagogy in Health Promotion: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
SOPHE is excited to announce a call for Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board Members for its newest peer-reviewed journal, Pedagogy in Health Promotion: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. The quarterly journal’s mission is to advance pedagogy, student/faculty relationships and academic administrative issues relevant to faculty, students, and academic administrators, as well as instructors or trainers who provide continuing education in public health, community health, school health, health promotion, and related areas. Published by Sage Publications, the first issue will be disseminated in Spring 2015.
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

Announcement of SOPHE teaching and learning scholarship.

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A High-Tech Prescription for Training Doctors Campus Technology

A High-Tech Prescription for Training Doctors  Campus Technology | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

Tech-enabled programs aim to give med students more practical, hands-on experience.

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

This is a good review of updated and modified, blended learning with competency-based assessment.

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IndexCat™: Search It, Read It, Download It

IndexCat™: Search It, Read It, Download It | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

Today, the NLM’s historical collections include millions of items that span the centuries in a wide variety of formats: books, journals, photographs, motion picture films, film strips, video tapes, audio recordings, pamphlets, ephemera, and portraits.


These collections stand among others that consist of more modern formats: born digital materials and rich databases such as IndexCat™, a searchable presentation of the unique and staggeringly useful research tool initiated by Billings, theIndex-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General’s Office. 

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

U.S. National Library of Medicine is a world class medical teaching, learning and research data base for any medical resource library. Now made easier to access with Indexcat.

 

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16 THINGS YOU’LL ONLY UNDERSTAND IF YOU’RE A MEDICAL STUDENT

And now for something completely different...

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On the lighter side of medicine...

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Interactive Health Tutorials: MedlinePlus

Interactive Health Tutorials: MedlinePlus | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

MedlinePlus presents interactive health tutorials from the Patient Education Institute.

 

Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for a variety of diseases and conditions. Also learn about surgeries, prevention and wellness.

 

Each tutorial includes animated graphics, audio and easy-to-read language.

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

Excellent supplemental Medical English resources to use in your 21st century teaching and learning environment.

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These Are The Best And Worst Countries To Be Elderly

These Are The Best And Worst Countries To Be Elderly | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

The United States ranks eighth in the world for the wellbeing of the elderly, according to a new study that looks at the welfare of people aged over 65 in 91 different countries.


Sweden ranks first, followed by Norway and Germany. At the bottom of the list are Pakistan, Tanzania and Afghanistan.


The United States, which typically ranked near the bottom of developed nations on these sorts of human welfare indices, performs unusually well here.

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

Interesting perspective with the largest growing segment in the world.

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World map of vaccine-preventable outbreaks

World map of vaccine-preventable outbreaks | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

There's a new world map of current vaccine-preventable outbreaks . AND, closer to home, a new PLOS Blogs post from Public Health Perspectives blogger Beth Skwarecki "H1N1 is Back, What You Need to Know.

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

These are great teaching and learning resources for medical education.

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Almost Three Times the Risk of Carrying MRSA from Living Near a Mega-Farm | Wired Science

Almost Three Times the Risk of Carrying MRSA from Living Near a Mega-Farm | Wired Science | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

In the long fight over antibiotic use in agriculture, one of the most contentious points is whether the resistant bacteria that inevitably arise can move off the farm to affect humans.


Most of the illnesses that have been associated with farm antibiotic use — resistant foodborne illness, for example — occur so far from farms that opponents of antibiotic control find them easy to dismiss. So whenever a research team can link resistant bacteria found in humans with farms that are close to those humans, it is an important contribution to the debate.

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

One of my key medical educators focuses is on MRSA. Hopefully, more with awareness and prevention, it will reduce occurrence issues.

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Ebola epidemic 'vastly' underestimated | WHO

Ebola epidemic 'vastly' underestimated | WHO | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
The UN's health agency said the scale of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has been vastly underestimated and "extraordinary measures" were needed to contain the disease. As the official toll climbed to 1,069, according to World Health Organisation, the United States ordered the evacuation of diplomats' families from Sierra Leone, one of the three countries at the epicentre of the outbreak along with Liberia and Guinea.
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

Ebola is Real...1,069 dead and  counting...

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CDC DIRECTOR: SCALE OF EBOLA CRISIS UNPRECEDENTED | Associated Press

CDC DIRECTOR: SCALE OF EBOLA CRISIS UNPRECEDENTED | Associated Press | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

The current Ebola crisis in West Africa is on pace to sicken more people than all other previous outbreaks of the disease combined, the health official leading the U.S. response said Thursday.

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

Idiots lead by idiots... They have to accept the poor response and poor decision making is costing lives...idiots.

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Ebola Crisis in West Africa Deepens; 500+ Dead | AP

Ebola Crisis in West Africa Deepens; 500+ Dead | AP | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
DAKAR, Senegal (AP) — Deep in the forests of southern Guinea, the first victims fell ill with high fevers. People assumed it was the perennial killer malaria and had no reason to fear touching the bodies, as is the custom in traditional funerals.
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

"When you have it spread, of course it's moving in the wrong direction," said Dr. Keiji Fukuda, WHO's assistant director-general for health security and environment. "You want to see the number of infections going down. So we really have to redouble our efforts. But saying that it's out of control makes it sound like there are no solutions. This is a virus for which there are very clear solutions."

 

It is also understood that "clear solutions" require "clear communication" with stakeholders at all levels. 

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Could Ebola Spread to the United States or Europe? | Live Science

Could Ebola Spread to the United States or Europe? | Live Science | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
The current outbreak of Ebola in West Africa is now the largest in history, but how likely is it to spread to the United States or other countries around the world? It's theoretically possible that people with Ebola could travel to other countries on planes, and infect others outside the region. The medical group Doctors Without Borders has said the epidemic is "out of control" in the region, and that they do not have the resources to care for the growing number of people who are sick. Could Ebola come to the U.S.?
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

"One reason why the Ebola virus's spread is possible in theory is that it can take up to 21 days for an infected person to show symptoms.


That's ample time for someone with Ebola to travel a long distance by plane and arrive in the United States or Europe, said Derek Gatherer, a researcher at Lancaster University in the United Kingdom who studies virus genetics and evolution. [5 Things You Should Know About Ebola]"


How many Ebola deaths are acceptable in the United States or Europe?  

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Doctors Without Borders: Ebola 'out of control' | AP

Doctors Without Borders: Ebola 'out of control' | AP | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
DAKAR, Senegal (AP) — The Ebola outbreak ravaging West Africa is "totally out of control," according to a senior official for Doctors Without Borders, who says the medical group is stretched to the limit in responding.
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

 "A senior official for Doctors Without Borders said this outbreak is particularly challenging because it began in an area where people are very mobile and has spread to even more densely populated areas, like the capitals of Guinea and Liberia.... The disease typically strikes sparsely populated areas in central or eastern Africa, where it spreads less easily, he said.By contrast, the epicenter of this outbreak is near a major regional transport hub, the Guinean city of Gueckedou".

 

This is very serious and needs global assistance and attention.

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Statement on the Long-Term Scientific Vision for the BRAIN Initiative | National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Statement on the Long-Term Scientific Vision for the BRAIN Initiative | National Institutes of Health (NIH) | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

Today, the BRAIN Working Group presented its final report to the ACD, which accepted its recommendations. I am excited about the bold vision laid out for BRAIN by this distinguished group of scientists, and have accepted the recommendations in their entirety.

 

Not only will BRAIN revolutionize neuroscience, it will transform our efforts to help the millions of people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, and many other neurological disorders. 

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

There are many BRAIN Initiative medical teaching and learning resources provided for your 21st Century learning environment.

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Ten Study Methods That Work | FOM

Ten Study Methods That Work | FOM | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it

Studying effectively is not a matter of chance. Educators and psychologists have researched study methods for years. Some of the best studies come from the top universities: Stanford, Indiana, and Chicago where precise experiments with student groups have shed light on the most effective study methods.


Students who follow these methods learn more easily, retain material for longer periods of time, and save themselves hours of study time. The ten study methods researchers have found that work are:

Read more at: http://forum.facmedicine.com//threads/ten-study-methods-that-work.17657/

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

The methods of study listed here are used in all teaching and learning environment throughout the world.

 

Be sure to include Evernote and use one of the three note taking methods; Outline, Cornell or Mind Mapping.

 

I also promote the use of flash cards and use www.studystack.com

 


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The Best 15 Free Android Medical apps for Doctors and Medical Students | FOM

The Best 15 Free Android Medical apps for Doctors and Medical Students | FOM | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
1. Medscape


One of the most anticipated apps to hit Android, Health care professionals had been waiting eagerly for this comprehensive medical...
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

These are good medical education resources to add to your mobile device.

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InnerBody.com | Your Interactive Guide to Human Anatomy

InnerBody.com | Your Interactive Guide to Human Anatomy | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
Online since 1997, InnerBody is your go-to resource for accurate and easy-to-use information about human anatomy.
Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

Excellent supplemental Medical English resources to use in your 21st century teaching and learning environment.

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CDC: 5 ways diseases in other countries can kill you

CDC: 5 ways diseases in other countries can kill you | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
The U.S. joins other nations, organizations to launch the Global Health Security Agenda, an effort to work toward a world free of infectious disease.

 

The world is smaller and people are more mobile than at any time in history. This makes it easier than ever for what's happening anywhere on the globe to harm Americans' health.  

 

Listed are five ways diseases in other countries pose a threat.

Rob Hatfield, M.Ed.'s insight:

This is a good review for those who travel abroad to check out what is happening in the region prior to travel.

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Tropical Medicine Mystery: Something is Killing Young Men in Central America | Speaking of Medicine

Tropical Medicine Mystery: Something is Killing Young Men in Central America  | Speaking of Medicine | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
Over the last decade drug trafficking and violence have taken the lives of thousands of people, most of them young men, in Guatemala, Honduras, and elsewhere in Central America.
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...More than just a travel warning...

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EKG Self Study Guide | MEDICAL PPT|Collection of Free Online Medical Powerpoint Presentations

EKG Self Study Guide | MEDICAL PPT|Collection of Free Online Medical Powerpoint Presentations | 21st Century Medical English Teaching and Technology Resources | Scoop.it
MEDICAL PPT:MEDICAL POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS AND POST GRADUATES
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Excellent teaching and learning resources.

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