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World’s most detailed 3D computer model of heart chambers - The University of Auckland

Researchers from The University of Auckland have developed the world’s most detailed 3D computer models of the heart’s upper chambers.

Previous models have only been able to reproduce the shape and wall thickness of the heart’s upper chambers (or atria).

University of Auckland research fellow Dr Jichao Zhao spent the past two years processing data from 700 extremely thin image ‘slices’ of the atria to use in his new computer model.

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

“In New Zealand, about a quarter of the population who are older than 40 will develop atrial fibrillation in their lifetime, putting them at higher risk of not only heart failure, but also thrombosis and stroke,” says Dr Zhao.

 

The HRC-funded programme has also achieved another world-first. Following a heart attack, the area in the heart affected develops scar tissue that butts up against normal tissue forming what’s known as the ‘infarct border zone’.
With input from Associate Professor Ian LeGrice and Dr Gregory Sands at the University’s School of Medical Sciences, the ABI’s cardiac electrophysiology group has used advanced confocal microscopy techniques to develop the first high resolution computer model of this area.

 

“We’ve been able to show that rhythm disturbances, which give rise to very rapid heart rates and increase the risk of sudden death, are caused by abrupt changes in the arrangement of the surviving heart muscle cells in the border zone affected by a heart attack,” says Dr Trew.

 

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Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING
INNOVATION from every field that can be applied to human health.
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Spinal Stimulation Helps Four Patients with Paraplegia Regain Voluntary Movement

Spinal Stimulation Helps Four Patients with Paraplegia Regain Voluntary Movement | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

Four people with paraplegia are able to voluntarily move previously paralyzed muscles as a result of a novel therapy that involves electrical stimulation of the spinal cord, according to a study funded in part by the National Institutes of Health and the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation. The participants, each of whom had been paralyzed for more than two years, were able to voluntarily flex their toes, ankles, and knees while the stimulator was active, and the movements were enhanced over time when combined with physical rehabilitation.

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

With his stimulator active, Summers was able to gradually bear his own weight and could eventually stand without assistance from physical therapists for up to four minutes. Surprisingly, seven months into the trial, Summers also discovered that he had regained some voluntary control of his legs. The researchers were amazed by this latter outcome, as intentional movement requires information to travel from the brain down to the lower spinal cord, a path that had been rendered nonfunctional by his injury. Other impairments caused by Summers’ injury also began to improve over time, in the absence of stimulation, such as blood pressure control, body temperature regulation, bladder control, and sexual function.

 

Full paper  http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/04/07/brain.awu038.full

 

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My fault: Misleading headline again. 22 Y.O. received complete Cranium Replacement CAST ON A MOULD, MADE WITH THE HELP OF A 2d printed MASTER.

My fault: Misleading headline again. 22 Y.O. received complete Cranium Replacement CAST ON A MOULD, MADE WITH THE HELP OF A 2d printed MASTER. | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

I want to apologize to all my followers for following the hype and not being critical enough before posting. 


Via Carlos Garcia Pando
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Watching the picture I took for granted that it was some stereolithography material out of an Additive Manufacturing machine. My fault for that.

Going deeper into the story I found no evidence of the use of Additive technology to manufacture the implant. Apparently it has gone through the everyday routine of:

*   CAT and computer 3D model 

*   Some design

*   Stereolithography for a 3D model

*   Using the model as a Master to produce a silicone rubber (or other materials) mould

*   Casting or injecting some liquid PMMA

So apparently this is not such a "FIRST IN THE WORLD"

 

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, March 26, 11:52 AM

The 23 hour operation was performed by neurologist Bon Verweij, surgeon Marvick Muradin, and their highly skilled team.

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Med-Tech Innovation Expo 2014

Med-Tech Innovation Expo 2014 | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it
UK's Number 1 medical device design and manufacturing event
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Cell Stem Cell - Therapeutic Translation of iPSCs for Treating Neurological Disease


Via Jacob Blumenthal
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Absolutly fantastic. 

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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, March 7, 6:18 AM

This review, published on June 2013 discuss the importance of reprogramming technology for modeling and treating neurological and psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, autism and schizophrenia. The review is free, and part of the "Feature Five" review collection of Cell Stem Cell journal.
-- To learn more about stem cells, regenerative medicine and developmental biology visit:  http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/

 

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Scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) show Molecular Evidence for the Inverse Comorbidity between Central Nervous System Disorders and Cancer

Scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) show Molecular Evidence for the Inverse Comorbidity between Central Nervous System Disorders and Cancer | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it
A  lower-than-expected probability of developing certain types of Cancer has been observed in patients with CNS disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or Schizophrenia. Understanding such a protective effect could be the key to finding novel treatments for both types of conditions, for instance thanks to drug repurposing.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

The authors identified almost a hundred genes that could be responsible for inverse the relationship between these diseases: 74 genes, which were less active in nervous system diseases, were found to be more active in cancer; on the other hand, 19 genes, which were more active in nervous system diseases, were found to be less active in cancer.

“It is precisely these genes, which are inversely activated, that could
explain the lower risk of cancer in patients with nervous system diseases,” said the authors of the study.

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New type of nanoparticle could improve the antimicrobial coating of implants

New type of nanoparticle could improve the antimicrobial coating of implants | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

A research group, led by Katharina Fromm of the University of Fribourg, has developed a new antimicrobial coating. It is currently undergoing in-vivo tests in a project funded by the CTI. This coating continually emits an antimicrobial agent - silver ions - for the duration of approximately three months after surgery.

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

To prolong the efficiency of the coating, the researchers are currently working on a second-generation coating in which the silver nanoparticle would be encapsulated in silica. This would enhance the stability of the nanoparticle by isolating it from its environment. It would also slow down the diffusion of the silver and prolong the efficiency of the coat-ing. Another advantage of this method is that cells can tolerate a much greater number of silver nanoparticles if they are encapsulated than if they are naked.

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XStat treats bullet wounds with tiny injectable sponges

XStat treats bullet wounds with tiny injectable sponges | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

Uncontrolled hemorrhage (bleeding out) is responsible for 80 percent of combat deaths – people die because we can't plug a simple hole. 

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

The sponges expand in the wound to fill the cavity, and apply enough pressure to stop arterial bleeding. They adhere to wet surfaces, which counters any tendency for the pressure to push the packing out of the wound. In most cases, an arterial wound treated using XStat stops bleeding within about 15 seconds. XStat is currently awaiting FDA approval, bolstered by a request from the US Army for expedited consideration.

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Bioprinting cartilage into people is doctor's goal

Bioprinting cartilage into people is doctor's goal | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it
Dr. Darryl D'Lima of Scripps Clinic plans to bioprint cartilage inside the knee.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Meaning the printing would take place directly onto existing bone or damaged cartilage, in open air, under anesthesia. I don't see it as a close future application, although printing hip or knee cartilage on demand and then placing them in the patients body should be possible.

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3D printed hip puts teenager back on her feet

3D printed hip puts teenager back on her feet | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it
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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, February 9, 5:14 AM

Nice explanation of the whole process

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New method to restore skull after brain surgery appears to reduce complication rates

Johns Hopkins surgeons report they have devised a better, safer method to replace bone removed from the skull after lifesaving brain surgery. The new technique, they say, appears to result in fewer complications than standard restoration, which has changed little since its development in the 1890s.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Everyone has been taught for 120 years to completely peel up the scalp,” says study leader Chad R. Gordon, D.O. In the new approach, surgeons pull back only the top three layers of the five-layer scalp, thereby sandwiching the bone or implant in between. The researchers say this innovation not only prevents brain injury, but also reduces infection risk by providing the delicate bone or implant access to blood supply in the scalp from both the top and the bottom. “But by not disturbing the brain, we get much better outcomes. This is a safer, simpler way to do a very complex surgery.”

 

Ideally, surgeons restore the skull with the same piece of bone removed during the original operation, which is stored in a freezer between operations. In some cases, surgeons must substitute the original bone with a custom-made implant made of an organic compound called methyl methacrylate, which has been used safely since the 1960s

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Alexis Gdovic's curator insight, March 25, 8:12 AM

A3

Alexis Gdovic's comment, March 27, 8:02 AM
Surgeons from John Hopkins have come up with a new way of replacing bone in the skull after having brain surgery. It is more successful and less risky than before. Where before, the patient would need to get 2 surgeries because of scarring and faulty protective coverings, now they only need 1 operation. "Traditionally, surgeons have peeled the scalp off the brain to then tuck the skull bone or custom implant back into place, a practice which puts the patient at risk of bleeding, seizure, stroke and infection. In some cases, the replaced bone or implant must again be removed." Now, they simply peel back only 3 of the 5 layers of the scalp.
Alexis Gdovic's comment, March 27, 8:06 AM
This new method reduces risk of infection, as well as preventing a higher injury. It is "safer" and easier. Though when experimenting through 50 patients, only 1 had a cranial issue, which caused them to preform a second surgery anyway although it still limited the amount of blood lost.
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Andor Luca-R camera sheds light on Oral Cancer

Andor Luca-R camera sheds light on Oral Cancer | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

Diffuse Reflectance Imaging validated for early non-invasive detection of malignant and pre-malignant tumours

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

A team of Indian cancer researchers led by Dr Narayanan Subhash has developed a simple, non-invasive spectral imaging system that holds out the possibility of rapid, inexpensive mass screening for oral cancers in dental and clinical settings. Even in the hands of non-clinical staff, it is capable of real-time discrimination of healthy oral tissue from pre-malignant and malignant tissues with accuracy comparable to the gold standard histopathology of a biopsy sample.


link to the paper (free)

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/51737096_Diffuse_reflectance_spectroscopy_diagnostic_accuracy_of_a_non-invasive_screening_technique_for_early_detection_of_malignant_changes_in_the_oral_cavity

 

and also

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/237058467_Diagnostic_accuracy_of_diffuse_reflectance_imaging_for_early_detection_of_pre-malignant_and_malignant_changes_in_the_oral_cavity_a_feasibility_study



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Researchers Developing New Approach for Imaging Dense Breasts for Abnormalities

Researchers Developing New Approach for Imaging Dense Breasts for Abnormalities | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

Combined MRI/NIRS may benefit women whose mammogram showed an abnormality and requires further testing to rule out cancer.

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

An MRI/NIRS may offer specific advantages to women with dense breasts, who are more likely to develop and die from breast cancer. A dense breast is harder for a radiologist to "see through" when using traditional imaging equipment, which lacks the sensitivity to penetrate the dense tissue. Standard breast screening is effective 77-97 percent of the time in a normal breast, but when a breast is dense precision falls to 63-89 percent.

 

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Bio-Inspired Robotic Device Could Aid Ankle-Foot Rehabilitation

Bio-Inspired Robotic Device Could Aid Ankle-Foot Rehabilitation | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

A soft, wearable device that mimics the muscles, tendons and ligaments of the lower leg could aid in the rehabilitation of patients with ankle-foot disorders such as drop foot

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

http://youtu.be/IbXRiTbuDvY

 

While our own ankle is naturally capable of a complicated three-dimensional motion, most rigid exoskeletons allow only a single pivot point, thus limiting the natural degrees of freedom of the joint.

Active, powered devices can improve function and also help re-educate the neuromuscular system, but within this limitation.
The soft orthotic device, by contrast, enabled the researchers to mimic the biological structure of the lower leg. The device's artificial tendons were attached to four PAMs, which correspond with three muscles in the foreleg and one in the back that control ankle motion. The prototype was capable of generating an ankle range of sagittal motion of 27 degrees - sufficient for a normal walking gait.

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PCAF gives new hope to patients with spinal cord injury

PCAF gives new hope to patients with spinal cord injury | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

Curious as to why nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) show some capacity for regrowth and repair, whereas nerves of the central nervous system (CNS) do not, scientists undertook a study of the PNS’ regenerative mechanisms, the chemical and genetic events that help peripheral nerves recover from injury. These scientists were already aware that damaged peripheral nerves emit “retrograde” signals, which activate an epigenetic program, which in turn initiates nerve growth. But the scientists were dissatisfied with how little was known about how, exactly, retrograde signaling could trigger the epigenetic mechanism.

 

The scientists hoped that if more were understood about the trigger, which works in the PNS, they might learn how it could be made to work in the CNS. Then CNS damage, which is currently irreparable, might become amenable to treatment, and people suffering spinal cord injury, stroke, or brain trauma might avoid loss of sensation or permanent paralysis.

 

Scientists representing Imperial College London and the Hertie Institute, University of Tuebingen compared the responses to PNS damage and CNS damage in a type of neuron called a dorsal root ganglion, which connects to both the PNS and the CNS. (The researchers considered cells in culture as well as mouse models.) Then, through systematic epigenetic studies, they discovered a protein that appears to be essential for a series of chemical and genetic events that allow nerves to regenerate.

 

The details of this work appeared April 1, 2014 in Nature Communications, in an article entitled “PCAF-dependent epigenetic changes promote axonal regeneration in the central nervous system.” As the title indicates, the crucial protein is called PCAF, for the histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP-associated factor. PCAF, the researchers found, “promotes acetylation of histone 3 Lys 9 at the promoters of established key regeneration-associated genes following a peripheral but not a central axonal injury.”

 

When researchers injected PCAF into mice with damage to their central nervous system, this significantly increased the number of nerve fibers that grew back, indicating that it may be possible to chemically control the regeneration of nerves in the CNS.

 

The researchers also found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated retrograde signaling is required for PCAF-dependent regenerative gene reprogramming. “PCAF,” the authors wrote, “is necessary for conditioning-dependent axonal regeneration and also singularly promotes regeneration after spinal cord injury.”

 

One of the study’s authors, Radhika Puttagunta, Ph.D., from the University of Tuebingen, said, “With this work we add another level of understanding into the specific mechanisms of how the body is able to regenerate in the PNS and have used this knowledge to drive regeneration where it is lacking in the CNS. We believe this will help further our understanding of mechanisms that could enhance regeneration and physical recovery after CNS injury.”

 

“The results suggest that we may be able to target specific chemical changes to enhance the growth of nerves after injury to the central nervous system,” said lead study author Simone Di Giovanni, M.D., Ph.D., from Imperial College London’s Department of Medicine. "The ultimate goal could be to develop a pharmaceutical method to trigger the nerves to grow and repair and to see some level of recovery in patients.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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22 Y.O. received complete 3D Printed Cranium Replacement last December. She's back to work.

22 Y.O. received complete 3D Printed Cranium Replacement last December. She's back to work. | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

"Implants used to be made by hand in the operating theatre using a sort of cement which was far from ideal,’ Verweij said. “Using 3D printing we can make one to the exact size. This not only has great cosmetic advantages, but patients’ brain function often recovers better than using the old method.”

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, March 26, 11:52 AM

The 23 hour operation was performed by neurologist Bon Verweij, surgeon Marvick Muradin, and their highly skilled team.

Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, March 31, 5:02 AM

Watching the picture I took for granted that it was some stereolithography material out of an Additive Manufacturing machine. My fault for that.

Going deeper into the story I found no evidence of the use of Additive technology to manufacture the implant. Apparently it has gone through the everyday routine of:

*   CAT and computer 3D model 

*   Some design

*   Stereolithography for a 3D model

*   Using the model as a Master to produce a silicone rubber (or other materials) mould

*   Casting or injecting some liquid PMMA

So apparently this is not such a "FIRST IN THE WORLD"

 

Rescooped by Carlos Garcia Pando from Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering
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Stem cells for treatment of ALS at Mayo Clinic - YouTube

Researchers in the Center for Regenerative Medicine are studying the use of intraspinal deliver of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the cerebral spinal fluid...

Via Jacob Blumenthal
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Jacob Blumenthal's curator insight, March 9, 1:11 AM

This is a nice movie illustrating the process of isolation and transplantation of growth factor secreting-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), currently being held at the Mayo Clinic.

Join my Facebook group for more stem cells news and updates:

 https://www.facebook.com/groups/STEMCELLSNET/

 

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Treatment of phantom limb pain based on augmented reality and gaming

Treatment of phantom limb pain based on augmented reality and gaming | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a common and deteriorating condition suffered by ~70% of amputees. In recent years, virtual reality (VR) has been used to treat PLP as a more technologically sophisticated version of the well-known “mirror” therapy introduced in 1996. VR has clear advantages over the physical constraints imposed by the conventional mirror box, as it allows a wider range of motion and rehabilitation exercises. In addition, VR allows interactive games that challenge patients with varying levels of difficulty, while keeping them entertained and motivated

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Harvard scientists 3D bioprint layered tissue with blood vessels

Harvard scientists 3D bioprint layered tissue with blood vessels | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it
Scientists at the Harvard Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering announced Wednesday that they have printed intricately patterned 3D tissue constructs with multiple types of cells and tiny blood vessels.

Via 3D-Materials
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Is zinc the missing link for osteoarthritis therapies?

Is zinc the missing link for osteoarthritis therapies? | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it
Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability, characterized by the destruction of cartilage tissue in joints, but there is a lack of effective therapies because the underlying molecular causes have been unclear. A study published by Cell Press February 13th in the journal Cell reveals that osteoarthritis-related ...
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

"Our findings suggest that local depletion of zinc or pharmacological inhibition of ZIP8 function or MTF1 activity in cartilage tissue would be effective therapeutic approaches for the treatment of osteoarthritis," Chun says. "We are hopeful that this research will lead to the discovery and rapid development of novel drugs to suppress the progression of this debilitating disease."

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FDA: Center for Devices and Radiological Health Strategic Planning > CDRH 2014 Strategic Priorities

Strengthen the Clinical Trial Enterprise

Goal: Improve the efficiency, consistency, and predictability of the IDE process to reduce the time and number of cycles needed to reach appropriate IDE full approval for medical devices, in general, and for devices of public health importance, in particular.

Goal: Increase the number of early feasibility/first-in-human IDE studies submitted to FDA and conducted in the U.S.Strike the Right Balance Between Premarket and Postmarket Data Collection

Goal: Assure the appropriate balance between premarket and postmarket data requirements to facilitate and expedite the development and review of medical devices, in particular high-risk devices of public health importance.Provide Excellent Customer Service

Goal: Provide excellent customer service.

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Targets:

IDE Cycles

+    By September 30, 2014, reduce the number of IDEs requiring more than two cycles to an appropriate full approval decision by 25 percent compared to FY 2013 performance.*

+    By September 30, 2014, for disapproved IDEs, offer all sponsors a teleconference or in-person meeting to occur within 10 business days of the IDE decision.

+    By June 30, 2015, reduce the number of IDEs requiring more than two cycles to an appropriate full approval decision by 50 percent compared to FY 2013 performance.*

 

Time to IDE Approval

+    By September 30, 2014, reduce the overall median time to appropriate full IDE approval by 25 percent compared to FY 2013 performance.*

+    By June 30, 2015, reduce the overall median time to full appropriate IDE approval to 30 days.

 

 

* In FY 2013 (as of 12/11/2013),  45% of IDEs received a full approval decision within 2 cycles and median time to full IDE approval was 174 days.

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Health necessity is the mother of this invention

Health necessity is the mother of this invention | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

One common condition that affects almost one in four Australian women is pelvic organ prolapse. It most often occurs as a result of childbirth when one or more organs descend from where they should be. The early stages can sometimes go unnoticed, but later symptoms include incontinence and sexual dysfunction

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

CSIRO teamed up with researchers from Monash University to develop a new and improved mesh. It will have better mechanical properties, with the addition of stem cells to speed up tissue repair and treat the condition more effectively.


“Current mesh implants are problematic because they haven’t been designed for this purpose. They are rigid like a piece of cardboard when really they need to be flexible to move with the surrounding tissue,” says CSIRO textiles expert, Dr Sharon Edwards.

 

“This can cause women a range of issues including pain, discomfort, fibrosis and erosion, and in some cases further surgery is required.”

The team is investigating the use of a different polymer and warp knit pattern to fabricate a mesh that’s lightweight, elastic and porous.

“Our aim is to increase comfort, reduce the likelihood of complications and create better long-term health outcomes,” says Dr Edwards.

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Turnkey=Survival

By providing more know-how, implant manufacturers can ensure their position in the supply chain.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

implant designers can eliminate the possibility of coating failure by using an engineered surface porosity, where the bone in-growth cellular reticulation is designed into the computer-aided design (CAD) model of the implant and built up in the additive manufacturing process, along with the structural part of the implant.
It virtually is impossible for the engineered surface porosity to become detached. Implant designers also have full control over reticulation size, shape, and depth. By controlling the cell structure with CAD, they can design a repeated, random, or even multimodal reticulation where the porosity changes depending on location or depth.

“The implant designer has control over how much osseointegration occurs and where it occurs,” said Collins. “Engineered surface porosity using additive manufacturing has been demonstrated on a number of different alloys, including Ti 6-4 and F75. There are several hip manufacturers in Italy using this process and the FDA has recently approved an additively manufactured device in the U.S. This should pave the way for more use of ESP for both knees and hips.”

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Smith & Nephew acquires ArthroCare for $1.7 billion

Smith & Nephew acquires ArthroCare for $1.7 billion | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

 Smith&Nephew today announces the execution of a definitive agreement to acquire medical device company ArthroCare Corp. for $48.25 per ArthroCare share in cash, a total consideration of approximately $1.7 billion and an enterprise value of $1.5 billion.

 

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Antibiotic ‘Smart Bomb’ Can Target Specific Strains of Bacteria and let the rest live in peace

Antibiotic ‘Smart Bomb’ Can Target Specific Strains of Bacteria and let the rest live in peace | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it

Researchers from NC State University have developed a technique to selectively remove specific strains of bacteria. It is a de facto antibiotic “smart bomb” that can identify specific strains of bacteria and sever their DNA, eliminating the infection. The technique offers a potential approach to treat infections by multi-drug resistant bacteria.

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

The researchers tested the approach in controlled cultures with different combinations of bacteria present, and were able to eliminate only the targeted strain. “For example, we were able to eliminate Salmonella in a culture without affecting good bacteria normally found in the digestive tract,” Dr. Chase Beisel says.

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Stanford Students Develop a Cheap Fix for Clubfoot

Stanford Students Develop a Cheap Fix for Clubfoot | Medical Engineering = MEDINEERING | Scoop.it
> Traditional clubfoot correcting braces can cost between $300-700 and be pretty ugly, even scary looking devices, but not anymore. Jeff Yang and Ian Conn
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Great design job. Great story to watch in the video.

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