Gardner: Multiple Intelligences or School Subjects Mirrored? - Donald Clark | Mapmakers |

Howard Gardner identified a list of eight ‘intelligences’. His thoughts on what constitute intelligence have developed over time. The first two are ones that have been typically valued in schools; the next three are usually associated with the arts; and the final three are what Gardner called 'personal intelligences'.

1. Linguistic: To learn, use and be sensitive to language(s).

2. Logical-mathematical: Analysis, maths, science and investigative abilities.

3. Musical: Perform, compose and appreciate music, specifically pitch, tone and rhythm.

4. Bodily-kinesthetic: Co-ordination and use of whole or parts of body.

5. Spatial: Recognize, use and solve spatial problems both large and confined.

6. Interpersonal: Ability to read others’ intentions, motivations, desires and feelings.

7. Intra-personal: Self-knowledge and ability to understand and use one’s inner knowledge.

8. Naturalist: Ability to draw upon the immediate environment to make judgments.


Peter Hoeve: One could successfully argue that the list should be stretched with Talents or Intelligences covering all the Senses:

9. Visual Arts as Painting and Sculpturing or appreciating its Products;

10. Gustatory talents, useful in becoming a Chef;

11. Olfactory intelligence for detecting smells and analyzing perfumes;

12. Visionary skills to boldly go where none has gone before .. ;-)

13. Et cetera ..