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subrealism: the biological origin of linguistic diversity

subrealism: the biological origin of linguistic diversity | manually by oAnth - from its scoop.it contacts | Scoop.it
Just as reading relies on neural mechanisms that pre-date the emergence of writing [17], so perhaps language has evolved to rely on pre-existing brain systems. However, there is more agreement about the origin of linguistic ...

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oAnth - "offene Ablage: nothing to hide"'s curator insight, March 10, 2013 6:52 PM

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plosone - http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0048029

 

(Abstract) In contrast with animal communication systems, diversity is characteristic of almost every aspect of human language. Languages variously employ tones, clicks, or manual signs to signal differences in meaning; some languages lack the noun-verb distinction (e.g., Straits Salish), whereas others have a proliferation of fine-grained syntactic categories (e.g., Tzeltal); and some languages do without morphology (e.g., Mandarin), while others pack a whole sentence into a single word (e.g., Cayuga). A challenge for evolutionary biology is to reconcile the diversity of languages with the high degree of biological uniformity of their speakers. Here, we model processes of language change and geographical dispersion and find a consistent pressure for flexible learning, irrespective of the language being spoken. This pressure arises because flexible learners can best cope with the observed high rates of linguistic change associated with divergent cultural evolution following human migration. Thus, rather than genetic adaptations for specific aspects of language, such as recursion, the coevolution of genes and fast-changing linguistic structure provides the biological basis for linguistic diversity. Only biological adaptations for flexible learning combined with cultural evolution can explain how each child has the potential to learn any human language.

 

[...]

 

http://subrealism.blogspot.de/2013/03/the-biological-origin-of-linguistic.html

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The Boom Not The Slump: The Right Time for Austerity?


Via pdeppisch, oAnth - "offene Ablage: nothing to hide"
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oAnth - "offene Ablage: nothing to hide"'s curator insight, March 10, 2013 6:20 PM

 

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A recent paper by Alberto F. Alesina and Silvia Ardagna
(2009), “Large Changes in Fiscal Policy: Taxes Versus
Spending” (henceforth A & A), looks at a cross section of
deficit reduction policies among different countries. It
examines examples where large-scale deficit reduction is
associated with economic expansion and where the
debt-to-GDP ratio falls in the medium-term (3 years
a#er the adjustment). Based on this research, many
popular commentators suggest that the U.S. can adopt
such a policy and grow.1


However, upon a further examination of the data such a
conclusion is unmerited. The overwhelming majority of
the episodes used by A & A did not see deficit reduction
in the middle of a slump. Where they did, it o#en
resulted in a decline in the subsequent growth rate or an
increase in the debt-to-GDP ratio. Of the 26 episodes
that they identify as ‘expansionary’, in virtually none did
the country a) reduce the deficit when the economy was
in a slump and b) increase growth rates while reducing
the debt-to-GDP ratio. The sole example not covered
by those two qualifiers can be explained by a
combination of two policy maneuvers that are not easily
available to the U.S. at the moment: currency
depreciation and interest rate reduction.

 

[...]

 

open access: http://www.rooseveltinstitute.org/sites/all/files/not_the_time_for_austerity.pdf

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Qu'est-ce qu'un système philosophique ? - Jacques Bouveresse - Texte intégral en ligne | philosophie-cdf.revues.org

Qu'est-ce qu'un système philosophique ? - Jacques Bouveresse - Texte intégral en ligne | philosophie-cdf.revues.org | manually by oAnth - from its scoop.it contacts | Scoop.it

Jacques Bouveresse a consacré deux années de son enseignement (2007 et 2008) au Collège de France à la question : Qu’est-ce qu’un système philosophique ? Le point de départ de sa réflexion a été « le travail monumental et décisif, mais malheureusement beaucoup trop peu connu et utilisé » de Jules Vuillemin, son prédécesseur. Il y confronte ses idées à celles de philosophes français du xixe siècle comme Jouffroy et Renouvier, et à celles d’auteurs contemporains comme Gueroult, Quine, Dummett et Peacocke. Il y affronte notamment trois questions : (1) Qu’est-ce qu’un système philosophique ? (2) La philosophie possède-t-elle par essence une forme systématique ? Et, si oui, pourquoi ? (3) Pourquoi les systèmes philosophiques ne sont-ils jamais parvenus et ne parviendront-ils probablement jamais à se départager ?


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Les archives de l’histoire de la folie. Jean-François Bert | ciepfc.fr

Les archives de l’histoire de la folie. Jean-François Bert | ciepfc.fr | manually by oAnth - from its scoop.it contacts | Scoop.it
Troisième séance du séminaire « Archives de la philosophie française : textes, objets, pratiques » : vendredi 13 janvier 2011, de 17h à 19h - Ecole normale supérieure - 45, rue d’Ulm - Salle séminaires du Pav. Pasteur (1er étage)

Pendant cette séance il s’agira de restituer, à partir des fiches de travail sur "L’histoire de la folie", le type de travail de Foucault, à la croisée entre philosophie, histoire et sciences humaines.

 

 

// oAnth - original URL -- http://www.ciepfc.fr/spip.php?article266


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Les condamnations de 1277 et la naissance de la science moderne. - Centre Atlantique de Philosophie

Les condamnations de 1277 et la naissance de la science moderne. - Centre Atlantique de Philosophie | manually by oAnth - from its scoop.it contacts | Scoop.it

Version préliminaire d’une communication présentée au colloque organisé par Vincent Jullien (février 2012), et publiée dans les actes édités par V. Jullien, E. Nicolaïdis et M. Blay, Europe et sciences modernes. Histoire d’un engendrement mutuel, Peter Lang, 2012.

Présentation de la thèse de Duhem sur l’origine médiévale de la science moderne, et discussion de ses interprétations et de ses critiques.


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oAnth - "offene Ablage: nothing to hide"'s curator insight, March 10, 2013 6:34 PM

 

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Posons la question grossièrement : pourquoi la
science est-elle née en Europe, pourquoi à cette époque, et non au sein
d’une autre civilisation et/ou à une autre époque ? Y a-t-il une
explication, ou est-ce seulement un fait contingent qui aurait pu ne pas se
produire, la culture indienne ou chinoise donnant lieu à la physique
mathématique, ou encore la culture musulmane, qui disposa avant la
culture chrétienne des mêmes bases théoriques de la philosophie
naturelle ?
Cette question renvoie à la thèse de l’engendrement de la science
moderne par la culture médiévale, défendue par Pierre Duhem dans ses
ouvrages d’histoire des sciences, des Origines de la statique (1905) au
Système du Monde (achevé/inachevé en 1916 et publié intégralement
en 1958).

 

[...]

 

http://www.caphi.univ-nantes.fr/Les-condamnations-de-1277-et-la

 

open access: http://www.caphi.univ-nantes.fr/IMG//pdf/Duhem_1277_cyrille_michon-revu.pdf

 

 

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From Contagion to Incoherence: Toward a model of the unfolding Eurozone Crisis

From Contagion to Incoherence: Toward a model of the unfolding Eurozone Crisis | manually by oAnth - from its scoop.it contacts | Scoop.it

 

 

 

 

 

 

This post offers readers a fully-fledged analytical model of the unfolding Eurozone Crisis. It begins with a macro-economic analysis of the Crisis’ causes and then, importantly, models the feedback between Europe’s institutional and policy responses and the contagion process that began with Greece. For the fully-fledged (wonkish) version of the paper,

 

 

 

click here ( http://varoufakis.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/from-contagion-to-incoherence-a-simple-macroeconomic-model-of-the-eurozone-crisis1.pdf ). What follows below is a maths-free summary of each of the paper’s sections.

 

[...]

 

 


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Paper: The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence | The Singularity Institute Blog

There is a new paper by Nick Bostrom and Eliezer Yudkowsky on the ethics of Artificial Intelligence. It will appear in the Cambridge Handbook of Artificial Intelligence...

 

 

 

// oAnth - original source  (paper pdf) -- http://www.nickbostrom.com/ethics/artificial-intelligence.pdf


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Richard Stallman's Selected Essays: Free Software, Free Society (pdf) | offene Ablage: nothing to hide

Richard Stallman's Selected Essays: Free Software, Free Society (pdf) | offene Ablage: nothing to hide | manually by oAnth - from its scoop.it contacts | Scoop.it

 

orginial URL (Pdf) http://www.gnu.org/doc/fsfs-ii-2.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

[...]


Richard Stallman is the philosopher king of software. He single-handedly ignited what has become a world-wide movement to create software that is Free, with a capital F. He has toiled for years at a project that many once considered a fool’s errand, and now that is widely seen as “inevitable.”
—Simon L. Garfinkel, computer science author and columnist


By his hugely successful efforts to establish the idea of “Free Software,” Stallman has made a massive contribution to the human condition. His contribution combines elements that have technical, social, political, and economic consequences.
— Gerald Jay Sussman, Matsushita Professor of Electrical Engineering, MIT


RMS is the leading philosopher of software. You may dislike some of his attitudes, but you cannot avoid his ideas. This slim volume will make those ideas readily accessible to those who are confused by the buzzwords of rampant commercialism. This book needs to be widely circulated and widely read.
—Peter Salus, computer science writer, book reviewer, and UNIX historian

 

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