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Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions

Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions | mad Med | Scoop.it

Antidepressant treatments enhance plasticity and increase neurogenesis in the adult brain, but it has been unclear how these effects influence mood. We propose that, like environmental enrichment and exercise, antidepressant treatments enhance adaptability by increasing structural variability within the nervous system at many levels, from proliferating precursors to immature synaptic contacts. Conversely, sensory deprivation and chronic stress reduce this structural variability. Activity-dependent competition within the mood-related circuits, guided by rehabilitation, then selects for the survival and stabilization of those structures that best represent the internal or external milieu. Increased variability together with competition-mediated selection facilitates normal function, such as pattern separation within the dentate gyrus and other mood-related circuits, thereby enhancing adaptability toward novel experiences. - by Castren E. & Hen R., Trends in Neurosciences, 04 February 2013


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Drug-evoked synaptic plasticity: beyond metaplasticity

Drug-evoked synaptic plasticity: beyond metaplasticity | mad Med | Scoop.it

Addictive drugs alter synaptic plasticity in the VTA through a common mechanism.Changes in the VTA are permissive for later mesocorticolimbic circuit remodeling.Mesocorticolimbic circuit remodeling may underlie addiction-related behaviors.Reversing drug-induced plasticity may ultimately suppress addiction-related behavior.

by Creed MC & Lüscher C, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, online 6 April 2013


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Neural networks in psychiatry

Neural networks in psychiatry | mad Med | Scoop.it

[Abstract] Over the past three decades numerous imaging studies have revealed structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases. These structural and functional brain changes are frequently found in multiple, discrete brain areas and may include frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortices as well as subcortical brain areas. However, while the structural and functional brain changes in patients are found in anatomically separated areas, these are connected through (long distance) fibers, together forming networks. Thus, instead of representing separate (patho)-physiological entities, these local changes in the brains of patients with psychiatric disorders may in fact represent different parts of the same ‘elephant’, i.e., the (altered) brain network. Recent developments in quantitative analysis of complex networks, based largely on graph theory, have revealed that the brain's structure and functions have features of complex networks. Here we briefly introduce several recent developments in neural network studies relevant for psychiatry, including from the 2013 special issue on Neural Networks in Psychiatry in European Neuropsychopharmacology. We conclude that new insights will be revealed from the neural network approaches to brain imaging in psychiatry that hold the potential to find causes for psychiatric disorders and (preventive) treatments in the future. - by Pol HH et al., European Neuropsychopharmacology, in Press, Available online 8 February 2013


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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