The history of Luxembourg is inherently entwined with the histories of surrounding countries, peoples, and ruling dynasties. Over time, the territory of Luxembourg has been eroded, whilst its ownership has changed repeatedly, and its political independence has grown gradually.
Although recorded Luxembourgian history dates back to Roman times, the history of Luxembourg proper is considered to begin in 963. Over the following five centuries, the powerful House of Luxembourg emerged. Its extinction put an end to Luxembourgian independence.
After a brief spell of Burgundian rule, Luxembourg fell into the hands of the Habsburgs in 1477.