In patients with suspected localized lung cancer, clinical guidelines recommend sampling of the so-called mediastinal lymph nodes (lymph nodes located between the lungs) as the first invasive test. This procedure can often diagnose lung cancer and determine the cancer stage (how advanced the cancer is) at the same time; in around two-thirds of cases, it is sufficient to guide treatment decisions without any additional invasive tests. However, a recent study of 137 patients showed that doctors only followed the recommended sequence in 22% of cases. In all other cases, other invasive tests, such as needle biopsies of the lung masses or bronchoscopies (visual inspection of the airways), were performed first. As a result, these patients underwent more procedures overall and had a higher rate of complications.