Modern cancer research indicates that cancers driven by genetic mutations in the same chemical pathway (a group of proteins in a cell that work together) may be more closely related, even if they occur in different parts of the body, than two cancers driven by different mutations that occur in the same organ. Current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards, however, still use the traditional anatomical location-based categories when approving cancer drugs (eg, lung cancer versus pancreatic cancer). As a result, a drug that is approved for treating a specific cancer caused by a given mutation must undergo new clinical trials to get approved for treating a cancer driven by the same mutation in another body part. However, the FDA’s 'cancer czar' recently floated an unofficial proposal for approving cancer drugs based on the chemical pathways they target. Such a change could greatly streamline cancer drug development.