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Radiotherapy Relieves Pain from Bone Tumors in Elderly Patients

Radiotherapy Relieves Pain from Bone Tumors in Elderly Patients | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Cancer that spreads to the bones can cause debilitating pain that is often treated with morphine, an opioid drug that has its own downsides, from grogginess to nausea to constipation. But radiotherapy could lessen the need for morphine among elderly individuals with bone tumors, researchers reported at the 2013 forum of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology. The researchers gave radiotherapy to patients aged 75 years and up whose cancer (primarily breast, lung, or prostate) had spread to their bones. Regular follow-up surveys revealed that a single radiotherapy treatment helped relieve pain. The surveys also showed that despite their physical impairments, the elderly patients treated with radiotherapy were as satisfied with their quality of life as younger patients.


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Medical News Today│Apr 24, 2013

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Amrubicin and Cisplatin Inferior to Irinotecan Regimen for Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Amrubicin and Cisplatin Inferior to Irinotecan Regimen for Small-Cell Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"A combination of amrubicin and cisplatin was inferior to irinotecan and cisplatin in chemotherapy-naïve patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) in a phase III trial conducted in Japan. The irinotecan regimen remains the standard treatment for these patients in that country.


"SCLC accounts for 13% of all new cases of lung cancer, and more than half of those patients present with extensive disease. Though SCLC can be very sensitive to chemotherapy, authors of the new study wrote that “rapid emergence of clinical drug resistance has resulted in poor prognosis, with almost all such patients dead with 2 years of initial diagnosis.” Investigators led by Miyako Satouchi, MD, PhD, of the Hyogo Cancer Center in Akashi, Japan, tested the amrubicin and cisplatin combination against irinotecan and cisplatin in 284 patients; results were published online ahead of print on March 17 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology."

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Cancer Network  |  Apr 23, 2014

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Non-Uniform Genetic Mutations Identified in Lung Cancers Could Lead to Targeted Treatment

Non-Uniform Genetic Mutations Identified in Lung Cancers Could Lead to Targeted Treatment | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"The research, published in the journal Oncotarget, explored tumour heterogeneity – where different cells have different appearances or their own DNA signatures within the same cancer. Such differences could make it difficult to design effective, targeted treatment strategies.


"Firstly they confirmed the mutual exclusivity between the EGFR mutation and either the KRAS or BRAF mutation. Secondly, they found that lung cancers driven by the EGFR gene mutation have that specific mutation present uniformly throughout the tumour, regardless of microscopic appearance. In stark contrast, they discovered that some tumours, with either KRAS or BRAF gene mutations, do not have the mutation present in all parts of the tumour.
"


Editor's note: In recent years, lung cancer treatment has focused on the use of targeted therapy drugs. These drugs kill tumor cells that have certain cancer-causing genetic mutations, while generally leaving healthy cells unharmed. Oncologists use genetic testing to see if a patient's tumor has any specific genetic mutations that can be targeted by a specific drug. According to the research described here, different parts of a tumor may have different mutations that can be targeted by different drugs. This makes treatment more complicated, but continued research could lead to more effective treatments.

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Medical Xpress  |  Apr 23, 2014

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Cancer Patients Need Anxiety, Depression Screening

Cancer Patients Need Anxiety, Depression Screening | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"It is important to recognize and treat anxiety or depression among cancer patients, according to a clinical guideline published online April 14 in theJournal of Clinical Oncology...


"The panel recommends that all patients with cancer be evaluated for symptoms of depression and anxiety periodically throughout care. Validated, published measures and procedures should be used for assessments. Different treatment pathways are recommended depending on symptom level. The risk for poor quality of life and potential disease-related morbidity and mortality is increased by the failure to identify and treat anxiety and depression."

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Medical Xpress  |  Apr 22, 2014

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An Apple a Day, and Other Myths

An Apple a Day, and Other Myths | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"A trip to almost any bookstore or a cruise around the Internet might leave the impression that avoiding cancer is mostly a matter of watching what you eat. One source after another promotes the protective powers of 'superfoods,' rich in antioxidants and other phytochemicals, or advises readers to emulate the diets of Chinese peasants or Paleolithic cave dwellers.


"But there is a yawning divide between this nutritional folklore and science. During the last two decades the connection between the foods we eat and the cellular anarchy called cancer has been unraveling string by string."

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The New York Times  |  Apr 21, 2014

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Drug Combo May Knock Down Lung Cancer

Drug Combo May Knock Down Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Some drug-resistant cancers of the lung, pancreas and breast might be made vulnerable again by treating them with a medication already approved for another type of cancer, according to a new study led by scientists at UC San Diego.


"Researchers at UCSD Moores Cancer Center said they plan to start a clinical trial to test the use of Velcade for lung cancer in about six months. This quick start is possible because the drug is currently on the market, said Dr. Hatim Husain, an author of the study who is designing the clinical trial. For more information about the trial, call (858) 822-5182."


Editor's note: Clinical trials can be important treatment options for some patients. This one might be particularly appropriate for people who have taken the drug Tarceva (erlotinib) but became resistant to it. The drug combination being tested in this clinical trial has previously shown disappointing results, but the researchers are hopeful that by using molecular testing to identify patients who are more likely to benefit, they may be able to successfully use the treatment. Learn more about clinical trials here.

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The San Diego Union-Tribune  |  Apr 20, 2014

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Dicerna Pharmaceuticals Initiates Phase 1 Study of DCR-MYC in
Patients with Solid Tumors and Hematological Malignancies

Dicerna Pharmaceuticals Initiates Phase 1 Study of DCR-MYC in <br/>      Patients with Solid Tumors and Hematological Malignancies | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Dicerna Pharmaceuticals, Inc. DRNA +0.67% , a leader in the development of RNAi-based therapeutics, today announced the initiation of a Phase 1 dose-escalating clinical study of DCR-MYC, (also known as DCR-M1711), in patients with solid tumors, multiple myeloma, or lymphoma. DCR-MYC, Dicerna’s first drug candidate to enter clinical testing, is a Dicer Substrate siRNA (DsiRNA) that targets the driver oncogene MYC, which is central to the growth of many hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. Dicerna is investigating DCR-MYC in a variety of tumor types with the initial focus on hepatocellular carcinoma."


Editor's note: This new drug may hold promise for people with lung cancer or melanoma, as well as other cancer types.

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MarketWatch  |  Apr 16, 2014

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MarketWatch  |  Apr 16, 2014

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Revolutionary Clinical Trial Aims to Advance Lung Cancer Treatment Thanks to Cancer Research UK and Pharma Partnership

Revolutionary Clinical Trial Aims to Advance Lung Cancer Treatment Thanks to Cancer Research UK and Pharma Partnership | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Cancer Research UK is partnering with pharmaceutical companies AstraZeneca and Pfizer to create a pioneering clinical trial for patients with advanced lung cancer – marking a new era of research into personalised medicines to treat cancer.


"The ‘National Lung Matrix’ trial – scheduled to open later this year at centres across the UK – will give researchers unprecedented access to libraries of drugs developed by AstraZeneca and Pfizer, allowing several to be tested at the same time, within one trial.


"Researchers will use the genetics of each lung tumour to identify small groups of patients who, because of the specific genetic changes causing their cancer, are more likely to benefit from a certain drug."


Editor's note: Genetics and DNA testing are increasingly used to provide patients with personalized cancer treatments. Learn more about personalized approached to lung cancer.

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Cancer Research UK  |  Apr 17, 2014

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AbbVie Announces Initiation of Pivotal Phase III Study of Veliparib (ABT-888) for Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

"AbbVie (ABBV) announced the initiation of a global Phase III clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of its investigational compound, veliparib (ABT-888), in patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The trial will compare patients randomized to receive either the standard chemotherapies of carboplatin and paclitaxel with the addition of veliparib, versus patients receiving carboplatin and paclitaxel with the addition of placebo."


Editor's note: Clinical trials are used to test new cancer treatments. Enrolling in a clinical trial might give a patient access to a promising treatment he/she would otherwise not be able to receive. Learn more about lung cancer clinical trials here.

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Yahoo! Finance  |  Apr 15, 2014

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Cancer ‘Miracle’ Patients Studied Anew for Disease Clues

Cancer ‘Miracle’ Patients Studied Anew for Disease Clues | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"The history of oncology is rife with reports of patients with advanced cancer who staged miraculous recoveries.


"Now scientists are starting to use sophisticated DNA sequencing technology to determine if these “exceptional responders” carry gene variations that can lead to new treatment approaches, better targeted therapies or even the re-emergence of experimental drugs once deemed failures.


"The mystery surrounding Jan Crisitello, a 70-year-old grandmother of four, is a case in point. Five years ago, 29 patients with advanced melanoma enrolled in a trial of a drug under development by Pfizer Inc. (PFE) Only one, Crisitello, came away with her cancer in remission. Now, she is being studied to see how her unique genome may have interacted with the drug to spur her recovery."


Editor's note: To learn more about personalized medicine, click here.

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Bloomberg  |  Apr 10, 2014

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Bloomberg  |  Apr 10, 2014

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Bloomberg  |  Apr 10, 2014

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Chemotherapy May be Better for Certain Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer

Chemotherapy May be Better for Certain Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Among patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer without a mutation of a certain gene, conventional chemotherapy, compared with treatment using epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, was associated with improvement in survival without progression of the cancer, but not with overall survival, according to a study."


Editor's note: The drugs discussed in this story, "epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors," are targeted therapies that are used to treat lung cancer patients whose tumors have mutations in the EGFR gene, as detected by molecular testing. Scientists wanted to find out whether the drugs could also help patients without EGFR mutations. However, it was found that the drugs were no more effective than chemotherapy in improving patients' overall survival. This supports the idea that EGFR inhibitor drugs should only be given to patients whose tumors have EGFR mutations.

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ScienceDaily  |  Apr 8, 2014

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Study Identifies Potential Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Patients With Lung Cancer Treated With the Investigational Immunotherapy MK-3475

Study Identifies Potential Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Patients With Lung Cancer Treated With the Investigational Immunotherapy MK-3475 | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with the investigational immune checkpoint inhibitor MK-3475, those whose tumors had high levels of the protein PD-L1 had significantly better outcomes, according to results of a phase I clinical trial presented here at the AACR Annual Meeting 2014, April 5-9.

"Preliminary data from the trial, which were reported earlier this year, showed that MK-3475 treatment was well tolerated and led to durable, objective responses in previously treated patients with NSCLC, particularly those with tumors found to have high levels of PD-L1 prior to treatment. 

"The latest results extend these data, showing that at six months after starting treatment, 41 percent of patients whose tumors had high levels of PD-L1 had no disease progression, compared with 17 percent of those whose tumors had low levels of PD-L1. Similarly, 72 percent of patients whose tumors had high levels of PD-L1 were alive at this time, compared with 53 percent of those whose tumors had low levels of PD-L1."


Editor's note: MK-3475 is an immunotherapy drug, which means it boosts a patient's own immune system to fight cancer. This study found that it was more effective in patients whose tumors had high levels of the protein PD-L1, as detected by molecular testing. To learn more about immunotherapy treatments for lung cancer, visit this blog post.

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AACR  |  Apr 6, 2014

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Cancer Patients Face Treatment Disruptions Come June; Immediate and Severe Funding Cuts May Curtail Access to Cancer Clinical Trials

"The nation’s cancer clinical trial network, which provides care to thousands of patients across the United States, may have no choice but to abandon life-saving and life-extending research studies, including support for patients participating in those studies, due to crippling proposed budget cuts. For decades, federally-supported clinical trials have produced critical advances in the fight against cancer, representing one of the greatest returns on research investment anywhere. But this progress could soon grind to a halt due to far-reaching—and largely unnoticed—budgeting decisions that are happening in plain sight."


Editor's note: Clinical trials are not only important for testing the safety and effectiveness of new drugs; they also provide an avenue for patients who cannot benefit from standard treatment options to access new, cutting-edge treatments that could help them. In fact, our founder's life was saved by his involvement in a clinical trial.

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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, April 19, 10:20 PM

With statistics hovering around one in two men and one in three women being diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime, these budget cuts and the resulting loss of funding for existing current trials and future trials - trials that have successfully extended lives and often lead to treatment breakthroughs.

 

Please pass it on and consider writing your state officials.  If we, as a country, bailed out banks and other financial institutions, surely we can bail out life saving clinical cancer trials.

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Multimodal Approach Appears Promising for Treatment of Cancer Cachexia

Multimodal Approach Appears Promising for Treatment of Cancer Cachexia | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Cancer cachexia is a complex, multifactorial metabolic syndrome characterized by weight and muscle loss with or without loss of fat mass.


"It occurs in 30% to 80% of patients with cancer, and it is identified as an independent predictor of shorter survival and increased risk for treatment failure and toxicity...


"Due to the lack of selectivity of anabolic androgens, a need for more selective anabolic agents has emerged, resulting in the development of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). These agents have the potential to elicit beneficial anabolic effects while avoiding many of the side effects observed with steroidal agents."

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Healio  |  Mar 10, 2014

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Healio  |  Mar 10, 2014

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Healio  |  Mar 10, 2014

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Blood Test Accurate in Later Stage Lung Cancer Diagnosis

Blood Test Accurate in Later Stage Lung Cancer Diagnosis | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Simple blood tests for cancer diagnosis and post-treatment assessment are getting closer all the time. New research has shown that a new assay for measuring circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could detect essentially all stage II-IV non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC), and is even about 50% sensitive in finding stage I NSCLC as well."


" 'Analysis of ctDNA has the potential to revolutionize detection and monitoring of tumors,' wrote investigators led by senior study author Maximilian Diehn, MD, PhD, of Stanford University School of Medicine, in Nature Medicine. 'Noninvasive access to cancer-derived DNA is particularly attractive for solid tumors, which cannot be repeatedly sampled without invasive procedures.' "

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Cancer Network  |  Apr 24, 2014

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Helix BioPharma Corp. Receives U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approval to Initiate a Clinical Trial of L-DOS47 in Combination With Pemetrexed and Carboplatin

Helix BioPharma Corp. Receives U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approval to Initiate a Clinical Trial of L-DOS47 in Combination With Pemetrexed and Carboplatin | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Helix BioPharma Corp. (frankfurt:HBP), a biopharmaceutical company developing innovative drug candidates for the prevention and treatment of cancer, today announced that it has received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"), to initiate a Phase I clinical trial with L-DOS47.


"The study is entitled "A Phase I, Open Label, Dose Escalation Study of Immunoconjugate L-DOS47 in Combination with Standard Doublet Therapy of Pemetrexed/Carboplatin in Patients with Stage IV (TNM M1a and M1b) Recurrent or Metastatic Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer"."


Editor's note: Clinical trials can be a way for some lung cancer patients to access certain treatments they would not otherwise be able to have. Learn more.

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MarketWatch  |  Apr 22, 2014

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Management of Elderly Patients with Lung Cancer

"An expert opinion on managing treatment for elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer has been recently published. This update includes recommendations for screening, surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, treatment of locally advanced and metastatic disease as well as new data on patient preferences and geriatric assessment."

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ScienceDaily  |  Apr 22, 2014

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Care of Cancer Survivors Often Falls Short

Care of Cancer Survivors Often Falls Short | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Most cancer patients enter survivorship with little direction from oncologists or primary care providers, according to a national survey.


"Two-thirds of 1,130 oncologists said they always or almost always discuss survivorship with patients, but only a third told patients where to seek cancer-related or other care. Fewer than 5% of oncology respondents provided patients with a written plan for survivorship care."

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MedPage Today  |  Apr 21, 2014

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MedPage Today  |  Apr 21, 2014

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Palliative Care Explained

"Originating from the Latin word pallium, meaning 'a cloak,' palliative care offers relief from the symptoms and stresses of cancer. It’s not a replacement for therapies like chemotherapy, radiation or surgery that treat the illness. Instead, it’s a companion therapy.


"For someone with a serious condition that affects quality of life, 'if you want the best care possible and you’re getting cancer care without palliative care, then you’re not getting the best care,' says Diane Meier, a geriatrician and palliative care specialist who directs the Center to Advance Palliative Care."


Editor's note: Palliative care is often mistakenly equated with hospice care or end-of-life care. In fact, any cancer patient can seek palliative care to complement their treatment and improve quality of life.

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Cancer Today  |  Spring 2014

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Cancer Today  |  Spring 2014

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Unraveling the 'Black Ribbon' Around Lung Cancer

Unraveling the 'Black Ribbon' Around Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"A study consisting of lung cancer patients, primarily smokers between the ages of 51 to 79 years old, is shedding more light on the stigma often felt by these patients, the emotional toll it can have and how health providers can help. Previous research has shown that lung cancer carries a stigma. Because lung cancer is primarily linked to smoking behaviors, the public's opinion of the disease can often be judgmental. Today, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death globally."

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ScienceDaily  |  Apr 17, 2014

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New Cancer Vaccine Approach Directly Targets Dendritic Cells

New Cancer Vaccine Approach Directly Targets Dendritic Cells | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Celldex Therapeutics announced today that final data from its Phase 1 study of CDX-1401 in solid tumors, including long-term patient follow-up, have been published inScience Translational Medicine. The data demonstrate robust antibody and T cell responses and evidence of clinical benefit in patients with very advanced cancers and suggest that CDX-1401 may predispose patients to better outcomes on subsequent therapy with checkpoint inhibitors. CDX-1401 is an off-the-shelf vaccine consisting of a fully human monoclonal antibody with specificity for the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205 linked to the NY-ESO-1 tumor antigen. The vaccine is designed to activate the patient's immune system against cancers that express the tumor marker NY-ESO-1. While the function of NY-ESO-1 continues to be explored, references in the literature suggest that its expression might reflect the acquisition of properties that cancers find useful, such as immortality, self-renewal, migratory ability and the capacity to invade."


Editor's note: Cancer vaccines like CDX-1401 are a type of immunotherapy, meaning that they boost a patient's own immune system to fight cancer. CDX-1401 is able to attack tumor cells because the tumor cells have a molecule called NY-ESO-1 that CDX-1401 recognizes. We recently published a story about another treatment that is meant for patients whose tumors have NY-ESO-1. To learn more about how patients can use molecular testing to see if particular treatments might work for them, click here.

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ASCO Releases First Three Guidelines on Cancer Survivorship Care

"The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) today issued three evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the prevention and management of symptoms that affect many cancer survivors—neuropathy, fatigue and depression, and anxiety. The guidelines are the first three in a planned series of guidelines on survivorship care. The recommendations reinforce the need to care for the both physical and psychological needs of cancer survivors."


"The release of these guidelines come at a time when the number of people with a history of cancer in the United States has increased dramatically, from 3 million in 1971 to about 13.7 million today. Despite these important gains, cancer survivors still face a range of long-term challenges from their disease and its treatment.  Cancer survivors face an increased risk for other health problems, premature mortality and side-effects from treatment.  The transition from active treatment to post-treatment care is critical to optimal long-term health. If care is not planned and coordinated, cancer survivors are left without knowledge of their heightened risks and a follow-up plan of action.


"In addition to the guidelines, Cancer.Net, ASCO’s patient information website, has updated information for survivors that is based on ASCO’s latest recommendations."

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ASCO  |  Apr 14, 2014

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Tambre Leighn's curator insight, April 17, 11:30 AM

Great.  More guidelines.  How much money is spent on research, writing, studies and more to get to the finding that there is a, "need to care for the both physical and psychological needs of cancer survivors."  At some point, information must be turned into action - and many recommendations in survivorship these days come with mandates but no resources to implement or processes by which to initiate.


Cancer survivorship needs more funding and more insurance coverage, not more recommendations  - most of which have already been well documented and published for over a decade.  

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Using a Person's Own Immune System to Fight Cancer: Phase I Clinical Trial of New Immunotherapy Beginning

Using a Person's Own Immune System to Fight Cancer: Phase I Clinical Trial of New Immunotherapy Beginning | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Moffitt Cancer Center has initiated a phase I clinical trial for a new immunotherapy drug, ID-G305, made by Immune Design. Immunotherapy is a treatment option that uses a person’s own immune system to fight cancer. It has several advantages over standard cancer therapies, including fewer side effects and an overall better tolerability. It tends to be most effective in patients who have smaller, localized tumors that have not spread to distant sites."


Editor's note: This treatment looks for and targets cells that have the protein NY-ESO-1. Only 10-15% of tumors have NY-ESO-1, and patients' tumors must test positive for NY-ESO-1 in order for the patients to enroll in the trial. Learn more about immunotherapy and clinical trials here.

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ScienceDaily  |  Apr 10, 2014

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ScienceDaily  |  Apr 10, 2014

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ScienceDaily  |  Apr 10, 2014

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Sidestepping the Biopsy With New Tools to Spot Cancer

Sidestepping the Biopsy With New Tools to Spot Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"For people with cancer or suspected cancer, the biopsy is a necessary evil — an uncomfortable and somewhat risky procedure to extract tissue for diagnosis or analysis.


"Lynn Lewis, a breast cancer patient in Brooklyn, has had her cancer analyzed an easier way: simple blood tests that are being called 'liquid biopsies.'


"Telltale traces of a tumor are often present in the blood. These traces — either intact cancer cells or fragments of tumor DNA — are present in minuscule amounts, but numerous companies are now coming to market with sophisticated tests that can detect and analyze them."

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The New York Times  |  Apr 7, 2014

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The New York Times  |  Apr 7, 2014

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Roche Lung Cancer Pill Gets Reprieve in UK Reversal

"Britain's health cost watchdog NICE on Friday reversed an earlier decision to limit the use of Roche's Tarceva cancer pill on the state health service in a move the drugmaker said would help around 2,000 patients a year.


"New draft guidance from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) now backs use of Tarceva for people with non-small-cell lung cancer that has progressed after chemotherapy in wider circumstances than originally suggested."

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Reuters  |  Apr 3, 2014

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Sorrento Announces Presentation of Data from Clinical Study of Resiniferatoxin for Intractable Cancer Pain at ASRA Meeting - San Francisco Business Times

Sorrento Announces Presentation of Data from Clinical Study of Resiniferatoxin for Intractable Cancer Pain at ASRA Meeting - San Francisco Business Times | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: SRNE; Sorrento) a late-stage clinical oncology company developing new treatments for cancer and its associated pain, today announced that investigators from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) presented data highlighting results from the first two dosing cohorts of the Phase I/II trial of resiniferatoxin (RTX) for the treatment of intractable cancer pain. The data were presented at the 39th Annual Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Meeting, organized by the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA), in Chicago on April 3, 2014.


"Data from six patients with advanced cancer and severe refractory pain, who received either 13 or 26 mcg injection of RTX into the intrathecal space, showed a clinically meaningful improvement in quality of life following the single injection."

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San Francisco Business Times  |  Apr 4, 2014

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San Francisco Business Times  |  Apr 4, 2014