Lung Cancer Dispatch
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Lung Cancer Screening Abnormalities Prompted Smoking Cessation

Lung Cancer Screening Abnormalities Prompted Smoking Cessation | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Smokers who received abnormal or suspicious lung cancer screening results were less likely to still smoke at the time of the next year’s screen, according to study results.


"Martin C. Tammemägi, PhD, of the department of health sciences at Brock University in Ontario, Canada, and colleagues reviewed National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) data on 14,692 adults who were current smokers at baseline and did not develop lung cancer during follow-up. The median age of patients was 60.6 years; a majority were men (58.7%) and non-Hispanic white (89.5%)."

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Healio  |  May 28, 2014

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Inherited Mutated Gene Raises Lung Cancer Risk for Women, Those Who Never Smoked

Inherited Mutated Gene Raises Lung Cancer Risk for Women, Those Who Never Smoked | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"People who have an inherited mutation of a certain gene have a high chance of getting lung cancer—higher, even, than heavy smokers with or without the inherited mutation, according to new findings by cancer researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Although both genders have an equal risk of inheriting the mutation, those who develop lung cancer are mostly women and have never smoked, the researchers found.


"People with the rare inherited T790M mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene who have never smoked have a one-in-three chance of developing lung cancer, researchers found. This risk is considerably greater than that of the average heavy smoker, who has about a one-in-eight chance of developing lung cancer – about 40- fold greater than people who have never smoked and do not have the mutation."

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Medical Xpress  |  Mar 24, 2014

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MSC Lung Cancer Test Offers Fewer False Positives, Early Detection

MSC Lung Cancer Test Offers Fewer False Positives, Early Detection | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans are the currently recommended screening method for lung cancer in heavy smokers. However, these scans produce many false positives (identifying suspicious lung nodules when no cancer is actually present), needlessly exposing numerous people to the costs and risks of invasive follow-up procedures. Now, a large study has shown that a simple blood test may complement CT scans to reduce the false positive rate in lung cancer screening. The microRNA signature classifier (MSC) Lung Cancer assay measures the expression levels of several molecules called microRNAs to classify patients as low, intermediate, and high risk. In a trial of over 4,000 current or former smokers, the MSC Lung Cancer assay detected the vast majority of all lung cancers accurately, but produced a low rate of false positives. Moreover, the test detected some cancers up to 2 years before the CT scans.

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Medical News Today  |  Jan 15, 2014

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Annual Lung Cancer Screening Recommended for High-Risk Individuals

Annual Lung Cancer Screening Recommended for High-Risk Individuals | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has published its final recommendations on lung cancer screening. The panel advises annual computed tomography (CT) scans for high-risk individuals (heavy smokers or former heavy smokers who have quit within the past 15 years) between 55 and 80 years of age. The recommendation is based on the results of a comprehensive review of the existing evidence and on modeling studies predicting the benefits and harms of different screening programs. Some experts have criticized the use of modeling data in developing the guidelines. Others consider practical concerns in implementing the recommendation, such as how to actually select those patients eligible and refer them to screening.

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Medical Xpress  |  Jan 2, 2014

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Advances in Screening and Surgery Improve Lung Cancer Survival

Advances in Screening and Surgery Improve Lung Cancer Survival | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

New U.S. guidelines recommending low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans to screen for lung cancer in high-risk individuals are leading to earlier detection and better survival for lung cancer patients. Screening is available without a prescription for people who have smoked the equivalent of at least a pack of cigarettes per day for 30 years. The scans can uncover lung cancer in early stages, when the chances for successful treatment are the highest. Recent medical advances have also made lung cancer surgery less invasive. Robotic surgeries can often be performed through small incisions in the chest, without the need to crack open ribs. These developments mean more lung cancer patients can undergo surgery and those who do have an easier recovery.

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Tampa Bay Times  |  Nov 29, 2013

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Immune-Based Drug Shows Promise Against Lung Cancer, Especially in Smokers

Immune-Based Drug Shows Promise Against Lung Cancer, Especially in Smokers | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Results from an early clinical trial suggest that the drug MPDL3280A is effective against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phase I study found that tumors shrank in 23% of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with MPDL3280A. The effect was more pronounced in smokers (who had a 26% response rate) than in nonsmokers (a 10% rate), making it the first treatment with stronger activity in smokers. MPDL3280A inhibits PD-L1, a protein expressed on cancer cells that suppresses the immune response. Blocking PD-L1 allows the immune system to keep attacking the cancer. The tumor cells in smokers may carry more mutations, provoking a stronger attack from the unleashed immune system, which could explain the stronger effects in smokers.

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Reuters | Sep 29, 2013

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New Tool Helps to Tell Cancerous Lung Spots from Benign Ones

New Tool Helps to Tell Cancerous Lung Spots from Benign Ones | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Researchers have developed a 'risk calculator' that can identify with 90% accuracy whether spots or bumps (so-called 'nodules') detected by a CT (computed tomography) scan in high-risk individuals are indeed lung cancer or not. Prevention experts recommend annual low-dose lung CT scans for heavy smokers. However, these scans also detect many nodules that are not cancer and follow-up interventions can be costly and dangerous. The new risk calculation software uses several different factors, including the size of the nodule and its location in the lung; the patient’s age, sex, and family history; and more, to predict whether a given nodule is cancerous. Experts hope that this tool will reduce unnecessary follow-up procedures, while increasing early detection of lung cancer.

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Medical Xpress | Sep 4, 2013

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Genetic Characteristics of Women With Lung Cancer Differ Depending on Smoking History

Few studies so far have focused specifically on lung cancer in women, despite increasing evidence of differences in lung cancer features between women and men. A striking example is the higher rate among women of nonsmokers who develop lung cancer. A recent study of women with lung adenocarcinoma, a type of non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), found that those who had never smoked were much more likely to have mutations in the EGFR gene and/or abnormally high levels of estrogen receptors, while smokers were more likely to have mutations in the KRAS gene. Based on these findings, a new phase II clinical trial will explore the effectiveness of treating postmenopausal, nonsmoking women who have advanced non-squamous lung cancer with EGFR inhibitors and anti-estrogen drugs.

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International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer | June 24, 2013

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Smoking Sooner after Waking Is Associated with Higher Lung Cancer Risk

Smokers who have their first cigarette sooner after waking are at higher risk for lung cancer, researchers at Pennsylvania State University found. Those who smoke immediately after waking have higher blood levels of NNAL, a breakdown product of a carcinogen present in tobacco, compared to those who smoke their first cigarette later in the day. The results hold even for those who do not smoke more cigarettes overall. The researchers suggest that smoking soon after waking may reflect greater tobacco dependence, which could lead those smokers to inhale more deeply and absorb more carcinogens. Based on these findings, some future anti-smoking interventions may focus on early-morning, high-risk smokers. Research paper: http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2013/03/27/1055-9965.EPI-12-0842.abstract

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Penn State News | Mar 29, 2013

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ELCC 2014 News: Clinical Utility of miRNA Signature in Plasma of Smokers Included in LD-CT Lung Cancer Screening

"Recent results indicate that low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) screening reduces lung cancer mortality in high risk subjects. However, high false positive rates, costs and potential harm highlight the need for complementary biomarkers. Led by Dr Ugo Pastorino, a group of researchers from Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy, retrospectively evaluated a non-invasive plasma miRNA signature classifier in prospectively collected samples from smokers within the randomised Multicentre Italian Lung Detection (MILD) trial. Their findings indicate that microRNA signature classifier has predictive, diagnostic and prognostic value and its combined use with LD-CT may improve screening performance. The results were presented in a proffered papers session at the 4th European Lung Cancer Conference (26-29 March 2014, Geneva, Switzerland)."


Editor's note: LD-CT is a lung cancer detection method that has been shown to reduce risk of death from lung cancer for high-risk patients. However, it sometimes leads to "false-positives," in which suspected cancer later turns out not to be cancer. A new, non-invasive blood test to look for specific kinds of miRNA molecules was shown to be promising as a potential companion test to complement LD-CT screening.

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ESMO  |  Mar 28, 2014

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Antioxidants May Actually Speed Lung Cancer Growth in Some Cases

Antioxidants May Actually Speed Lung Cancer Growth in Some Cases | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Antioxidants are chemicals that neutralize particles called free radicals that can damage DNA. Preventing such damage may help lower cancer risk for some people. However, tumors themselves can contain high levels of free radicals; by eliminating these free radicals, antioxidants may help cancer cells grow. In a laboratory, lung cancer cells treated with the antioxidants vitamin E and acetylcysteine (ACC) multiplied faster than untreated cells. Vitamin E and ACC also increased tumor growth and decreased survival time in mice with lung cancer. The so-called 'tumor suppressor' protein p53 can sense certain free radicals to detect cells with DNA damage and stop their growth. Antioxidants may interfere with this cancer-suppressing mechanism by reducing free radical levels. Taking antioxidants may therefore not be recommended for lung cancer patients and smokers.

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Medical Xpress  |  Jan 29, 2014

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E-Cigarette Vapor Promotes Cancer-Like Transformations of Airway Cells with Predisposing Mutations

E-Cigarette Vapor Promotes Cancer-Like Transformations of Airway Cells with Predisposing Mutations | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

E-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes that use a battery-powered system to deliver nicotine without producing smoke) are advertised as a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes. However, very few studies have investigated how e-cigarettes affect lung function and lung cancer risk. Researchers examined human airway cells with mutations in the TP53 and KRAS genes, which are often mutated in the airways of current or former smokers at high risk of lung cancer. When the cells were exposed to e-cigarette vapor, they developed cancer-cell-like behaviors and gene expression changes very similar to what was seen when these cells were exposed to tobacco smoke. E-cigarettes may increase the risk of developing lung cancer in high-risk people, including current and former tobacco smokers.

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ASCO Post  |  Jan 8, 2014

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Inflammation Markers Offer Clue About Lung Cancer Risk

Inflammation Markers Offer Clue About Lung Cancer Risk | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Increased inflammation may be a warning of elevated lung cancer risk. A recent study analyzed blood samples taken from over 1,000 patients getting screened for lung cancer. Half of the patients went on to develop lung cancer in the following years. Eleven chemical markers of inflammation in the patients’ blood were associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The researchers developed an inflammation score based on the levels of four of these inflammation markers. Patients with the highest inflammation score were 2.8 times more likely to develop lung cancer than those with the lowest score (3.4 times more likely if the patients were current smokers). This inflammation score may therefore serve to identify high-risk patients in the future.

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ASCO Post  |  Dec 9, 2013

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Long or Ultralong Cigarettes Increase Lung Cancer Risk

Long or Ultralong Cigarettes Increase Lung Cancer Risk | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Smokers of long or ultralong cigarettes are at greater risk for lung and oral cancer than smokers of regular and king-size cigarettes, a recent study determined. Researchers analyzed urine tests from over 3,500 smokers and found that those who smoked long or ultralong cigarettes had higher levels of tobacco-related carcinogens (cancer-causing substances). Female, black, and older smokers were more likely to smoke long or ultralong cigarettes.

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Medical Xpress | Oct 28, 2013

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Lung Cancer Drug Retaspimycin Fails Clinical Trial

A phase II clinical trial found no survival benefit for the lung cancer drug retaspimycin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The trial examined NSCLC patients with a history of smoking who were given the chemotherapy agent docetaxel (Taxotere) either with or without retaspimycin. Adding retaspimycin did not improve overall survival in NSCLC patients in general or in the subset of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (a type of NSCLC closely linked to smoking). The company will complete enrollment in a separate study investigating retaspimycin in combination with everolimus (Afinitor) by the end of 2013, but will begin no further clinical trials with retaspimycin.

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Reuters | Sep 25, 2013

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The ASCO Post

The ASCO Post | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force posted its final evidence report and draft recommendation statement on screening for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the Task Force recommends screening people who are at high risk for lung cancer with annual low-dose CT (computed tomography) scans, which can prevent a substantial number of lung cancer-related deaths. This is a grade B draft recommendation.


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The ASCO Post. Jul 29, 2013.

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Blood Levels of Bilirubin Predict Lung Cancer Risk in Smokers

Blood Levels of Bilirubin Predict Lung Cancer Risk in Smokers | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Smokers with low blood levels of a molecule called bilirubin are at greater risk of developing lung cancer and dying from it, researchers have found. Among 400,000 people, they found that smokers with the lowest levels of bilirubin had a 69% higher rate of lung cancer and were 76% more likely to die from the disease compared to those with the highest bilirubin levels. Among nonsmokers, differences in bilirubin levels did not affect lung cancer risk. It is not clear whether bilirubin has a protective effect against lung cancer or whether low bilirubin is simply a byproduct of other processes involved in lung cancer development. Either way, low bilirubin levels could identify smokers at high risk of lung cancer who are particularly in need of anti-smoking interventions and cancer screening.

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American Association for Cancer Research | Apr 7, 2013

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National Research Study on Lung Cancer Prevention Is Enrolling Participants

The Cancer Prevention Network is performing a national research study on lung cancer prevention and the effects of myo-inositol, a natural substance found in grains, seeds, and fruits. Those interested in participating can enroll if they are between 45 and 79 years old, healthy, current or former heavy smokers, and have never had cancer or have been cancer-free for at least three years. Participants in the study will take myo-inositol or a placebo for six months and undergo a number of health examination and screening procedures. To find out more, call 507-538-1887.

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Advancing the Science | Jan 11, 2013

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