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A Wide Variety of Cancers Imaged and Treated with New Tumor-Targeting Agent

"Scientists at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center (UWCCC) report that a new class of tumor-targeting agents can seek out and find dozens of solid tumors, even illuminating brain cancer stem cells that resist current treatments.


"What's more, years of animal studies and early human clinical trials show that this tumor-targeting, alkylphosphocholine (APC) molecule can deliver two types of 'payloads' directly to cancer cells: a radioactive or fluorescent imaging label, or a radioactive medicine that binds and kills cancer cells.


"The results are reported in today's issue of the journal Science Translational Medicine, and featured in the journal's cover illustration and podcast."


Editor's note: This story discusses a new method to make cancer cells visible to oncologists, and to deliver drugs directly to cells. The method uses a molecule called APC, which makes a beeline for cancer cells and can deliver imaging labels or radiotherapy treatments.

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Medical News Today  |  Jun 13, 2014

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Tracer Could Indicate Radiation Benefit to Patient

Tracer Could Indicate Radiation Benefit to Patient | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"A world-first radiotherapy treatment trial by University of WA researchers could have a major impact on the quality of life for mesothelioma patients.


"Funded by an almost $100,000 Cancer Council WA grant, the research team is exploring why some patients respond to radiotherapy treatment while others don't, as well as developing tests to predict whether patients will respond to avoid people being treated unnecessarily."

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Medical Xpress  |  Jun 3, 2014

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Management of Elderly Patients with Lung Cancer

"An expert opinion on managing treatment for elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer has been recently published. This update includes recommendations for screening, surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, treatment of locally advanced and metastatic disease as well as new data on patient preferences and geriatric assessment."

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ScienceDaily  |  Apr 22, 2014

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New Treatment Proposed to Prevent Devastating Intestinal Inflammation in Cancer Patients

New Treatment Proposed to Prevent Devastating Intestinal Inflammation in Cancer Patients | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Experimental work pointing to a therapy for alleviating mucositis -- a common, severe side effect of chemotherapy and irradiation of cancer patients or patients prepared for bone marrow transplantation – has been achieved by an international team of researchers. Mucositis is a strong inflammatory reaction of the mucosal lining of the digestive system, particularly the gut. Mucositis is often a major reason for premature suspension of anti-cancer therapy. As of today, there has been no effective means of preventing mucositis or its treatment."

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ScienceDaily  |  Feb 18, 2014 

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Radiation Before Surgery May Increase Survival in Mesothelioma Patients

Radiation Before Surgery May Increase Survival in Mesothelioma Patients | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

A study in 25 patients with mesothelioma, a type of lung cancer associated with exposure to asbestos, suggests that radiation treatment before surgery can significantly increase survival. Patients were treated using a new approach dubbed SMART (Surgery for Mesothelioma After Radiation Therapy). They received an accelerated, 5-day course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), which conforms the radiation dose around the tumors while sparing nearby healthy tissues. They then underwent surgery to remove the affected lung. Seventy-two percent of patients survived 3 years or more after treatment; 3-year survival rates without SMART rank at 32%. People with known exposure to asbestos who experience shortness of breath, weight loss, and fatigue for more than 3 weeks should be evaluated by a doctor to ensure speedy access to treatment.

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ScienceDaily  |  Jan 20, 2014

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Combination of S-1, Platinol, and Radiation Promising for Lung Cancer

Combination of S-1, Platinol, and Radiation Promising for Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Results from a phase II clinical trial suggest that combining the cancer drug S-1 (Teysuno) with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (Platinol) and radiation therapy may be effective in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with inoperable, locally advanced NSCLC were treated with S-1, Platinol, and radiation to the chest region. Tumors shrank at least 30% in 36 out of 41 patients. Although some patients experienced low levels of white blood cells, overall the treatment was well tolerated. S-1 is itself a combination of tegafur (a chemotherapy agent), gimeracil (which boosts tegafur levels in the body), and oteracil (which protects the stomach and gut from tegafur toxicity).

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Healio | Nov 8, 2013

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FDA Greenlights NSCLC Vaccine Trial for Subgroups

An experimental lung cancer vaccine does not extend life overall, but may still benefit some people, leading the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve further trials for these groups. These findings were reported at the 2013 European Cancer Congress in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Called belagenpumatucel-L, the vaccine is based on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and boosts the immune response. The phase III clinical trial included 532 people with NSCLC who had already undergone chemotherapy and the vaccine benefitted two subgroups. People who had previously been treated with radiation lived longer (40 mo with radiation vs 10 mo without radiation), as did people whose lung cancers were not adenocarcinomas (20 mo for nonadenocarcinomas vs 12 mo for adenocarcinomas).

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European Society for Medical Oncology│Sep 28, 2013

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FDG-PET Distinguishes Low- and High-Risk Lung Cancer Patients After Radiotherapy

FDG-PET Distinguishes Low- and High-Risk Lung Cancer Patients After Radiotherapy | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans may be able to detect early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who are at high risk of treatment failure after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A retrospective study examined patients with early-stage NSCLC who were ineligible for or refused surgery and were instead treated with SBRT. Patients with lower FDG-PET readings prior to SBRT treatment survived longer, and those whose FDG-PET readings changed more after SBRT were less likely to experience treatment failure. FDG-PET scans may therefore help identify which patients are at lower or higher risk of recurrence; high-risk patients may opt for additional treatment and/or more frequent surveillance after treatment. FDG-PET has shown similar predictive value in early-stage NSCLC treated with surgery.

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MedPage Today | Sep 24, 2013

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FDG-PET Imaging May Help Predict Survival after Treatment of Advanced Lung Cancer

People with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are usually treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, radiation interferes with the standard method of scanning for lung abnormalities, computed tomography (CT), making its measurements difficult to interpret. This creates the risk that leftover tumor fragments or new cancer spread may be overlooked. A different imaging methodology, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), may be more accurate in such patients. FDG-PET measures sucrose uptake into cells. High uptake values indicate highly active cells, suggesting the presence of cancerous tissue. In a recent clinical trial, higher standardized uptake values (SUVs) in FDG-PET scans predicted lower survival in people with stage III NSCLC who had received chemotherapy and radiotherapy, suggesting that the method accurately detected cancerous tissue.

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CancerNetwork | Sep 23, 2013

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Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Is Safe and Effective in Early-Stage Lung Cancer

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), a type of radiotherapy that uses high doses of radiation given over a comparatively small number of sessions, is the treatment of choice for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who cannot undergo surgery because of other medical problems. However, until now the use of SBRT for these patients was based on limited evidence. A systematic study spanning several institutes found that SBRT (sometimes also called stereotactic ablative radiotherapy or SABR) for stage I NSCLC was safe and effective. Higher radiation doses were associated with better outcomes.

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International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer | Jul 1, 2013

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Many Patients with Incurable Lung Cancer Have Inaccurate Expectations of Radiation Therapy

Many Patients with Incurable Lung Cancer Have Inaccurate Expectations of Radiation Therapy | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Researchers recently performed a survey to evaluate the expectations of patients with incurable lung cancer receiving palliative radiotherapy (ie, therapy not intended to cure their cancer, but instead to relieve their symptoms). The survey revealed that most of the patients held inaccurate beliefs about the aims and potential of their therapy. While a majority of patients accurately believed that radiation therapy could prolong their life and help reduce symptoms from cancer, 64% also expressed the inaccurate belief that radiotherapy had at least some likelihood of curing them. Patients with mistaken beliefs about radiation therapy were also highly likely to have similar misconceptions about chemotherapy. Investigators concluded that treatment providers need to improve communication with patients about the goals and limitations of palliative radiotherapy.

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ASCO Post | Jun 27, 2013

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New Software Quickly Maps Tumors for Radiotherapy

New Software Quickly Maps Tumors for Radiotherapy | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

To help protect healthy tissues from the radioactive drugs that target tumors, oncologists laboriously map the tumors by hand from sections of three-dimensional (3-D) images. But now researchers have developed a faster way. Based on computed tomography (CT) imaging data from a patient, 3-D graphic design software creates a model of the tumor in just an hour or two. When combined with a test that simulates the fate of therapeutic radioactivity in the body, the tumor model also lets oncologists personalize the radiotherapy dose. A study of several patients showed that this fast, new method maps organs and radiotherapy doses as accurately as conventional methods. The new software is expected to be used in a clinical trial of a tumor-targeted radiotherapy; a commercial version is scheduled for release to other cancer centers next year.

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Medical Xpress│Jun 11, 2013

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Timing of Radiotherapy Could Reduce Hair Loss

Timing of Radiotherapy Could Reduce Hair Loss | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

A new study suggests that mouse hair operates on a schedule–it grows quickly during the day and slows down at night to repair DNA damage. If human hair behaves similarly, the discovery could help cancer patients avoid an unpleasant side effect of chemotherapy: hair loss. The study found that mice lost 85% of their hair after morning radiation sessions, but just 17% following nighttime sessions; hair cells repaired the inflicted damage overnight. Cancer cells, however, replicate at the same speed regardless of time, so the time of treatment won’t alter its effectiveness. The researchers believe investigating circadian clocks in humans could lead to treatment programs that minimize collateral damage such as hair loss.

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Medical News Today | May 23, 2013

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Thoracic RT Yields Improved Survival in Extensive-Stage SCLC

Thoracic RT Yields Improved Survival in Extensive-Stage SCLC | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Thoracic radiotherapy along with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) significantly prolonged progression-free and overall survival in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer, according to results of a new study presented at ASCO.


"Ben Slotman, MD, PhD, of VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, presented the study and said that previous work had shown that PCI could improve both symptomatic brain metastases and overall survival at 1 year. 'In that study, we also noticed that the vast majority of patients after chemotherapy had intrathoracic disease' and intrathoracic progression, he said, which was the impetus for the new study using thoracic radiotherapy."


Editor's note: To learn more about new prospects for treating small cell lung cancer (SCLC), see our two-part blog feature on the topic.

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Cancer Network  |  Jun 5, 2014

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Radiotherapy: Novel Lung Cancer Treatment Meets with Success

Radiotherapy: Novel Lung Cancer Treatment Meets with Success | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"An old idea of retreating lung tumors with radiation is new again, especially with the technological advances seen in radiation oncology over the last decade. 'One of the toughest challenges of lung cancer is what to do for patients when the cancer comes back in an area that’s been treated previously with radiation treatment,' said the lead author. 'With some of the technological advances in radiation treatments that have occurred in the last five to 10 years, we’re beginning to re-look at the issue and ask – can we target the radiation precisely enough and with a high enough dose to knock the cancer back?'

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ScienceDaily  |  May 8, 2014

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Potential Lung Cancer Vaccine Shows Renewed Promise

Potential Lung Cancer Vaccine Shows Renewed Promise | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Researchers at UC Davis have found that the investigational cancer vaccine tecemotide, when administered with the chemotherapeutic cisplatin, boosted immune response and reduced the number of tumors in mice with lung cancer. The study also found that radiation treatments did not significantly impair the immune response. The paper was published on March 10 in the journal Cancer Immunology Research, an American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) publication.


"Though tecemotide, also known as Stimuvax, has shown great potential at times, the recent Phase III trial found no overall survival benefit for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, further analysis showed one group of patients, who received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation followed by tecemotide, did benefit from the vaccine. As a result, tecemotide's manufacturer, Merck KGaA, is sponsoring additional post-clinical animal and human studies, so far with good results."


Editor's note: Cancer vaccines are meant to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer. Stimuvax is a cancer vaccine that was found to have no overall survival benefit for patients in a recent clinical trial. But closer analysis of the trial data and the mouse study mentioned above have raised hopes that the vaccine might work with some combination of chemo and radiation treatment.

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Medical Xpress  |  Mar 20, 2014

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Local Radiotherapy May Allow Lung Cancer Patients to Stay on Xalkori Longer

Local Radiotherapy May Allow Lung Cancer Patients to Stay on Xalkori Longer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Crizotinib (Xalkori) is effective for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have a mutation in the ALK gene, but their cancer usually develops resistance to the drug. However, this resistance may affect only part of the cancer, while the majority of the disease still responds to Xalkori. In such cases, localized radiation may be used to destroy the resistant part of the cancer (a technique dubbed 'weeding the garden') while patients continue to take Xalkori. In a small study, patients treated with this method could take Xalkori almost three times longer than those not eligible for the treatment. Longer times on Xalkori were associated with higher rates of 2-year survival. The average time without further relapse after the first radiation treatment was 5.5 months, and patients could be treated multiple times. Similar approaches may be effective with other targeted therapies.

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Medical Xpress  |  Jan 28, 2014

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Radiation Therapy Can Treat Suspected Lung Cancer Without Biopsy

Radiation Therapy Can Treat Suspected Lung Cancer Without Biopsy | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Some patients with suspected lung cancer cannot undergo a biopsy due to other illnesses or overall frailty; for others, biopsies are performed, but with inconclusive results. For these patients, the diagnosis of lung cancer often rests on strong evidence from computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scans. In many of these cases, lung cancer also cannot be treated with surgery. A recent study confirms radiation therapy as a safe and effective method for controlling lung cancer in such patients. Thirty-four patients with unbiopsied lung cancer received stereotaxic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Tumors stopped growing in all patients but 1, shrank in 7 patients, and disappeared entirely in 8 of them. No severe side effects were observed. Another study demonstrated that SBRT, in which focused, high doses of radiation are given over a relatively small number of sessions, is more effective against inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than traditional, conventionally fractioned radiotherapy (CFR).

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MedPage Today  |  Dec 2, 2013

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Diabetes Drug Glucophage May Make Radiation Therapy More Effective

Diabetes Drug Glucophage May Make Radiation Therapy More Effective | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Past studies have suggested that the diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) may make lung cancer tumors more susceptible to radiation, and therefore make radiation therapy more effective. Researchers therefore analyzed the medical records of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had been treated with radiation and chemotherapy. Sixteen of these patients had been taking Glucophage at the time. All of the Glucophage-treated patients are still alive and the cancer has returned in only two so far (an average of 10.4 months after the treatment)–better outcomes than what was seen in the patients who were not on Glucophage. Glucophage also made tumors more sensitive to radiation treatment in a mouse model of lung cancer.

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ScienceDaily | Oct 23, 2013

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Lung Cancer Vaccine Brought Back for New Clinical Trial

A new clinical trial will reexamine the lung cancer vaccine tecemotide, formerly known as Stimuvax. Tecemotide stimulates the patient's immune system to attack tumor cells. Although the drug previously failed in the START clinical trial, drugmakers reported that later analyses showed that tecemotide increased survival in the subset of patients who had been treated with chemoradiotherapy (simultaneous chemotherapy and radiation therapy, or CRT) before tecemotide. Like START, the new trial, START2, will enroll patients with locally advanced, stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that cannot be removed with surgery. However, START2 will exclusively focus on patients who have previously received CRT.

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Reuters | Sep 25, 2013

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Patient Feedback Can Provide Valuable Evidence about Cancer Treatments

Patient Feedback Can Provide Valuable Evidence about Cancer Treatments | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Findings from a recent clinical trial validate patients as a crucial source of evidence in cancer research. The trial investigated patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy plus standard- or high-dose radiotherapy. The high-dose arm of the trial was eventually closed, because its patients had shorter survival than those treated with standard-dose radiation. Notably, health care providers had not reported higher toxicity in high-dose patients. However, patients in this group had reported lower quality of life than those in the standard-dose group, suggesting that patient feedback can pinpoint treatment effects not captured by provider reports. Patients also reported a higher quality of life with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) than with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT).

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Medical Xpress | Sep 23, 2013

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Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy May Be Effective Option in Multiple Primary Lung Cancer

Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy May Be Effective Option in Multiple Primary Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

A significant number of lung cancer patients develop more than one primary tumor. The tumors arise independently and are not cases of one original tumor spreading to other sites or recurring after removal. This condition, known as multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC), is often treated surgically. However, not all patients are eligible for surgery. A recent study retroactively examined the records of patients with early-stage MPLC who had been treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), a form of radiotherapy that uses high radiation doses over relatively few sessions, instead of surgery. Patients experienced good tumor control rates and almost half survived for 4 years or more. SABR may be an effective treatment option for patients with inoperable MPLC.

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Healio | Jul 22, 2013

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Radiation and Chemotherapy Before Surgery Best Option in Patients with Stage IIIA(N2) NSCLC

Disagreement persists about the best treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with stage IIIA(N2) disease, that is, cancer that has spread to lymph nodes just outside the lung. A recent study compared the outcomes of different treatments. Patients who had received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (chemotherapy and radiation administered before surgery) followed by lobectomy (removal of the lung subsection containing the cancer) had higher 5-year survival rates than patients treated with:

  • neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and pneumonectomy (removal of the whole lung containing the cancer);
  • either lobectomy or pneumonectomy plus adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and/or radiation administered after surgery);
  • concurrent chemoradiotherapy (chemotherapy and radiation delivered at the same time, without surgery).

These findings suggest that neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by lobectomy is the preferable treatment for stage IIIA(N2) NSCLC.

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Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Jul 1, 2013

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Analysis Highlights Most Cost-Effective Treatments for Early-Stage Lung Cancer

Researchers have constructed a model to assess the cost-effectiveness of different treatments for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) based on treatment costs, predicted life expectancy, and expected quality of life. Model simulations indicate that lobectomy (removal of an entire subsection of the lungs) is the most cost-effective treatment for patients whose cancer is clearly operable. For patients who are only borderline eligible for surgery due to poor health ('marginally operable'), who often cannot withstand lobectomy, a type of radiotherapy called stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), was found to be more cost-effective than wedge resection (removal of a small piece of lung containing the cancer).

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CancerNetwork | June 26, 2013

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One Follow-Up Irradiation May Be Enough for Bone Tumor Pain

Radiation can alleviate pain in people with cancers that spread to the bones, but this treatment also has nasty side effects, including vomiting, diarrhea, and lack of appetite. New research suggests that when follow-up radiation is needed, one treatment may relieve pain, as well as several that are spread over different days—and have fewer side effects. Two months into a trial of 850 people with tumors in their bones, participants reported the same pain relief and took the same amount of pain-relieving drugs, whether they had a single follow-up radiation treatment or five to eight treatments. These findings were presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology's 2013 meeting.

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Cancer Network│June 3, 2013

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