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At ASCO, Next-Gen EGFR Inhibitors Show Early Promise in Lung Cancer Patients with T790M Mutations

"Next-generation EGFR inhibitors for treating metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients who have acquired resistance to first-generation drugs in this class accurately hit mutant EGFR tumor cells and caused fewer serious side effects, early data presented at a major cancer conference showed.


"Researchers at the American Society of Clinical Oncology's annual meeting here this week, presented preliminary data from human studies on three next-generation EGFR inhibitors: AstraZeneca's AZD9291, Clovis Oncology's CO-1686, and Hanmi Pharmaceutical's HM61713. All three agents showed promising activity against patients who had EGFR mutations, had received prior treatment with a first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor – such as Roche's Tarceva (erlotinib) and AstraZeneca's Iressa (gefinitib) – and had T790M mutations."


Editor's note: For a more reader-friendly explanation of these new drugs, check out the "Drug resistance" section of our Chief Scientist's latest blog post.

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GenomeWeb  |  Jun 4, 2014

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Cyramza Yields a Modest Survival Benefit in Second-line NSCLC

"Cyramza™ (ramucirumab, IMC-1121B; Eli Lilly) is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of VEGFR-2. It was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for advanced gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. On February 19, 2014, Lilly announced via press release that the REVEL trial was positive for both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) benefit. Results from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III REVEL trial (NCT01168973) were reported at the 2014 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). The trial evaluated docetaxel with or without Cyramza in squamous or non-squamous Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients following disease progression after one prior platinum-based therapy."


Editor's note: A new targeted drug called Cyramza (aka ramucirumab) shows promise as a potential treatment for people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a clinical trial, scientists tested the drug on volunteer patients with stage IV NSCLC. Compared to standard chemotherapy alone, patients who were treated with chemo plus Cyramza lived longer and had more time pass before their cancer worsened.

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OBR  |  Jun 3, 2014

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AVEO Oncology Announces Presentation of AV-203 Phase 1 Results at 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting

"AVEO Oncology (NASDAQ:AVEO) today announced the presentation of results from a first-in-human Phase 1 study of AV-203, AVEO’s ErbB3 (HER3) inhibitory antibody candidate. Among the results, the study established a recommended Phase 2 dose of AV-203, demonstrated good tolerability and promising early signs of activity, and reached the maximum planned dose of AV-203 monotherapy. The results were presented in a poster, entitled “First-in-human Phase 1 dose-escalation study of AV-203, a monoclonal antibody against ErbB3 in patients with metastatic or advanced solid tumors” (Abstract #11113, Poster #395, S Hall A2), at the Tumor Biology General Poster Session of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2014 Annual Meeting, taking place May 30 - June 3, 2014, in Chicago."


Editor's note: This story is about a promising new drug called AV-203. In a clinical trial to test the drug in volunteer patients, AV-203 showed promise for treating several cancer types, including lung cancer.

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AVEO Oncology  |  May 31, 2014

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Lilly's Necitumumab Improves Overall Survival In Largest Ever Phase III Study In First-Line Treatment Of Stage IV Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Lilly's Necitumumab Improves Overall Survival In Largest Ever Phase III Study In First-Line Treatment Of Stage IV Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Lung cancer patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma have seen few treatment advancements over the last two decades, leaving these patients with a poor prognosis. This is in contrast to the progress seen in nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results from the largest ever Phase III trial in first-line squamous NSCLC announced by Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) today provide the first detailed look at a potential new treatment option for these patients."


Editor's note: This story is about a clinical trial that found promising results for some lung cancer patients treated with the new targeted therapy drug necitumumab. Necitumumab appears to benefit some patients with stage IV squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

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The Wall Street Journal  |  May 14, 2014

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Focused Ultrasound Reduces Cancer Pain

Focused Ultrasound Reduces Cancer Pain | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"When cancer progresses and spreads to the bone, patients often suffer debilitating pain. Now, a new phase III clinical trial shows that non-invasive magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound treatment that heats the cancer within the bone, relieves pain and improves function for most patients when other treatment options are limited."

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ScienceDaily  |  May 5, 2014

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Love seeing breakthroughs that contribute to improved qualify of life for survivors.

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Future of Cancer Treatments

Future of Cancer Treatments | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"The news spurred hundreds of phone calls and emails to Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada from across the country: Two Stage 4 cancer patients at the Las Vegas center, after participating in the first human trial of an antibody drug with the unwieldy code name of MPDL 3280A, were now cancer-free.


"Rosemary Rathbun, 78, had been so far gone with throat cancer that doctors told her to enroll in hospice. Lorrine Rodgers, 56, had been told there were no other treatments for her spreading breast cancer.


"That their cancer disappeared, the women said in January, was a miracle."


Editor's note: This story is a great overview of an increasingly promising type of cancer treatment called immunotherapy. Immunotherapy treatments boost a patient's own immune system to fight cancer.

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Las Vegas Review-Journal  |  Apr 26, 2014

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Las Vegas Review-Journal  |  Apr 26, 2014

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Management of Elderly Patients with Lung Cancer

"An expert opinion on managing treatment for elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer has been recently published. This update includes recommendations for screening, surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, treatment of locally advanced and metastatic disease as well as new data on patient preferences and geriatric assessment."

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ScienceDaily  |  Apr 22, 2014

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Preop PET Cuts Lung Cancer Surgery

Preop PET Cuts Lung Cancer Surgery | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Routine preoperative PET imaging led to a significant reduction in unnecessary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a review of almost 1,000 cases showed.


"Overall, the rate of unnecessary operations, defined as discovery of metastatic disease during surgery, decreased by 13%, which did not achieve statistical significance, according to Steven Zeliadt, PhD, of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Seattle, and co-authors. After adjustment for confounding factors, however, unnecessary operations occurred almost 50% less often with preoperative PET imaging."

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MedPage Today  |  Mar 7, 2014

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Inflammatory Protein Linked to Lung Cancer

While inflammation is part of the normal immune response, chronic inflammation is linked to many diseases, including cancer. Now, new research shows that white blood cells near non-small cell lung cancers have high levels of a protein that amplifies inflammation. Called TREM-1, this protein is not found in white blood cells from normal lung tissue. These findings were presented at the 2013 meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians. TREM-1 has also been linked to liver cancer and some breast cancers; researchers suspect that this protein helps tumor cells invade tissue and spread to other parts of the body. In addition, recent research shows that TREM-1 can be inhibited with prostaglandins, which are antiinflammatory biomolecules that promote healing.

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Medscape│Oct 30, 2013

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Gilotrif Shows Effectiveness in Various Patient Populations with EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer

Afatinib (Gilotrif) is a new lung cancer drug for people with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have mutations in the EGFR gene. The LUX-Lung 3 clinical trial demonstrated that Gilotrif is superior to chemotherapy as first-line treatment in a global population of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. The LUX-Lung 6 trial confirmed these findings specifically in an Asian population; Asia has a three times higher rate of EGFR-mutant NSCLC than Western countries. More recent evidence indicates that Gilotrif is as effective in patients with rare EGFR mutations as it is in those with common mutations. Finally, Gilotrif recently showed effectiveness in NSCLC patients whose cancer had spread to the brain.

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Moneylife | Oct 28, 2013

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Molecular Profiling Helps Guide Treatment of Cancers of Unknown Origin

In cases of cancer that has spread throughout the body, it can sometimes be difficult to determine where the cancer originally developed. A large, new study found that in such cases, molecular profiling of the cancer tissue, even if it is not from the original ('primary') tumor, can meaningfully guide the choice of treatment. Such profiling identified useful biomarkers in 77% of the examined patients, including various genetic mutations, along with over- or underexpression of different proteins. These biomarkers then informed the selection of targeted therapies, which were highly effective in many cases. Indeed, determining the molecular profile of the cancer tissue appeared to be more useful than finding out which body part the cancer originated from.

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Medscape | Sep 29, 2013

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Medscape | Sep 29, 2013

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Medscape | Sep 29, 2013

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Bone and Brain Metastases Are Common in Lung Cancer, But Avastin May Lower Risk

Lung cancer patients often develop metastases (cancer that has spread) in their bones or brain. A retrospective study of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with metastases revealed that in 39%, the cancer spread affected the bones, and in 30% the spread affected the brain. Bone metastases were more common in elderly patients, were linked to skeletal complications, such as fractures, and were associated with shorter survival (5.5 months vs 9.9 months in patients without bone metastases). Another study found that NSCLC patients who developed new bone metastases were more likely to get brain metastases also. However, patients treated with bevacizumab (Avastin) were less prone to metastases in either the bones (27% vs 43% without Avastin) or the brain (25% vs 33%).

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Cancer Network | Jul 8, 2013

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Primary Tumor Tissue May Be Clue to Mutations in Metastases

Primary Tumor Tissue May Be Clue to Mutations in Metastases | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

For patients whose lung cancer has spread to other parts of the body, forming so-called metastases, collecting biopsies from the new tumor locations can be difficult and dangerous. Now, researchers have analyzed tumor tissue from 15 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that had returned and spread after surgery, and found a 94% overlap in mutations and other genetic alterations between a given patient’s primary tumor and metastases. Taking biopsies from metastases may therefore not be necessary in such patients, because the primary tumor tissue can serve as a guide to which genetic alterations are likely to be present in the new tumor locations. This conclusion may not apply to patients who have received targeted therapies, however, as such treatments can alter the genetic makeup of the cancer.

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ASCO Post | June 25, 2013

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Few Circulating Cancer Cells Could Cue Risk of Metastases

"A simple noninvasive blood test matched with state-of-the-art molecular imaging of individual cells could help oncologists understand their patients' chances of survival, say researchers. Metastasis accounts for an estimated 90 percent of cancer deaths. For decades, researchers tried to develop a way to gauge a cancer's risk of metastasizing from a blood sample -- the long-sought-after liquid biopsy."

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ScienceDaily | Jun 9, 2014
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New System for Treating Cancer Seen as Hopeful

New System for Treating Cancer Seen as Hopeful | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Drugs that unleash the body’s immune system to combat tumors could allow patients with advanced melanoma to live far longer than ever before, researchers gathered at the nation’s largest cancer conference say.

“ 'It’s a completely different world for patients with metastatic melanoma, to talk about the majority of patients being alive for years rather than weeks or months,' said Dr. Jedd D. Wolchok, a melanoma specialist at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, interviewed at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology here."

Editor's note: This is a good exploration of immunotherapy treatments for melanoma; immunotherapy for lung cancer is also discussed.

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The New York Times  |  Jun 2, 2014

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The New York Times  |  Jun 2, 2014

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FDA Grants Merck’s Anti-PD1 Antibody Priority Review

FDA Grants Merck’s Anti-PD1 Antibody Priority Review | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"The FDA has granted Merck’s anti-PD1 antibody MK-3475 a priority review designation for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma in patients who have previously been treated with ipilimumab. Priority review status is reserved for drugs considered to offer a significant improvement in the safety or efficacy of the treatment of a serious condition. It will shorten the drug’s FDA review period from 10 months to 6 months."


Editor's note: MK-3475 is an immunotherapy drug that works by boosting a patient's own immune system to fight cancer. While this story is about melanoma, anti-PD1 drugs like MK-3475 have also shown promise for other cancers, including for lung cancer. Once it is approved by the FDA for unresectable or metastatic melanoma, doctors in the U.S. will be able to prescribe it to their patients outside of the clinical trial system. 

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Cancer Network  |  May 21, 2014

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Patient’s Cells Deployed to Attack Aggressive Cancer

Patient’s Cells Deployed to Attack Aggressive Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Doctors have taken an important step toward a long-sought goal: harnessing a person’s own immune system to fight cancer.


"An article published Thursday in the journal Science describes the treatment of a 43-year-old woman with an advanced and deadly type of cancer that had spread from her bile duct to her liver and lungs, despite chemotherapy.


"Researchers at the National Cancer Institute sequenced the genome of her cancer and identified cells from her immune system that attacked a specific mutation in the malignant cells. Then they grew those immune cells in the laboratory and infused billions of them back into her bloodstream.


"The tumors began 'melting away,' said Dr. Steven A. Rosenberg, the senior author of the article and chief of the surgery branch at the cancer institute."


Editor's note: This story is about an "immunotherapy" technique meant to boost a patient's own immune system to fight cancer. Learn more about immunotherapy here.

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New York Times  |  May 8, 2014

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New York Times  |  May 8, 2014

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FDA Approves Ceritinib (Zykadia) for Metastatic Lung Cancer

FDA Approves Ceritinib (Zykadia) for Metastatic Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Earlier today the US Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to ceritinib (Zykadia) for the treatment of patients with metastatic ALK-positive non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). About 2% to 7% percent of NSCLC patients have ALK-positive disease.


"The new drug, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was approved 4 months early under the FDA's accelerated approval program and is intended for the treatment of patients who previously received the ALK-inhibitor crizotinib."


Editor's note: FDA approval means that doctors can now begin prescribing ceritinib treat patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors have mutations in the ALK gene, as detected by molecular testing. We previously posted about ceritinib here.

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Cancer Network  |  Apr 29, 2014

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Helix BioPharma Corp. Receives U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approval to Initiate a Clinical Trial of L-DOS47 in Combination With Pemetrexed and Carboplatin

Helix BioPharma Corp. Receives U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approval to Initiate a Clinical Trial of L-DOS47 in Combination With Pemetrexed and Carboplatin | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Helix BioPharma Corp. (frankfurt:HBP), a biopharmaceutical company developing innovative drug candidates for the prevention and treatment of cancer, today announced that it has received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"), to initiate a Phase I clinical trial with L-DOS47.


"The study is entitled "A Phase I, Open Label, Dose Escalation Study of Immunoconjugate L-DOS47 in Combination with Standard Doublet Therapy of Pemetrexed/Carboplatin in Patients with Stage IV (TNM M1a and M1b) Recurrent or Metastatic Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer"."


Editor's note: Clinical trials can be a way for some lung cancer patients to access certain treatments they would not otherwise be able to have. Learn more.

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MarketWatch  |  Apr 22, 2014

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NICE Draft Guidance Recommends Boehringer Ingelheim’s Giotrif

NICE Draft Guidance Recommends Boehringer Ingelheim’s Giotrif | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"UK drugs watchdog the National Institute for Health and care Excellence (NICE) this morning issued new draft guidance recommending German family-owned drug major Boehringer Ingelheim’s Giotrif (afatinib) as an option for treating locally-advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in people whose tumors test positive for the EGFR-TK mutation and have not received a EGFR-TK inhibitor."


Editor's Note: In the US, this drug is called Gilotrif. It is meant for patients whose tumors have a mutation in the EGFR gene, as detected by molecular testing. Learn more about molecular testing to guide treatment decisions.

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The Pharma Letter  |  Mar 17, 2014

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Biomarker May Allow Blood Test for Brain Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients

Testing for a biomarker in lung cancer patients’ blood could indicate whether they have brain metastases (cancer spread to the brain). S100B, a protein found in the brain, is usually kept separate from the rest of the body by the so-called blood-brain barrier (BBB). Brain metastases weaken the BBB, allowing S100B to enter the bloodstream. In a recent study, researchers were able to identify 89% of patients with brain metastases by measuring the S100B blood levels of lung cancer patients, although the test also produced a number of false alarms. A blood test for brain metastases would likely be much cheaper than the brain scans currently used.

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Medscape   |   Nov 20, 2013

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Test for Hard-to-ID Cancers That Have Spread

Test for Hard-to-ID Cancers That Have Spread | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

While identifying cancer types is key to proper treatment, this can be difficult once tumors have spread. Each year, more than 400,000 people in the U.S. have cancers that spread, and the diagnosis is uncertain in about 30% of them. Now, more people will have access to a test that classifies tumors based on the expression of 92 genes. Called CancerTYPE ID, the test will be used by Mayo Medical Laboratories, which serves the Mayo Clinic as well as more than 5,000 other hospitals worldwide. The test can distinguish more than 50 types of cancer, including tumors that are easily confused, such as breast, cervical, endometrial, and ovarian.

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bioTheranostics│Oct 29, 2013

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Three Metastasis Myths, Debunked

Three Metastasis Myths, Debunked | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Persistent rumors claim that a needle biopsy–a procedure in which a surgeon removes a small part of a suspected tumor using a needle–can cause cancer to spread. However, there is no evidence that this is the case. On the contrary, biopsies often allow early diagnosis and timely treatment of cancers. Likewise, there is no evidence that massage promotes cancer spread. Indeed, massage therapy for cancer patients can reduce pain, muscle tension, mental stress, and nausea. Cancer spread is driven by biological changes inside the cancer cells, not outside mechanical forces like a biopsy needle or a massage. Finally, sugar does not 'feed' cancer. Excess sugar consumption can contribute to obesity, which is associated with increased risk of several cancers, but by itself, sugar does not have any effect on cancer spread.

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ScienceDaily | Oct 25, 2013

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ScienceDaily | Oct 25, 2013

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ScienceDaily | Oct 25, 2013

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Daily Aspirin Linked to Smaller Tumors in Lung and Colon Cancer

A retrospective analysis of data from thousands of cancer patients showed that lung and colon cancer patients who had been taking daily low-dose aspirin before diagnosis had smaller tumors. Their cancer was also 20% to 40% less likely to have spread to other parts of the body. It is still unclear whether aspirin indeed caused the less severe diagnoses or whether separate, independent factors make people both more likely to take daily aspirin and to have less advanced lung or colon cancers. Future studies may address this question. No association between daily aspirin and cancer severity was found in prostate or breast cancer.

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Reuters | Aug 16, 2013

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Reuters | Aug 16, 2013

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Researchers Decipher Blood Cell Signaling Process that Aids Cancer Spread

Researchers Decipher Blood Cell Signaling Process that Aids Cancer Spread | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Cancer often spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream. However, once cancer cells have been transported to new locations, they have to find a way through the wall around blood vessels to invade new tissues. Researchers have now discovered that when blood platelets, the cells responsible for blood clotting, are activated, they release a molecule called ATP. ATP then binds to a protein called P2Y2 on the blood vessel wall, causing small openings to appear, which cancer cells can use to escape the blood vessel. Blocking ATP release from blood platelets inhibited cancer spread in mouse models of lung cancer and melanoma. Drugs that inhibit ATP release from platelets or block P2Y2 may therefore be able to curb cancer spread.

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Medical Xpress | Jul 3, 2013

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