A small subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially those with lung adenocarcinoma, have a mutation in the BRAF gene called V600E. An ongoing phase II clinical trial is investigating whether the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib (Tafinlar) benefits patients with this mutation. Tafinlar is currently approved for treatment of the skin cancer melanoma. Recently released trial results show that the drug partially shrank tumors in 40% of advanced NSCLC patients whose cancer had worsened after at least one round of chemotherapy. Another 20% of study participants maintained stable disease (tumors neither shrinking nor growing). Almost half of the patients currently remain on the treatment. These findings are the first evidence that treatments targeting the BRAF V600E mutation may be effective in lung cancer.