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A New Tool to Confront Lung Cancer

A New Tool to Confront Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

"Only 15% of patients with squamous cell lung cancer – the second most common lung cancer – survive five years past diagnosis. Little is understood about how the deadly disease arises, preventing development of targeted therapies that could serve as a second line of defense once standard chemotherapy regimens fail.


"Published online in Cell Reports on June 19, Huntsman Cancer Institute investigators report that misregulation of two genes, sox2 and lkb1, drives squamous cell lung cancer in mice. The discovery uncovers new treatment strategies, and provides a clinically relevant mouse model in which to test them."


Editor's note: Some tumors have specific genetic mutations that can allow them to be treated with drugs known as targeted therapies. Studying mice with squamous cell lung cancer tumors, scientists have now discovered two new tumor mutations that open up the possibility for new drugs to be developed for humans. The mutations also indicate that some drugs that already exist for other cancers may be used to treat people with squamous cell lung cancer. More investigation is required before the results of these findings might translate to treatments for patients.

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Medical Xpress  |  Jun 19, 2014

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Lung Cancer Clinical Trial Debuts New Approach to Genetic Testing in Cancer Studies

Lung Cancer Clinical Trial Debuts New Approach to Genetic Testing in Cancer Studies | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Targeted therapies directed at specific cancer mutations have drastically improved cancer treatment for many patients. However, most targetable mutations occur only in a small percentage of patients, which complicates clinical trial logistics. Investigators can expect to test around 140 individuals to find one who is eligible for their trial. Conversely, patients may have to undergo scores of tests to discover which mutations they do or do not carry. Now, a new clinical trial, nicknamed 'the Master Protocol,' is pioneering a new approach that uses new, fast DNA sequencing technology to circumvent these problems. Patients with squamous cell lung cancer will undergo a single test that scans for 16 different mutations. They will then be assigned to different drug regimens depending on which mutations they have. Those without any of the targeted mutations will receive a drug that directs their immune system to attack the cancer.

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Forbes | Nov 7, 2013

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New Cancer Drug Reolysin Shrinks Lung Tumors

Interim results from a phase II clinical trial of the new cancer drug Reolysin in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), show that tumors shrank in 23 of 25 patients. The patients had SCC that had spread from its original site, or recurred after treatment, and were treated with the chemotherapy drugs Paraplatin (carboplatin) and Taxol/Abraxane (paclitaxel) in addition to Reolysin. Ten patients experienced tumor shrinkage and 13 experienced stable disease, while the cancer progressed in 2 patients. On average, tumors shrank by a third of their original size. Reolysin consists of a modified form of a virus that selectively attacks cancer cells, while producing no symptoms in most healthy people.

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Businessweek | Sep 9, 2013

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EGFR Antibody Increases Survival in Lung Cancer Trial

EGFR Antibody Increases Survival in Lung Cancer Trial | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

The new cancer drug necitumumab increased survival in the SQUIRE clinical trial, a phase III trial examining squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).  Patients with stage IV squamous NSCLC who received necitumumab in addition to the chemotherapy agents cisplatin (Platinol) and gemcitabine (Gemzar) survived longer than those treated with chemotherapy alone. Necitumumab is an antibody (a type of immune system protein) that blocks the function of EGFR, a protein that plays an important role in the survival, spread, and blood supply of tumors.

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Wall Street Journal | Aug 13, 2013

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Diagnostics Company Ready to Patent Test for Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

Diagnostics Company Ready to Patent Test for Squamous Cell Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

The molecular diagnostics company Rosetta Genomics has received permission to patent their Rosetta Lung Cancer Test. The test analyzes lung tumor tissue and distinguishes squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clearly identifying a patient's cancer subtype is becoming increasingly important for choosing an optimal treatment plan, thanks to the increasing role of targeted therapies and the growing understanding of how drug effects can differ among various cancer subtypes. For example, pemetrexed (Alimta) and bevacizumab (Avastin) benefit many NSCLC patients, but are not recommended for those with SCC. The patent allowance will permit Rosetta to develop their test for use in patients.

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Yahoo! Finance | Jul 25, 2013

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Clinical Trial of New Drug to Treat Squamous Cell Lung Cancer Is Enrolling Patients

Clinical Trial of New Drug to Treat Squamous Cell Lung Cancer Is Enrolling Patients | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

A clinical trial examining a new lung cancer drug is enrolling participants at numerous locations throughout the U.S. BMS-936558 (nivolumab) targets PD-1, a protein on the surface of immune cells that suppresses the immune response. By inhibiting PD-1, nivolumab 'unleashes' the immune system so it can continue its attack on tumors. The trial will investigate whether patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), do better when treated with either nivolumab or the chemotherapy agent docetaxel (Taxotere). To find out more, call 855-216-0126 or visit the trial’s website.

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Exponent Telegram | Jun 30, 2013

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Two Upcoming Clinical Trials to Investigate New Lung Cancer Drug OGX-427

OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals plans to launch two phase II clinical trials of its new cancer drug, OGX-427, in lung cancer patients. The Cedar trial will be conducted by the UK National Cancer Research Network and the UK Experimental Cancer Medicine Network at cancer centers throughout the UK. It will examine the effectiveness of OGX-427 in combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Spruce trial will be performed in the U.S. in collaboration with the Sarah Cannon Research Institute and will enroll patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. OGX-427 inhibits Hsp27, a protein that is overexpressed in many cancer cells.

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Sacramento Bee | May 23, 2013

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Iclusig Inhibits Mutant Proteins Found in Lung Cancer

The leukemia drug ponatinib (Iclusig) also appears to target mutant versions of two proteins involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This is supported by two recent studies in which Iclusig slowed the growth of cells with mutant RET and FGFR proteins. The drug also shrank tumors with RET mutations that had been grown in mice. Based on these findings, Iclusig manufacturer ARIAD Pharmaceuticals is planning a phase II clinical trial to investigate the drug's effectiveness against NSCLC with RET mutations. A phase II trial assessing Iclusig's effects in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung with FGFR mutations is already underway at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, and is currently enrolling participants.

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ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Apr 8, 2013

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Reolysin Shrinks Lung Cancer Tumors in Clinical Trial

A phase II study of the novel cancer treatment Reolysin in 20 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, a type of non-small cell lung cancer, showed a reduction in tumor size in 95% of patients. Patients were given Reolysin in combination with the chemotherapy drugs carboplatin (Paraplatin) and paclitaxel (Taxol or Abraxane); on average, their tumors shrank by about a third. This finding suggests that Reolysin may be useful for presurgical treatment of tumors. Reolysin, made by the company Oncolytics, is a form of a virus called reovirus. Most adults have been exposed to reovirus, which usually does not produce symptoms. However, reovirus selectively infects and kills tumor cells.


Press release: http://www.oncolyticsbiotech.com/news_items/details?press_release_id=1921

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Reuters | Feb 8, 2013

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FDA Approves Abraxane for Treatment of Advanced NSCLC

FDA Approves Abraxane for Treatment of Advanced NSCLC | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

The FDA has approved the use of breast cancer drug Abraxane in conjunction with carboplatin for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. Abraxane, manufactured by Celgene Corp., combines paclitaxel with a protein called albumin. Earlier this year, a large clinical trial found Abraxane plus carboplatin to be more effective in shrinking advanced NSCLC tumors than the standard paclitaxel drug Taxol plus carboplatin. Abraxane treatment may be particularly effective for patients with squamous NSCLC patients age 70 years or older and North American patients.

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Huffington Post | Oct 12, 2012

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Innate Pharma SA begins Phase I Trial with Lirilumab and Nivolumab in Selected Solid Tumors Under Cohort Expansion

"Biopharmaceutical company Innate Pharma SA (euronext paris:FR0010331421) reported on Monday that it has started the cohort expansion portion of the Phase I clinical trial testing the combination of the two investigational checkpoint inhibitors lirilumab and nivolumab in selected solid tumors...


"The company said the trial will test lirilumab (anti-KIR checkpoint inhibitor; BMS-986015) in combination with nivolumab (anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor BMS-936558) in solid tumors. The Phase I open label study will evaluate the safety of the combination of lirilumab and nivolumab and to provide preliminary information on the clinical activity of the combination. The primary outcome is safety."


Editor's note: Nivolumab is an immunotherapy drug that activates the immune system's T cells in the hopes that the patient's own immune system will be prompted to fight tumors. Nivolumab has already been shown to be a promising melanoma treatment on its own. Lirilumab is a drug that activates a different group of immune system cells known as natural killer cells (NK). This clinical trial combines both drugs to see if they work better together.

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MENAFN  |  Mar 31, 2014

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Lung Cancer Drug Retaspimycin Fails Clinical Trial

A phase II clinical trial found no survival benefit for the lung cancer drug retaspimycin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The trial examined NSCLC patients with a history of smoking who were given the chemotherapy agent docetaxel (Taxotere) either with or without retaspimycin. Adding retaspimycin did not improve overall survival in NSCLC patients in general or in the subset of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (a type of NSCLC closely linked to smoking). The company will complete enrollment in a separate study investigating retaspimycin in combination with everolimus (Afinitor) by the end of 2013, but will begin no further clinical trials with retaspimycin.

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Reuters | Sep 25, 2013

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Researchers Identify Potential New Target in SCLC Treatment

Researchers Identify Potential New Target in SCLC Treatment | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Collagen, the main building block of skin and tendons, can also contribute to suppressing cancer growth. DDR2, one of the proteins that collagen interacts with, is mutated in some cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Researchers have found that when DDR2 is activated by collagen, it in turn activates a protein called SHP-2. It also prevents cell cultures from forming clusters, a model of tumor formation. However, mutant forms of DDR2 that occur in SCC, did not have this effect on cell cultures, and some also did not activate SHP-2, suggesting that lack of SHP-2 activation may contribute to SCC. Drugs that mimic the activity of SHP-2 may offer targeted treatments for SCC.

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Institute of Cancer Research | Aug 30, 2013

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Trial of New Lung Cancer Drug OGX-427 Now Enrolling Participants

Trial of New Lung Cancer Drug OGX-427 Now Enrolling Participants | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

The Spruce trial, a phase II clinical trial examining the effectiveness of the cancer drug OGX-427 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is now open for enrollment. The trial will study patients with previously untreated, advanced non-squamous NSCLC. They will receive the chemotherapy agents carboplatin (Paraplatin) and pemetrexed (Alimta) in combination with either OGX-427 or a placebo. The sponsors also plan to add the Cedar trial, which will investigate the use of OGX-427 in squamous cell NSCLC. OGX-427 inhibits Hsp27, a protein that is highly expressed in many tumor cells. The drug may be especially promising for patients without mutations that make them eligible for currently available targeted therapies.


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MarketWatch | Aug 1, 2013

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RNA Diagnostic Test Improves Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

RNA Diagnostic Test Improves Diagnosis of Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

The first step towards choosing the best lung cancer treatment is to figure out what specific kind of lung cancer a patient has. Usually, doctors can determine cancer type by surgically removing part of a tumor and examining the appearance of tumor cells under a microscope. But sometimes tumor samples are damaged and difficult to analyze visually, so a second method would be useful to help confirm a diagnosis. Researchers have now developed a new test that can determine which genes are turned on or off in tumor cells, allowing them to distinguish between the most common types of lung cancer (adenocarcinoma, carcinoid, small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma). Samples of tumors are already routinely collected, and, in an experiment, examining them and analyzing their genetics was found to be a viable predictor of a tumor’s microscopic appearance. Researchers hope that their test will bring more accurate diagnoses to doctors and patients, which in turn could lead to better treatment recommendations and better outcomes.

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Medical Xpress | Jul 16, 2013

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Side Effects of New Immune-Based Lung Cancer Drug Manageable

Side Effects of New Immune-Based Lung Cancer Drug Manageable | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Preliminary results from an ongoing early clinical trial of the new lung cancer drug nivolumab show that the treatment is tolerable. Out of 43 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with nivolumab and chemotherapy, slightly less than half experienced serious side effects. In most cases, these side effects were manageable with medication and/or discontinuation of nivolumab. Nivolumab targets PD-1, a protein on the surface of immune cells that switches off the immune response when it binds to another protein, PD-L1, which is often expressed on tumors. By inhibiting PD-1, nivolumab enables the immune system to continue attacking cancer cells. Additional clinical trials focusing on patients with squamous or non-squamous NSCLC will investigate whether nivolumab is more effective than the chemotherapy drug docetaxel (Taxotere).

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Medical Xpress | May 31, 2013

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Clinical Trial of New Lung Cancer Treatment Now Enrolling Patients in Japan

A phase III clinical trial investigating the new cancer treatment nimotuzumab has started to enroll patients at approximately 60 clinical centers in Japan. The study will examine patients with locally advanced, inoperable stage III squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients will receive standard chemotherapy either with or without nimotuzumab. Produced by the pharmaceutical company Daiichi Sankyo, nimotuzumab is an antibody (a type of immune system protein) that targets a protein called EGFR, which is mutated in many cases of lung cancer.

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Daiichi Sankyo | Apr 25, 2013

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Reolysin Continues to Show Promise for Lung Cancer Treatment

An ongoing phase II clinical trial of the novel cancer treatment Reolysin has yielded promising results. Reolysin, which is produced by Oncolytics Biotech, is a form of reovirus, a virus that infects and destroys cancer cells. The clinical trial studied patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who received Reolysin in combination with chemotherapy. Nine of 21 patients showed a partial response, while another 9 patients exhibited stable disease; the cancer worsened in the remaining 3 patients. Similar response rates to Reolysin had been observed during the first stage of this trial last year. Oncolytics press release: http://www.oncolyticsbiotech.com/news_items/details?press_release_id=1929

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Yahoo! News  | Mar 28, 2013

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Novel Drugs Show Promise in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Novel Drugs Show Promise in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer | Lung Cancer Dispatch | Scoop.it

Medical experts at the 2012 Chemotherapy Foundation Symposium presented data on the growing number of targeted treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with so-called driver mutations—specific genetic mutations that drive tumor growth. Among the drugs showing promise in adenocarcinoma are ridaforolimus for KRAS-mutant tumors, ganetespib for ALK- or KRAS-mutant tumors, and afatinib for EGFR-mutant tumors. For squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), new potential treatments include AZD4547 and BGJ398 (FGFR1-mutant), dasatinib and nilotinib (DDR2 mutant), Tarceva and Iressa (EGFRvIII-mutant), and Yervoy and Cadi-05 (all SCC), while anti–PD-1 antibodies such as BMS-936558 may be effective for both adenocarcinoma and SCC.

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OncLive | Jan 14, 2013

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