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Robot uses steerable needles to treat brain clots | KurzweilAI

Robot uses steerable needles to treat brain clots | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Vanderbilt University researchers are developing an image-guided robotic surgical system to remove blood clots in the brain. It uses steerable needles about the size of those used for biopsies to penetrate the brain with minimal damage and suction away the blood clot that has formed. The odds of a person getting an intracerebral hemorrhage are...
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High blood sugar tied to dementia in non-diabetics

Elderly people with high blood sugar - but not high enough to be diabetic - face a slightly greater risk of developing dementia, according to a new study of over 2,000 volunteers.

 

The research, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, does not prove that high glucose levels directly cause dementia.

 

 

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A bounty of ideas for healthful breakfasts

A bounty of ideas for healthful breakfasts | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Protein, healthful fat and fiber are what make a breakfast nutritious.
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Gadgets can track your sleep, monitor eating habits and help you stay fit

Gadgets can track your sleep, monitor eating habits and help you stay fit | Longevity science | Scoop.it

To help people become more aware of their physical activity — or lack of it — companies are marketing high-tech gadgets with claims that they can measure movement, sleep, food intake and weight. Here’s a quick look at some of the devices available now or coming soon. (None of them were tested in Consumer Reports’ labs.)

 

 

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New technology offers 3D images inside colon, pointing toward better colonoscopy

New technology offers 3D images inside colon, pointing toward better colonoscopy | Longevity science | Scoop.it

MIT researchers have developed a new endoscopy technology that could make it easier for doctors to detect precancerous lesions in the colon. Early detection of such lesions has been shown to reduce death rates from colorectal cancer, which kills about 50,000 people per year in the United States.

The new technique, known as photometric stereo endoscopy, can capture topographical images of the colon surface along with traditional two-dimensional images. Such images make it easier to see precancerous growths, including flatter lesions that traditional endoscopy usually misses, says Nicholas Durr, a research fellow in the Madrid-MIT M+Vision Consortium, a recently formed community of medical researchers in Boston and Madrid.

 

“In conventional colonoscopy screening, you look for these characteristic large polyps that grow into the lumen of the colon, which are relatively easy to see,” Durr says. “However, a lot of studies in the last few years have shown that more subtle, nonpolypoid lesions can also cause cancer.”

 

In the United States, colonoscopies are recommended beginning at age 50, and are credited with reducing the risk of death from colorectal cancer by about half. Traditional colonoscopy uses endoscopes with fiber-optic cameras to capture images.

Durr and his colleagues, seeking medical problems that could be solved with new optical technology, realized that there was a need to detect lesions that colonoscopy can miss. A technique called chromoendoscopy, in which a dye is sprayed in the colon to highlight topographical changes, offers better sensitivity but is not routinely used because it takes too long.

 

“What is attractive about this technique for colonoscopy is that it provides an added dimension of diagnostic information, particularly about three-dimensional morphology on the surface of the colon,” says Nimmi Ramanujam, a professor of biological engineering at Duke University who was not part of the research team.

The researchers built two prototypes — one 35 millimeters in diameter, which would be too large to use for colonoscopy, and one 14 millimeters in diameter, the size of a typical colonoscope. In tests with an artificial silicon colon, the researchers found that both prototypes could create 3-D representations of polyps and flatter lesions. 

The new technology should be easily incorporated into newer endoscopes, Durr says. “A lot of existing colonoscopes already have multiple light sources,” he says. “From a hardware perspective all they need to do is alternate the lights and then update their software to process this photometric data.” 

The researchers plan to test the technology in human patients in clinical trials at MGH and the Hospital Clinico San Carlos in Madrid. They are also working on additional computer algorithms that could help to automate the process of identifying polyps and lesions from the topographical information generated by the new system. 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Silk brain implants could stop epilepsy from progressing

Silk brain implants could stop epilepsy from progressing | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Tiny biodegradable pieces of silk, implanted in the brain, may help lessen the frequency and severity of epileptics seizures.
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Breakthrough in detecting single DNA mutations | KurzweilAI

Breakthrough in detecting single DNA mutations | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
This conceptual image shows probe and target complexes at different stages of the reaction that checks for mutations. The red dots represent mutations in a
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Salk scientist discovers novel mechanism in spinal cord injury | KurzweilAI

Salk scientist discovers novel mechanism in spinal cord injury | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Spinal cord injury triggers massive cell death, as indicated by the number of pink cells (left). However, this process is markedly reduced when the levels of
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Functional 3D Human Liver Buds Made From Stem Cells in Mice

Functional 3D Human Liver Buds Made From Stem Cells in Mice | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Researchers led by Takanori Takebe, MD and Hideki Taniguchi, MD, of Yokohama City University in Japan recently reported the first 3D vascularized organ derived from stem cells in the journal Nature.
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Cancer trial results slow to see light of day: study

U.S. law requires certain research results to be posted online within a year of a study's end date, but a new analysis found that only about half of cancer drug research results are made public after three years.

Researchers who looked at 646 studies examining the safety and effectiveness of cancer drugs found that 55 percent were published online or in a medical journal three years after the studies' end dates.

 

 

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Making genome editing more accurate, efficient, safer | KurzweilAI

Earlier this year, MIT researchers developed a way to easily and efficiently edit the genomes of living cells. Now, the researchers have discovered key factors that influence the accuracy of the system, an important step toward making it safer for potential use in humans, says Feng Zhang, leader of the research team.

With this technology, scientists can deliver or disrupt multiple genes at once, raising the possibility of treating human disease by targeting specific malfunctioning genes.

 

 

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Body maps, plasticity, and neurological disorders | KurzweilAI

Body maps, plasticity, and neurological disorders | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Salk Institute researchers have demonstratedthat altering the functional architecture of the brain’s cortex is possible, and that this alteration produces significant changes in parts of the brain that connect with the cortex and define its functional properties.

 

Dennis O’Leary, holder of the Vincent J. Coates Chair of Molecular Neurobiology at Salk, was the first scientist to show that the basic functional architecture of the cortex, the largest part of the human brain, was genetically determined during development.

 

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Imperial College develops cancer-sniffing Intelligent Knife

Imperial College develops cancer-sniffing Intelligent Knife | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Dr. Zoltan Takats of the Imperial College London has developed one very sharp knife – and we're not referring to its keen edge. The Intelligent Knife (iKnife) is equipped with a nose and a brain that can sniff out cancer as it cuts. Using a mass spectrometer to detect chemical profiles associated with tumors, it enables instant identification of cancerous tissue and helps surgeons to make sure that all of a tumor has been removed

 

 

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Ultrasound-emitting "band-aids" speed healing of venous ulcers

Ultrasound-emitting "band-aids" speed healing of venous ulcers | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Venous ulcers are nasty things, often found on the lower extremities of elderly or inactive people. They occur when high blood pressure causes the skin adjacent to the affected veins to break down, leaving open wounds that take months or even years to heal. Standard treatments include compression bandages, infection control and standard wound dressings, although these approaches don’t work in all cases. Now, however, scientists are getting good results using band-aid-like patches that emit ultrasound into the ulcers.

 

It’s been suspected for some time that ultrasound could have a curative effect on the ulcers, although most studies have investigated the use of fairly high frequencies – around 1 to 3 megahertz. Instead, a group of scientists from Philadelphia’s Drexel University tried using frequencies that were considerably lower.

 

 

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Chocolate may help keep brain healthy | KurzweilAI

Chocolate may help keep brain healthy | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Drinking two cups of hot chocolate a day may help older people keep their brains healthy and their thinking skills sharp, according to...
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Software upgrades to bionic eye enable color recognition, improve resolution, image focus, zooming | KurzweilAI

Software upgrades to bionic eye enable color recognition, improve resolution, image focus, zooming | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
An Argus II device implanted over the eye's macula. (Credit: UCSF) The first bionic eye to be approved for patients in the U.S. is getting software
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Cancer biomarker tests undervalued by doctors and patients, authors say - News-Medical.net

Cancer biomarker tests undervalued by doctors and patients, authors say
News-Medical.net
Doctors need a way to target treatments to patients most likely to benefit and avoid treating those who will not.

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Brian Shields's curator insight, August 4, 2013 6:37 PM

Very interesting observations regarding the importance of biomarkers and the obstaclescreated by the current cancer research environment.  The quote below is a great summary of the current status quo preventing personalized medicine from flousishing in the U.S.:


"The regulatory process, the research funding, the reimbursement, even the standards for journal publications for tumor biomarker tests are all meager compared to the robust support for drug development, the authors say."

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Smelling Cancer: Device Detects Bladder Cancer From Odor of Urine

Smelling Cancer: Device Detects Bladder Cancer From Odor of Urine | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The smell of urine is not usually associated with having life-saving properties. But a new UK device called the ‘Odoreader’ can analyze urine odors and determine if bladder cancer (BC) is present.
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Lab Grown Retinal Cells Implanted Into Blind Mice – And They Work

Lab Grown Retinal Cells Implanted Into Blind Mice – And They Work | Longevity science | Scoop.it
What if we could reverse degenerative forms of blindness with but an injection of new cells? Stem cell therapies—still promising, if not particularly speedy—may someday do just that.
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Silky brain implants may help stop spread of epilepsy | KurzweilAI

Silky brain implants may help stop spread of epilepsy | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Example of Silk Implant Used in the Study. Silk implants designed to release adenosine were placed into rat brains to stop the spread of epilepsy. (Credit: Dr.
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Cardiac cells and gold nanofibers join forces to heal damaged hearts

Cardiac cells and gold nanofibers join forces to heal damaged hearts | Longevity science | Scoop.it
There may be new hope for heart attack victims, in the form of patches that incorporate gold nanofibers and cardiac cells. The electrically-conductive nanof...
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Portable fat breathalyzer indicates if you’re burning fat

Portable fat breathalyzer indicates if you’re burning fat | Longevity science | Scoop.it

While there's no shortage of breathalyzers capable of detecting if you’ve had one too many drinks, a prototype device developed by researchers at NTT DOCOMO Research Laboratories analyzes your breath to detect if your body is burning fat. Besides letting users know if that exercise regime is actually shedding some pounds, its creators say the portable sensor could be helpful for diabetics and those trying to lose weight manage their daily diet.

Rather than detecting exhaled fat particles, the device detects the levels of acetone on one’s breath. Although primarily produced in the blood when fat is broken down, acetone is also expelled through alveoli in the lungs and is therefore present in exhaled breath, making it a good indicator of when the body has begun to break down fat.

 

 

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Stainless steel robot arm designed to experiment with drugs

Stainless steel robot arm designed to experiment with drugs | Longevity science | Scoop.it

If you were designing a robotic arm for use in pharmaceutical research, you’d want to make it easy to sterilize between uses. That’s why Kawasaki Heavy Industries has encased its snazzy-looking new MSR05 arm entirely in stainless steel.

 

Recently demonstrated at the Interphex Japan pharmaceutical industry trade show, the MSR05 is intended specifically for use in drug discovery experiments involving dangerous substances. In order to minimize the risk of contamination taking place within those experiments, the whole assembly can be safely sterilized using hydrogen peroxide gas

 

 

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DARPA’s Brain-controlled Prosthetic Arm and a Bionic Hand That Can Touch

DARPA’s Brain-controlled Prosthetic Arm and a Bionic Hand That Can Touch | Longevity science | Scoop.it

The US Department of Defense has a good reason to fund research in advanced bionic limbs—in fact, it has a couple thousand good reasons. In the last thirteen years, 2,000 men and women have lost a limb in military service. And of course, military amputees are hardly the only amputees. Far from it.

 

Advanced prosthetic research in clinical settings is providing a ray of hope for all these folks—military or civilian—as participants in DARPA’s Reliable Neural-Interface Technology (RE-NET) program continue to make progress in the realm of brain-interfacing prosthetic devices.

 

 

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