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Longevity science
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Guiding stem cells into damaged hearts with MRI and ultrasonics | KurzweilAI

Stem-cell therapy for damaged hearts is a brilliant idea whose time has not yet come. The problem: no way to ensure against faulty initial placement of the stem cells.

Stanford’s Sam Gambhir, PhD, MD, who heads Stanford medical school’s Department of Radiology may have found a way around it.

“You can use ultrasound to visualize the needle through which you deliver stem cells to the heart. But once those cells leave the needle, you’ve lost track of them,” he said.

 

 

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Nanotools for neuroscience and brain activity mapping | KurzweilAI

Nanotools for neuroscience and brain activity mapping | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

“Neuroscience — one of the greatest challenges facing science and engineering — is at a crossroads. …There exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function [due partly to] limitations in current methodologies,” say neuroscientists in a new ACS Nano open-access paper, “Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping.”

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Receptor for Tasting Fat is CD36

Receptor for Tasting Fat is CD36 | Longevity science | Scoop.it
For the first time, a team of scientists at Washington University School of Medicine has identified a human receptor that can taste fat.

 

CD36 is a membrane protein found on the surface of many cell types in humans, mice, rats and many vertebrate animals. The findings also suggest that variations in the CD36 gene can make people more or less sensitive to the taste of fat.

 

“The ultimate goal is to understand how our perception of fat in food might influence what foods we eat and the quantities of fat that we consume,” said Dr. Nada Abumrad, senior investigator and the Dr. Robert A. Atkins Professor of Medicine and Obesity Research.

 

“In this study, we’ve found one potential reason for individual variability in how people sense fat. It may be, as was shown recently, that as people consume more fat, they become less sensitive to it, requiring more intake for the same satisfaction. What we will need to determine in the future is whether our ability to detect fat in foods influences our fat intake, which clearly would have an impact on obesity.”

 

The CD36 discovery follows research that had identified a role for the gene in rats and mice. Scientists had learned that when animals are genetically engineered without a working CD36 gene, they no longer display a preference for fatty foods. In addition, animals that can’t make the CD36 protein have difficulty digesting fat.

 

Up to 20 percent of people are believed to have the variant in the CD36 gene that is associated with making significantly less CD36 protein. That, in turn, could mean they are less sensitive to the presence of fat in food.

 

Dr. Abumrad was the first to identify CD36 as the protein that facilitates the uptake of fatty acids. She explained that better understanding of how the protein works in people could be important in the fight against obesity.

“Diet can affect sensitivity to fat, and in animals, diet also influences the amount of CD36 that’s made,” added Dr. Pepino. “If we follow the results in animals, a high-fat diet would lead to less production of CD36, and that, in turn, could make a person less sensitive to fat. From our results in this study, we would hypothesize that people with obesity may make less of the CD36 protein. So it would seem logical that the amounts of the protein we make can be modified, both by a person’s genetics and by the diet they eat.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Scientists transplant neural stem cells from a monkey’s skin into its brain | KurzweilAI

Scientists transplant neural stem cells from a monkey’s skin into its brain | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

University of Wisconsin-Madison scientists have transplanted neural cells derived from stem cells from a monkey’s skin into its brain and watched the cells develop into several types of mature brain cells.

After six months, the cells looked entirely normal, and were only detectable because they initially were tagged with a fluorescent protein.

 

 

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Engineered artificial human livers for drug testing and discovery | KurzweilAI

Engineered artificial human livers for drug testing and discovery | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) researchers have engineered an artificial human liver that mimics the natural tissue environment closely.

 

The development makes it possible for companies to predict the toxicity of new drugs earlier, potentially speeding up the drug development process and reducing the cost of manufacturing

 

 

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Robotic CORBYS platform uses patient feedback to help stroke victims walk again

Robotic CORBYS platform uses patient feedback to help stroke victims walk again | Longevity science | Scoop.it

The EU-funded CORBYS project aims to make such therapy easier for everyone involved by using a powered orthosis to move the patient’s legs in response to feedback from their brain.

 

 

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Tapeworm genome points way to better drug treatments

Tapeworm genome points way to better drug treatments | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Scientists have for the first time mapped the genomes of tapeworms, shedding light on the evolution of one of humankind's oldest parasites and revealing new possibilities for drug treatments.

 

DNA analysis of the tapeworms suggests that a number of existing medicines for cancer, viruses and other diseases may be able to fight serious illness caused by their larvae, which can spread through the body causing damaging cysts.

 

 

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Interval training can boost exercise effects while reducing a workout’s length

Interval training can boost exercise effects while reducing a workout’s length | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Want to cut the length of your workout while maintaining or even increasing the benefits? Try interval training, a type of cardiovascular workout in which you alternate bursts of peppier exercise with slower-paced recovery periods.

 

Intervals make you work more efficiently: Your overall intensity is greater, so the length of your workout can be cut by about 20 percent. Plus, a growing body of evidence suggests that this approach yields health benefits comparable or superior to traditional exercise.

 

 

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Caleb's comment, April 10, 2013 5:28 PM
Great way to being able to incorporate workouts into someones schedule while at the same time not taking too much time so as to allow more time for other things.
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Designing interlocking building blocks to create complex tissues

Designing interlocking building blocks to create complex tissues | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Researchers at Columbia Engineering have developed a new "plug-and-play" method to assemble complex cell microenvironments that is a scalable, highly precise way to fabricate tissues with any spatial organization or interest -- such as those found in the heart or skeleton or vasculature.

 

The study reveals new ways to better mimic the enormous complexity of tissue development, regeneration, and disease, and is published in the March 4 Early Online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

 

 

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Carbon nanotube transistors designed to detect cancer biomarkers

Carbon nanotube transistors designed to detect cancer biomarkers | Longevity science | Scoop.it
New technique could give conventional immunoassays a run for their money

 

Carbon-nanotube transistors could be used to detect minute quantities of disease biomarkers, such as the proteins implicated in prostate cancer, according to new experiments by researchers in the US. The technique could rival conventional methods when it comes to sensitivity, cost and speed.

 

Conventional techniques to detect proteins are typically based on some form of "immunoassay", with the most famous of these being enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This technique involves introducing an enzyme-modified antibody protein to an unknown amount of target molecule or protein, known as an antigen, and allowing them to bind together. Unreacted antibodies are washed away, leaving behind only antibody–antigen pairs.

 

The reaction can usually be detected by a colour change in the solution or by a fluorescent signal. The degree of colour change or fluorescence depends upon the number of enzyme-modified antibodies present, which in turn depends on the initial concentration of antigen in the sample.

 

Although such tests are routinely used in hospitals and clinics, they are quite long, taking several days or even weeks to complete. They are also costly, complicated to perform and can only detect single proteins at a time.

"Our new nanotube sensors are relatively simple compared to these ELISA tests," team member Mitchell Lerner, at the University of Pennsylvania, told physicsworld.com. "Detection occurs in just minutes, not days, and even at the laboratory scale, the cost of an array of 2000 such sensors is roughly $50 or 2.5 cents per sensor."

 

More importantly still, the sensors are much more sensitive to the target proteins in question. Indeed the Pennsylvania researchers showed that they could detect a prostate-cancer biomarker called osteopontin (OPN) at 1 pg/mL, which is roughly 1000 times lower than that possible with clinical ELISA measurements.


Detecting Lyme disease: The team, which is led by A T Charlie Johnson of Penn's Department of Physics and Astronomy, made its nanotube sensors by attaching OPN-binding antibodies to carbon-nanotube transistors on a silicon chip. Many proteins in the body bind very strongly to specific target molecules or proteins, and OPN is no exception. When the chip is immersed in a test sample, the OPN binds to the antibodies, something that changes the electronic characteristics of the transistor. Measuring the voltage and current through each device thus allows the researchers to accurately measure how much OPN there is in the sample.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Researchers find molecular switch to make old brains young again

Researchers find molecular switch to make old brains young again | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Researchers at Yale University have found a way to effectively turn back the clock and make an old brain young again.

 

As we enter adulthood, our brains become more stable and rigid when compared to that of an adolescent. This is partially due to the triggering of a single gene that slows the rapid change in synaptic connections between neurons, thereby suppressing the high levels of plasticity of an adolescent brain.

 

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Despite obesity rise, U.S. calories trending downward

U.S. adults have been eating steadily fewer calories for almost a decade, despite the continued increase in obesity rates, according to survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

 

 

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Take a deep breath – scientists working on a stress breath test

Take a deep breath – scientists working on a stress breath test | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Most of us are able to let other people know that we’re stressed, simply by telling them. For people such as those suffering from Alzheimer’s, however, it can be difficult to express such a thought. That’s why UK scientists at Loughborough University and Imperial College London are developing a new test that can determine someone’s stress levels by analyzing their breath.

 

 

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Endogenous cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart failure

Endogenous cardiac stem cells for the treatment of heart failure | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Recent data obtained from phase I clinical trials using endogenous cardiovascular progenitors isolated directly from the heart suggest that cell-based treatment for heart patients using stem cells that reside in the heart provides significant functional benefit and an improvement in patient outcome.

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How would you like to invest in immortality? | KurzweilAI

How would you like to invest in immortality? | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

With his 2045 Initiative, Russian Internet mogul Dmitry Itskov is looking for backers for the world’s first immortality research center.

The new venture sells itself: invest in his new research and development interest and the payoff could be immortality, reports Fortune.

 

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Tiny, personal blood testing laboratory gets under your skin

Tiny, personal blood testing laboratory gets under your skin | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Blood tests usually involve drawing some blood out of the body. Now scientists from the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) have developed an implant that allows blood to be analyzed from within the body, with results then transmitted wirelessly to a computer.

 

While still at the experimental stage, the device could make it easier for health care providers to monitor the chronically ill and provide more personalized treatment to cancer patients.

 

 

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Starting with one mouse, scientists create 581 successive clones

Starting with one mouse, scientists create 581 successive clones | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Using the technique that created Dolly the sheep, researchers from the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan, have identified a way to produce healthy mouse clones that live a normal lifespan and can be sequentially cloned indefinitely.

 

In an experiment that started in 2005, the team led by Dr. Teruhiko Wakayama has used a technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SNCT) to produce 581 clones of one original "donor" mouse through 25 consecutive rounds of cloning.

 

 

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Vitamin E anti-cancer mechanism mooted by researchers

The supposed anti-cancer effects of vitamin E have been long suggested. Now researchers believe they may have identified a key mechanism behind these properties.
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Mindwalker mind-controlled exoskeleton could help the disabled walk again

Mindwalker mind-controlled exoskeleton could help the disabled walk again | Longevity science | Scoop.it

The Mindwalker (or Mind-controlled orthosis and VR-training environment for walk empowering) project proposes that the damaged spinal cord be bypassed altogether, instead routing brain signals directly to a robotic exoskeleton in a bid to get patients back on their feet. Its development involved researchers collaborating across several European countries.

 

 

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Even a small sleep deficit can activate the immune system and affect health

Even a small sleep deficit can activate the immune system and affect health | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Even a small sleep deficit — as little as an hour a night — can lead to some seriously unpleasant conditions, including floppy eyelids, sexual dysfunction and loss of hair, hearing and even vision.

 

“Because when we don’t get enough sleep, our immune systems go into overdrive, which causes systemic inflammation and turns on dangerous genetic switches.”

 

 

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Omega-3 DHA may prevent earliest preemies

For pregnant women, supplements of an omega-3 fatty acid called Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may help to reduce the likelihood of giving birth very prematurely, according to a new study.

The results add to evidence that omega-3 fatty acid supplements make pregnancy last a little longer, which means more development time for babies before birth, less hospital time after birth and a better long-term health outlook.

 

 

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Bioteeth generated from your own cells | KurzweilAI

Bioteeth generated from your own cells | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Researchers are developing a method to replace missing teeth with new bioengineered teeth generated from a person’s own gum cells.

Current implant-based methods of whole tooth replacement fail to reproduce a natural root structure and as a consequence of the friction from eating and other jaw movement, loss of jaw bone can occur around the implant.

Research towards producing bioengineered teeth (bioteeth) has largely focused on generating immature teeth (teeth primordia) that mimic those in the embryo that can be transplanted as small cell pellets into the adult jaw to develop into functional teeth, the researchers say.

 

 

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New Study Validates Longevity Pathway | Resveratrol and Longevity

New Study Validates Longevity Pathway | Resveratrol and Longevity | Longevity science | Scoop.it

A new study demonstrates what researchers consider conclusive evidence that the red wine compound resveratrol directly activates a protein that promotes health and longevity in animal models.

 

What’s more, the researchers have uncovered the molecular mechanism for this interaction, and show that a class of more potent drugs currently in clinical trials act in a similar fashion. Pharmaceutical compounds similar to resveratrol may potentially treat and prevent diseases related to aging in people, the authors contend.

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Thimble Bioelectronics developing wearable pain relief patch

Thimble Bioelectronics developing wearable pain relief patch | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Imagine if you could treat pain the same way you treat a cut: throw a bandage on it and let it heal. Thimble Bioelectronics is working on a patch based on Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) that's designed to provide this type of portable pain relief.

 

TENS is a type of treatment that uses low voltage electrical stimulation to alleviate certain types of pain. The treatment is typically performed via a small machine, but Thimble Bioelectronics is busy designing a wearable application of the technology designed to adhere to the problem area and provide TENS treatment for the pain.

 

 

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SMART bike helmet monitors its wearer's heart rate

SMART bike helmet monitors its wearer's heart rate | Longevity science | Scoop.it

While a lot of serious cyclists like to check their heart rate while riding, not everyone enjoys having a monitor strapped to their chest ... especially if they’re getting hot and sweaty. A couple of the engineers at Tel-Aviv-based tech firm LifeBEAM felt that way, so they adapted some of the company’s existing aerospace technology to create something new – the heart rate-monitoring SMART bicycle helmet.

 

 

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