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Pluripotent cells from pancreatic cancer cells first human model of cancer's progression

Pluripotent cells from pancreatic cancer cells first human model of cancer's progression | Longevity science | Scoop.it

University of Pennsylvania scientists have used stem-cell technology to create a research cell line from a patient with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma(PDAC).

 

This first-of-its-kind human-cell model of pancreatic cancer progression was published this week in Cell Reports from the lab of Ken Zaret, PhD, professor of Cell and Developmental Biology.

 

"It is the first example using induced pluripotent stem [iPS] cells to model cancer progression directly from a solid tumor, and the first human cell line that can model pancreatic cancer progression from early to invasive stages," says Zaret, also the associate director of the Penn Institute for Regenerative Medicine.

 

 

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Caloric restriction increases monkey lifespan, benefits health

Caloric restriction increases monkey lifespan, benefits health | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Can the lifespan of an animal be increased by restricting their intake of calories? The question has been the subject of study for decades, primarily through two concurrent long-term experiments using rhesus monkeys. Interestingly, these two studies came to conflicting conclusions, but by comparing their results and accounting for other variables, scientists have now determined that the answer is yes – caloric restriction does help monkeys stay healthier and live longer.
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Concise Review: Mending a Broken Heart: The Evolution of Biological Therapeutics

HF, a complex clinical syndrome, represents a major global health problem. Significant progress has been made over the past two decades in cell- and gene-based therapies for HF, promising the development of innovative therapeutic strategies for both treatment and prevention (Figure 1). There are, of course, substantial gaps in knowledge that pose obstacles to the realization of the full potential of such novel biological therapies for clinical benefit. There is still a tremendous amount of work to be done, especially in addressing the need for deeper insights into the underlying disease mechanisms (i.e., which cell types, which genes, and at what levels, which pathways are relevant to any given pathogenic process, and which patients to treat).
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Anti-aging therapies targeting senescent cells: Facts and fiction

Anti-aging therapies targeting senescent cells: Facts and fiction | Longevity science | Scoop.it
It's an exciting time to be an elderly mouse. Researchers believe that by removing senescent cells (cells with a persistent damage response), which naturally accumulate with age, senior rodents can regrow hair, run faster, and improve organ function. This strategy may bring us one step closer to the "fountain of youth," but it's important to be cautious and not hype, says researcher of aging Peter de Keizer of the Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands. In an Opinion published December 29 in Trends in Molecule Medicine, he discusses the milestones the field still needs to hit before translation in humans is ready for discussion.
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DNA-repairing drug could fight aging and radiation damage

DNA-repairing drug could fight aging and radiation damage | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Researchers at Harvard Medical School and the University of New South Wales (UNSW) have uncovered one of the key mechanisms that gradually weakens our body's ability to repair DNA, and tests were able to restore the cell function of old mice to that of their younger counterparts. The team says an anti-aging drug could be developed in the next few years, and the treatment also shows promise in reversing DNA damage caused by radiation exposure – good news for cancer battlers or space travelers.

This new study builds on previous work from the Harvard-UNSW team that explores the role that a molecule called NAD plays in the body. Back in 2011, treating diabetic mice with the compound NMN (which produces NAD) was found to restore the animals' blood sugar metabolism to near-normal levels, and later, the scientists used the compound to fight aging by fixing the chemical communication going on inside cells.
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Unexpected new lung function discovered: Making blood

Unexpected new lung function discovered: Making blood | Longevity science | Scoop.it
"To our knowledge this is the first description of blood progenitors resident in the lung, and it raises a lot of questions with clinical relevance for the millions of people who suffer from thrombocytopenia," says Looney. "We're seeing more and more that the stem cells that produce the blood don't just live in one place but travel around through the blood stream. Perhaps 'studying abroad' in different organs is a normal part of stem cell education."

The findings should help inform new studies into treatments for diseases that affect platelet production, and provides a better understanding of the active role stem cells play in the body. Future research could apply the discovery to the human body, and look into how the lungs and bone marrow work together to produce blood.
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Gene-silencing drug halves cholesterol levels with a single jab

Gene-silencing drug halves cholesterol levels with a single jab | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A new gene-silencing drug that can lower cholesterol levels is proving promising in initial clinical test results. The treatment was shown to reduce the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in patients' blood by up to 51 percent in the month following one single treatment. The drug, named Inclisiran, utilizes a technique called RNA interference therapy which targets, and switches off, a specific gene known to be responsible for elevated LDL levels.
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Lab-grown chicken on the menu for the first time

Lab-grown chicken on the menu for the first time | Longevity science | Scoop.it
If you find yourself torn between cravings and ethical concerns every time you tuck into a chicken nugget, there might soon be a way you can have your meat and eat it too. Memphis Meats has just served up chicken and duck meat cultivated in a lab from poultry cells, meaning no animals were harmed in the making of the meal.
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New Artificial Synapse Bridges the Gap to Brain-Like Computers

New Artificial Synapse Bridges the Gap to Brain-Like Computers | Longevity science | Scoop.it
From AlphaGo’s historic victory against world champion Lee Sedol to DeepStack’s sweeping win against professional poker players, artificial intelligence is clearly on a roll.

Part of the momentum comes from breakthroughs in artificial neural networks, which loosely mimic the multi-layer structure of the human brain. But that’s where the similarity ends. While the brain can hum along on energy only enough to power a light bulb, AlphaGo’s neural network runs on a whopping 1,920 CPUs and 280 GPUs, with a total power consumption of roughly one million watts—50,000 times more than its biological counterpart.
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Neanderthals 'self-medicated' for pain - BBC News

Neanderthals 'self-medicated' for pain - BBC News | Longevity science | Scoop.it
It appears the Neanderthals had a good knowledge of medicinal plants and how these might relieve the pain of toothache or stomach ache. They might also have used antibiotics, long before the medicines were developed in modern times.

"The use of antibiotics would be very surprising, as this is more than 40,000 years before we developed penicillin," said Prof Cooper.

"Certainly our findings contrast markedly with the rather simplistic view of our ancient relatives in popular imagination."
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A biocompatible stretchable material for brain implants and ‘electronic skin’ | KurzweilAI

A biocompatible stretchable material for brain implants and ‘electronic skin’ | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Stanford chemical engineers have developed a soft, flexible plastic electrode that stretches like rubber but carries electricity like wires — ideal for brain interfaces and other implantable electronics, they report in an open-access March 10 paper in Science Advances.

Developed by Zhenan Bao, a professor of chemical engineering, and his team, the material is still a laboratory prototype, but the team hopes to develop it as part of their long-term focus on creating flexible materials that interface with the human body.

Flexible interface

“One thing about the human brain that a lot of people don’t know is that it changes volume throughout the day,” says postdoctoral research fellow Yue Wang,
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Low-gluten diets linked to increased risk of diabetes

Low-gluten diets linked to increased risk of diabetes | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A new study released by the American Heart Foundation points to a possible relationship between low-gluten diets and a higher risk of Type 2 diabetes.

A Consumer Reports National Research Centre survey from 2014 revealed that up to a third of American adults polled were trying to cut gluten out of their diets. Yet the prevalence of celiac disease in the United States has been relatively stable at about 1 percent of the population. So many people seem to believe that reducing or eliminating gluten from their diet is an inherently healthy act, but is there actually any science to back up that belief?
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Caffeine among compounds that could combat dementia

Caffeine among compounds that could combat dementia | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A new study by Indiana University researchers has revealed how several compounds, including caffeine, help boost the production of an enzyme that has been shown to protect the brain against several degenerative neurological disorders.

In previous research, the team discovered that an enzyme known as NMNAT2 was shown to reduce the cognitive defects associated with dementia and other degenerative brain diseases. The enzyme does this by combatting tau, which are misfolded proteins that can build up as plaques in the brain as we age and have been linked to numerous neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases and ALS (aka Lou Gehrig's disease). The enzyme also protects neurons from stress.
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Orlando V. Gonzalez MD's curator insight, March 17, 11:28 AM

At LIFE*MOD we pride ourselves in being a bit unconventional when it comes to telling people how to live longer healthier.  This is yet another example of how most people get information from the media and it usually isn't correct.  There are so many things that people do that they think are healthy.  

Most people don't know that there are foods/drinks that the media has told us are bad for us.  However, let us look at the science behind these claims.  

 

The more you know...

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Master genes trigger cascade of damage to other genes after brain trauma

Master genes trigger cascade of damage to other genes after brain trauma | Longevity science | Scoop.it
It wasn't that long ago that sportspeople were expected to simply shake off blows to the head and keep on playing, but evidence continues to mount regarding the seriousness and potential long-term risks of such injuries. Researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) have now identified a series of master genes that, when damaged through traumatic brain injury, can adversely trigger changes in other genes related to the onset of many neurological and psychiatric disorders.
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Algorithm-aided blood test could help locate cancer early

Algorithm-aided blood test could help locate cancer early | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Patients have better odds in the fight against cancer if it's caught early, but diagnosis often involves invasive biopsies that aren't usually undertaken unless there's already reason to suspect the presence of cancer. But soon it could be as simple as a routine blood test, thanks to a new computer program from UCLA researchers that can spot biomarkers in a patient's blood sample and identify where in the body a tumor might be hiding.

The idea for a cancer-detecting blood test isn't a new one, with research teams tackling the problem by searching for different biomarkers, such as the RNA profiles of platelets, elevated levels of a certain protein, or the telltale battle scars that tumors have left on white blood cells.
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UC Berkeley Receives CRISPR Patent in Europe | The Scientist Magazine®

UC Berkeley Receives CRISPR Patent in Europe | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The European Patent Office (EPO) yesterday (March 23) announced its intention to award a broad-strokes patent for CRISPR gene-editing technology to the University of California, Berkeley, the University of Vienna, and Emmanuelle Charpentier (formerly of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research). The claims include the use of CRISPR across prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and organisms, hitting upon the point of contention in a recent patent interference decision in the United States. In that case, the US Patent and Trademark Office’s Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) denied UC Berkeley the rights over the use of the technology in eukaryotes—the money-making application for CRISPR—leaving that intellectual property with the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.
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"Immortalized" stem cells produce bigger, better blood batches

"Immortalized" stem cells produce bigger, better blood batches | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Donating blood saves lives, but there's never enough, especially when the difficulties of storage and matching blood types are taken into account. Artificial blood has been in the works for years, but it's held back by the fact that the stem cells it's grown from can only produce so many red blood cells. Now, researchers at the University of Bristol and NHS Blood and Transplant may have busted that barrier, by developing immortalized cell lines that can be cultured indefinitely to produce artificial blood on a much larger scale.
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Phosphoproteins in extracellular vesicles as candidate markers for breast cancer

Protein phosphorylation is a major regulatory mechanism for many cellular functions, but no phosphoprotein in biofluids has been developed for disease diagnosis because of the presence of active phosphatases. This study presents a general strategy to isolate and identify phosphoproteins in extracellular vesicles (EVs) from human plasma as potential markers to differentiate disease from healthy states. We identified close to 10,000 unique phosphopeptides in EVs from small volumes of plasma samples and more than 100 phosphoproteins in plasma EVs that are significantly higher in patients diagnosed with breast cancer as compared with healthy controls. This study demonstrates that the development of phosphoproteins in plasma EVs as disease biomarkers is highly feasible and may transform cancer screening and monitoring.
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10 Ways Technology Will Transform the Human Body in the next Decade

10 Ways Technology Will Transform the Human Body in the next Decade | Longevity science | Scoop.it

All over the world biohackers, scientists, entrepreneurs and corporations are eagerly pursuing new and marketable applications for advanced technologies. Many of them are being actively designed to help humans fulfill our age-old transcendent longings—to be stronger, smarter, better-looking and more resilient, and to cultivate new abilities that seem like superpowers by the standards of the past.

 

Here are 10 emerging devices and technologies that could soon enhance you in body and mind.

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First nanoengineered retinal implant could help the blind regain functional vision | KurzweilAI

First nanoengineered retinal implant could help the blind regain functional vision | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A team of engineers at the University of California San Diego and La Jolla-based startup Nanovision Biosciences Inc. have developed the first nanoengineered retinal prosthesis — a step closer to restoring the ability of neurons in the retina to respond to light.

The technology could help tens of millions of people worldwide suffering from neurodegenerative diseases that affect eyesight, including macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and loss of vision due to diabetes.
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Hand-mounted exoskeleton system helps surgeons get a grip

Hand-mounted exoskeleton system helps surgeons get a grip | Longevity science | Scoop.it
While many modern robotic inventions seem more like moonshot projects than practical ones, in the medical field, robots have been helping doctors perform surgery for over a decade. In most cases though, surgeons control the movement of the robot through joysticks, knobs, dials and other peripherals. A new exoskeleton being developed at the University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol, however, turns a doctor's hands into the controls.

Surgeons would slide the exoskeleton over their hands like a glove. At the other end of the device, a new surgical gripper would not only move according to the doctors' hand gestures, but it would be equipped with haptic feedback
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Modified corn fights fungus with "Trojan horse" RNA

Modified corn fights fungus with "Trojan horse" RNA | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The Aspergillus family of fungi is a dangerous food contaminant, thanks to its tendency to produce aflatoxins. These carcinogenic compounds have been linked to stunted growth in children, liver cancer, and immune suppression, which in turn increases a person's vulnerability to conditions like HIV. Now, researchers at the University of Arizona have genetically modified corn plants to fight back, by letting them send "Trojan horse" molecules into the fungus to neutralize its ability to produce the toxins.
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Google AI detects breast cancer better than pathologists - Pharmaphorum

Google AI detects breast cancer better than pathologists - Pharmaphorum | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Google has successfully applied deep learning artificial intelligence algorithms to the diagnosis of breast cancer.

In a study carried out by researchers taking part in Google’s Brain Residency Program – a 12-month educational course in machine and deep learning – an algorithm was trained to detect breast cancer tumours in a dataset of digitised pathology slides provided by Dutch medical institute the Radboud University Medical Center.

After ‘training’ the algorithm, researchers were able to achieve a 92% sensitivity in picking out tumour cells from the slides – significantly higher than the 73% achieved by trained pathologists with no time constraint.
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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease. - PubMed - NCBI

CONCLUSIONS:

Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood-brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment.

CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:

This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated.

 

[Dementia and Alzheimer's lead to a decrease or imbalance in amyloid-beta40 (Aβ40) levels. The study showed that resveratrol supplementation helps stabilize circulating Aβ40 levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.]

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New appetite-suppressing mechanism discovered - in your bones

New appetite-suppressing mechanism discovered - in your bones | Longevity science | Scoop.it
There has been plenty of recent research focusing on how your gut bacteria can send messages to your brain controlling appetite and feelings of satiation, but a recent discovery by researchers from the Columbia University Medical Centre has revealed a previously unknown appetite-regulating mechanism that is secreted by bone cells.

The CUMC team has been researching the function of bones for many years and back in 2007 made a major discovery. They revealed that our skeletons function as an endocrine organ with bone cells releasing hormones that are known to be crucial in regulating energy metabolism.
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4 Ways Scientists Hope Nanobots Will Make You Healthier

4 Ways Scientists Hope Nanobots Will Make You Healthier | Longevity science | Scoop.it
some of the most exciting progress in medical robotics is actually taking place at the micro and nano-scales. A recent review study in the journal Science Robotics highlights that materials and biomedical science have started to come together to create a new breed of miniature robots able to deliver drugs, carry out precision surgery and dramatically improve diagnostics.
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Key Regulator of Intestinal Homeostasis Identified | The Scientist Magazine®

Key Regulator of Intestinal Homeostasis Identified | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Researchers are only beginning to understand the roles of the hundreds of proteins involved in reading, writing, and erasing the epigenome. One of the epigenetic regulators, SP140, which is mutated in a number autoimmune disorders, including Crohn’s disease and multiple sclerosis, is also essential to macrophage function and intestinal homeostasis in both humans and mice, scientists reported today (March 3) in Science Immunology.

“Many immune-mediated disorders are driven by a combination of genetic susceptibility as well as environmental influences [so] epigenetics is a suitable critical juncture between those two aspects of the disease,” said coauthor Kate Jeffrey, a researcher investigating the epigenetic control of innate immunity at Massachusetts General Hospital.
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