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Matching Tumors With The Optimal Cancer Drugs - Science 2.0

Matching Tumors With The Optimal Cancer Drugs - Science 2.0 | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Matching Tumors With The Optimal Cancer Drugs
Science 2.0
The main driver of pancreatic cancer, a mutation in a gene called KRAS, has proven difficult to target with treatments.

Via Brian Shields
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Brian Shields's curator insight, February 7, 2013 11:18 AM

Very Powereful Quote and an important one for clinicians to understand, " We have a small but effective inventory of 'druggable' mutations that we know play a role in cancer"

Longevity science
Live longer in good health and you will have a chance to extend your healthy life even further
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Reinvent Yourself: The Playboy Interview with Ray Kurzweil

Reinvent Yourself: The Playboy Interview with Ray Kurzweil | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Many think author, inventor and data scientist Ray Kurzweil is a prophet for our digital age. A few say he’s completely nuts. Kurzweil, who heads a team of more than 40 as a director of engineering at Google, believes advances in technology and medicine are pushing us toward what he calls the Singularity, a period of profound cultural and evolutionary change in which computers will outthink the brain and allow people—you, me, the guy with the man-bun ahead of you at Starbucks—to live forever. He dates this development at 2045.
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Genetic switch could be key to increased health and lifespan

Genetic switch could be key to increased health and lifespan | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Newly discovered genetic switches that increase lifespan and boost fitness in worms are also linked to increased lifespan in mammals, offering hope that drugs to flip these switches could improve human metabolic function and increase longevity.

These so-called epigenetic switches, discovered by scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland, are enzymes that are ramped up after mild stress during early development and continue to affect the expression of genes throughout the animal’s life.

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More "good" foods better than less "bad" foods: Dietary patterns and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in a global study of high-risk patients with stable coronary heart disease

Eating more "good" foods from the Mediterranean diet may be more important than avoiding "bad" foods when it comes to preventing heart disease.

 

This new study concluded: "In a large geographically diverse cohort of high-risk patients with stable CHD, a diet containing more food groups included in the traditional Mediterranean diet, assessed using a simple self-administered FFQ, was associated with a lower risk of MACE and all-cause death. In contrast, greater consumption of foods thought to be less healthy and typical of Western diets was not associated with adverse CV events. These observations suggest dietary guidelines for secondary prevention of CHD should focus more on encouraging greater consumption of ‘healthy’ foods."

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Screening existing drugs to uncover new weapons against antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Screening existing drugs to uncover new weapons against antibiotic-resistant bacteria | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Across the globe, scientists are working around the clock to find means of tackling antibiotic-resistant bacteria. From quantum-dots to natural clay, we're trying just about anything to combat the threat, but the reality is that the rate at which we're producing new antibiotics is steadily decreasing, and we're extremely short on ways of fighting resistant bacteria like CRE.

This got the BIDMC researchers thinking – what if potential treatments might be hiding in plain sight, in existing drugs?
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Eric Larson's curator insight, May 3, 8:56 AM
New weapons to help.
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Scientists turn skin cells into heart and brain cells using only drugs — no stem cells required | KurzweilAI

Scientists turn skin cells into heart and brain cells using only drugs — no stem cells required | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have used chemicals to transform skin cells into heart cells and brain cells, instead of adding external genes — making this accomplishment a breakthrough, according to the scientists.

The research lays the groundwork for one day being able to regenerate lost or damaged cells directly with pharmaceutical drugs — a more efficient and reliable method to reprogram cells and one that avoids medical concerns surrounding genetic engineering.
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Micro-needle insertion into hippocampus stimulates brain regeneration in animal model of AD | KurzweilAI

Sticking a needle into the hippocampus of mice modeled with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) improved performance on memory tasks, stimulated regenerative activity, and reduced β-amyloid plaques (a hallmark of AD). This area was chosen because the early and primary damage by AD appears to take place in the hippocampus.

Until recently, many diseases of the central nervous system could not be treated by this method because of inaccessibility of the brain to micro-needles, said the researchers.
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Cancerous Conduits | The Scientist Magazine®

Cancerous Conduits | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Metastatic cancer cells use nanotubes to manipulate blood vessels.
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Final piece of the diabetes puzzle opens the door to better screening

Final piece of the diabetes puzzle opens the door to better screening | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Our understanding of diabetes has taken some significant strides recently, but a new discovery has the potential to significantly improve the screening process by giving us a more complete picture of the disease. Working out the University of Lincoln in the UK, a team was able to identify the fifth and final molecule attacked by the immune system in Type 1 of the condition.
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The Two Faces of Fish Oil | The Scientist Magazine®

The Two Faces of Fish Oil | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The researchers found that human mesenchymal stem cells (multipotent stromal cells already implicated in drug resistance) injected into tumor-bearing mice began secreting these fatty acids when the animals were administered cisplatin—a platinum-based drug used to treat various types of cancer. These platinum-induced fatty acids (PIFAs) had no effect on tumor growth, but neutralized the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin on tumor cells, hinting at a possible mechanism of chemoresistance in human patients receiving platinum-based therapies.
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Machine learning rivals human skills in cancer detection | KurzweilAI

Machine learning rivals human skills in cancer detection | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Samsung Medison, a global medical equipment company and an affiliate of Samsung Electronics, has just updated its RS80A ultrasound imaging system with a deep learning algorithm for breast-lesion analysis.

The “S-Detect for Breast” feature uses big data collected from breast-exam cases and recommends whether the selected lesion is benign or malignant. It’s used in in lesion segmentation, characteristic analysis, and assessment processes, providing “more accurate results.”

“We saw a high level of conformity from analyzing and detecting lesion in various cases by using the S-Detect,” said professor Han Boo Kyung, a radiologist at Samsung Medical Center.
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Arginine Reduces Insulin Resistance in People with Visceral Obesity

...a well-designed arginine formulation can help trigger your own internal biochemical resources of mental and physical power for feeling more vital and youthful. It can do this by increasing GH release for stronger muscles, boosting sexual function, enhancing memory, and strengthening immune function, not to mention improving cardiovascular function.

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Turmeric Improves Working Memory | Life Enhancement Products

Turmeric Improves Working Memory | Life Enhancement Products | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Because of the increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in diabetes, it is important to identify the phenomenon as early as possible and reverse or slow it down. Diabetes and dementia may serve as a risk factor for the other thus initiating a vicious cycle. This makes early detection and intervention imperative.

>The Rational Behind Turmeric

The evidence to date is not clear that current pharmacotherapy alters the risk of dementia in diabetes, with the possible exception of metformin. Vitamin B12 supplementation along with metformin may help sustain metformin’s potential value thus denying the exception. Also on the supplement stage, there are indications epidemiologically and experimentally that turmeric may reduce the risk of dementia and that its aromatic turmerone content may induce neural stem cell proliferation...

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Advances in Genome Editing | The Scientist Magazine®

Advances in Genome Editing | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Most genetic diseases in humans are caused by point mutations—single base errors in the DNA sequence. However, current genome-editing methods cannot efficiently correct these mutations in cells, and often cause random nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels) as a byproduct. Now, researchers at Harvard University have modified CRISPR/Cas9 technology to get around these problems, creating a new “base editor,” described today (April 20) in Nature, which permanently and efficiently converts cytosine (C) to uracil (U) bases with low error in human and mouse cell lines.

“There are a lot of genetic diseases where you would want, in essence, to swap bases in and out,” said Jacob Corn, scientific director of the Innovative Genomics Initiative at the University of California,

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Robot betters expert surgeons at soft tissue stitching

Robot betters expert surgeons at soft tissue stitching | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Working with the body's soft tissue has proved difficult because of how much it can squish and change during surgery. A new machine called the Smart Tissue Automation Robot (STAR) at Johns Hopkins University has overcome this obstacle and proven its ability by operating on pigs.

STAR consists of a robotic arm equipped with a suturing tool coupled with a 3D imaging system and near-infrared sensor that looks for fluorescent markers put along the edges of tissue by the researchers. The surgery is guided by an "autonomous suturing algorithm" specially developed to work with the system.

In tests, STAR was able to sew together severed pig bowels as successfully as human surgeons who participated in the study. Both in-vivo and ex-vivo tests were carried out.

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Nanoparticles deliver fat-fighting drugs directly to the source

Nanoparticles deliver fat-fighting drugs directly to the source | Longevity science | Scoop.it

We've seen drugs capable of turning white fat-storing tissue into brown, fat-burning tissue, but a new nanoparticle delivery system could significantly improve how such treatments are delivered, avoiding unwanted side effects. The work was conducted by a team from MIT and Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Obesity is a huge health issue, with almost a third of people in the US falling into the bracket. It's also the root cause of some 20 percent of cancer deaths in the country, making it more dangerous than smoking in that regard.

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World-first blood test for Parkinson

World-first blood test for Parkinson | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Currently no clinical biomarker test exists for Parkinson's and the only means of diagnosis is a neurological examination. By the time patients develop symptoms and undergo the exam, large numbers of vital brain cells have already been destroyed.

La Trobe's blood test will enable doctors to detect with unprecedented reliability the abnormal metabolism of blood cells in people with Parkinson's, which will allow them to provide treatment options much earlier.
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Discovery points to a reason for neuron death in stroke victims

Discovery points to a reason for neuron death in stroke victims | Longevity science | Scoop.it
It's well known that conditions such as schizophrenia, as well as strokes, seizures and traumatic brain injuries cause increased acidity around neurons in the brain, but scientists have struggled to understand exactly why this occurs. Now, researchers from the University at Buffalo may have pinpointed the reason, finding that an elusive receptor might play a big role.

The discovery was made while the Buffalo team focused in on a group of brain receptors known as N-methyl-D-aspartate or NMDA receptors, which are known to play a role in memory and learning. While most of these are inhibited by increased acidity, one receptor, known as N3A, was found to be reactivated by it.
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What are flavonoids?

Flavonoids are one of the largest nutrient families known to scientists, and include over 6,000 already-identified family members. Some of the best-known flavonoids include quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, and anthocyanidins. This nutrient group is most famous for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory health benefits, as well as its contribution of vibrant color to the foods we eat.
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Compound reverses symptoms of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's in fruit flies

Compound reverses symptoms of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's in fruit flies | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's are extremely widespread, affecting millions of people across the planet, but treatments are limited, and there's currently no cure available.

 

New work is showing promise in the development of a new treatment, with scientists identifying a compound that can reverse symptoms of the diseases. The method hasn't been tested on human patients just yet, but it's been found to be effective in genetically modified fruit flies.

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Two-Way Traffic | The Scientist Magazine®

Two-Way Traffic | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Five years ago, scientists at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City showed that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could both colonize metastatic sites and travel back to their tumors of origin. Taking advantage of this bidirectional CTC movement, researchers at the University of New Mexico and their colleagues injected mice with CTCs that were genetically modified (GM) to express an anticancer cytokine. The team found that these GM CTCs were able to home to tumors and release the cytokine, leading to decreased tumor growth. The results, published February 8 in PNAS, suggest that cancer cells may be useful tools for anticancer therapies.
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First Data from Anti-Aging Gene Therapy | The Scientist Magazine®

First Data from Anti-Aging Gene Therapy | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Telomere length. There is not clear evidence that says longer telomeres will equate to longer life. But now there is a bit of human data to examine.

 

The first clinical studies using a gene therapy to stall aging and increase health span have been carried out by BioViva.

Previous research has demonstrated that gene therapy could both delay disease and extend longevity in mice. Researchers went on to demonstrate that telomerase gene therapy can abate certain age-related diseases in mice as well.

 

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Stem Cells for Personalized Pain Therapy Testing | The Scientist Magazine®

Stem Cells for Personalized Pain Therapy Testing | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Now, researchers have developed a new way to test pain—and, potentially, other sensory-targeting medications. Edward Stevens and James Bilsland of the Pfizer’s U.K.-based neuroscience and pain research units and their colleagues have shown that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from blood samples of patients with a pain disorder can be used to create sensory neurons that recapitulate the disease phenotype. Testing a novel pain inhibitor on the patient-derived, iPSC-based neurons, the researchers recapitulated the sensitivity to the drug seen in the corresponding patients in a clinical trial.

The team’s results, published this week (April 20) in Science Translational Medicine, suggest that such a stem cell-based approach may be useful to study nerve dysfunction. “We hope this approach will have wide application to many pain states and translate to other therapeutic areas,” Stevens wrote in an email to The Scientist.
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Vinpocetine Helps with Urinary Incontinence

Vinpocetine Helps with Urinary Incontinence | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Vinpocetine’s Five Modes of Action

There has been much research on vinpocetine’s physiological actions, which fall into five categories:


>Selective enhancement of cerebral circulation and oxygen utilization (without significantly affecting these functions throughout the rest of the body).

 

>Significant increase in the brain’s tolerance of hypoxia (impaired oxygen supply), a condition that can contribute to dementia.

 

>An anticonvulsant effect, which might prove useful in the treatment of epilepsy (see the sidebar).

 

>Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE-1), which is one of a large family of enzymes, the phosphodiesterases, that play vital roles in various biological processes, especially the regulation of smooth-muscle tone.

 

>Improvement of the flow properties of blood by making red blood cells more deformable, and inhibition of platelet aggregation, which can lead to blood clots.

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Mia's curator insight, April 28, 4:02 PM
Ahhh, plants- Mother Nature's remedies. Sooooo soothing and perfect....IF IT WEREN'TFOR COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER AND GLOBAL WARMING!!!!!!
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Brain Keeps Watch During Sleep | The Scientist Magazine®

Brain Keeps Watch During Sleep | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
When it comes to bedding down in an unfamiliar place, the old adage about sleeping with one eye open may not be that far from the truth. New research helps explain this “first-night effect,” finding that one brain hemisphere remains more active than the other, researchers at Brown University and their colleagues reported today (April 21) in Current Biology.

“It’s an interesting finding,” Steven Stufflebeam, a neuroradiologist at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, told The Scientist. “They found . . . one hemisphere of the brain was in a more vigilant state during the first night of sleep,” said Stufflebeam, who was not involved in the research.
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“Hunger Hormone” No More? | The Scientist Magazine®

“Hunger Hormone” No More? | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Transgenic mice with an overactive form of the receptor for ghrelin—often dubbed the “hunger hormone”—do not have the increased appetites one might expect, yet still gain weight, according to a paper published yesterday (April 19) in Science Signaling. The results suggest that the long-held view of ghrelin as a regulator of food intake may not be entirely accurate. But not everyone is convinced.

“It’s an intellectually intriguing finding,” said Yale School of Medicine’s Tamas Horvath who was not involved in the study. “Am I 100 percent convinced that this proves that ghrelin has no effect on feeding? No. But I think that [the authors] come up with a provocative set of data and I think . . . it’s going to initiate more thorough studies on this important question,” he added.
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