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Researchers Identify Biomarker and Potential Therapy Target in MS ...

Researchers Identify Biomarker and Potential Therapy Target in MS ... | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Researchers discover proteins in the IL-6 signaling pathway may be leveraged as novel biomarkers of multiple sclerosis (MS) to gauge disease activity and as a target for new therapies.


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Research suggests there may be an off switch for drug resistance in cancer cells

Research suggests there may be an off switch for drug resistance in cancer cells | Longevity science | Scoop.it
In cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, hundreds of thousands of cancerous cells are killed off. But if even one of these cells has a unique mutation, it can survive the treatment and start to multiply, giving rise to a set of more drug-resistant cells. Researchers at the Salk Institute in California have now gained new insights into what exactly is causing these variations in the cells, suggesting there may in fact be a way of switching off the mechanism and improving treatment effectiveness.

Lead by staff scientist Fernando Lopez-Diaz, the Salk researchers set about identifying the diversification switch, that is, what mechanism was causing the cancers cells to multiply and take on slightly different forms. If this process could be prevented from happening, it may well curtail the cells' ability to develop the resistance to cancer-fighting drugs.

"Cancer isn’t one cell but it’s an ecosystem, a community of cells," says Beverly Emerson, professor at Salk's Regulatory Biology Laboratory. "This study begins the groundwork for potentially finding a way to understand and dial back cell diversity and adaptability during chemotherapy to decrease drug resistance."
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Scientists use protein to restore hearing to deaf mice

Scientists use protein to restore hearing to deaf mice | Longevity science | Scoop.it
There may be new hope for people who have lost some of their hearing due to exposure to loud noises, or simply due to aging. Scientists from the University of Michigan and Harvard University have restored hearing in mice, by getting them to create more of a protein within their ears.

When sound waves enter our ears, they cause sensory receptors known as hair cells to vibrate. Each hair cell is in turn linked to a corresponding nerve cell via a ribbon synapse. When those synapses are functioning properly, they allow the vibrations of the hair cells to be relayed to the nerve cells, and then interpreted by the brain as sound. As the ribbon synapses break down, however, our hearing likewise deteriorates.
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Next-Gen Diagnostics, Nanotechnology, and Bioengineering Begin Taking the Fight to Cancer

Next-Gen Diagnostics, Nanotechnology, and Bioengineering Begin Taking the Fight to Cancer | Longevity science | Scoop.it
University of Bradford scientists, led by Dr. Diana Anderson, hypothesized that DNA in white blood cells from cancer patients wouldn’t be able to withstand or repair UV damage as well as DNA from healthy volunteers. Why? Because cancer patients’ immune systems would be working overtime even in the disease’s earliest stages.
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Bio-inspired ‘nano-cocoons’ trick cancer cells into accepting drug delivery | KurzweilAI

Bio-inspired ‘nano-cocoons’ trick cancer cells into accepting drug delivery | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Biomedical engineering researchers have developed a drug delivery system consisting of nanoscale “cocoons” made of DNA that target cancer cells and trick the cells into absorbing the cocoon before unleashing anticancer drugs.

The work was done by researchers at North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

“This drug delivery system is DNA-based, which means it is biocompatible and less toxic to patients than systems that use synthetic materials,” says Dr. Zhen Gu, senior author of a paper on the work and an assistant professor in the joint biomedical engineering program at NC State and UNC Chapel Hill.
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Green tea nanocarrier delivers cancer-killing drugs more effectively

Green tea nanocarrier delivers cancer-killing drugs more effectively | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Many of us drink green tea for its wonderful health benefits, including proven antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-aging and anti-cancer properties. Now, researchers in Singapore have taken its cancer-fighting properties to the next level, developing a green tea-based nanocarrier that encapsulates cancer-killing drugs. It is the first time green tea has been used to deliver drugs to cancer cells, with promising results. Animal studies show far more effective tumor reduction than use of the drug alone while significantly reducing the accumulation of drugs in other organs.

The new drug delivery system, developed at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) of A*STAR, uses epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a powerful antioxidant and catechin found in green tea and used therapeutically to treat cancer and other disorders.
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Alzheimer’s-in-a-dish is ‘first clear evidence’ for amyloid hypothesis | KurzweilAI

Alzheimer’s-in-a-dish is ‘first clear evidence’ for amyloid hypothesis | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) researchers have created the first “Alzheimer’s-in-a-dish” — a 3D petri dish capable of reproducing the full course of events underlying the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s has been thought to result from the buildup of inflammatory plaque formed by the beta-amyloid protein and from another protein, tau, which entangles neurons.

The new research provides the first clear evidence supporting the hypothesis that deposition of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain is in fact the first step in a cascade leading to the devastating neurodegenerative disease, the researchers say. The research also identified the essential role in that process of a specific enzyme that could be a therapeutic target.
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Prosthetic hand capable of delivering texture sensations

Prosthetic hand capable of delivering texture sensations | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A new prosthetic system allows amputees to feel familiar sensations and also, somewhat unexpectedly, reduces their phantom pain. Test patients were able to ...
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Surface coating for medical devices prevents blood clotting and bacterial infections

Surface coating for medical devices prevents blood clotting and bacterial infections | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Researchers at Harvard University have developed a surface coating that when applied to medical devices to be implanted inside the human body, repels blood ...
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Study indicates that C-Pulse system helps hearts heal

Study indicates that C-Pulse system helps hearts heal | Longevity science | Scoop.it
When you hurt a muscle, it's usually advisable to lay off extensive use of it, until it's had a chance to heal. Well, your heart is a muscle. Although you can't just stop using it altogether when it's damaged, you can make its job easier. That's what Sunshine Heart's C-Pulse system was designed to do, and a current study suggests that it does indeed help victims of heart failure recover more quickly.

Here's how C-Pulse works ...

In a surgical procedure, its balloon-equipped cuff is placed around the heart's ascending aorta. At that time, its two electrodes are also placed on the outside of the heart. C-Pulse's air hose and electrical leads are then led out of the body, via an exit site in the abdomen.
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The signature of aging in the brain | KurzweilAI

The signature of aging in the brain | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it


Weizmann Institute of Science researchers have found evidence of a unique “signature” that may be the “missing link” between cognitive decline and aging and that may in the future lead to treatments that can slow or reverse cognitive decline in older people, according to Prof. Michal Schwartz of the Department of Neurobiology and Ido Amit of the Department of Immunology.

Until a decade ago, scientific dogma held that the blood-brain barrier prevents blood-borne immune cells from attacking and destroying brain tissue.


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MIT pioneers drug delivery system with the potential to replace injections

MIT pioneers drug delivery system with the potential to replace injections | Longevity science | Scoop.it
MIT, working together with the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), has pioneered a method of drug distribution with the potential to dispense with traditional subcutaneous injections. The system uses a small capsule coated with microneedles in order to administer medicines directly into the lining of the intestine.

Ordinarily there is a challenge to orally administering drugs, in that rarely do they survive the acidic contents of the digestive tract long enough to effectively deploy their pharmaceutical payload. This problem becomes even more pronounced when working with drugs created from large proteins.
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How cancer cells assure immortality by lengthening the ends of chromosomes | KurzweilAI

How cancer cells assure immortality by lengthening the ends of chromosomes | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

In another study published last week in Cell, Roger Greenberg, MD, PhD, associate professor of Cancer Biology in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and his colleagues describe their discovery of a second method used by cancer cells to survive, involving a DNA-repair-based mechanism called “alternative lengthening of telomeres” (ALT).

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Making peanuts safe for allergy sufferers

Making peanuts safe for allergy sufferers | Longevity science | Scoop.it
We've seen various research efforts aiming to cure nut allergies in people, from tricking the immune system into ignoring certain proteins to building up a tolerance, or using common gut bacteria. But Wade Yang from the University of Florida (UF) is taking a different approach. Rather than altering the body's response to peanut allergens, he is altering the peanuts themselves.

Yang, who is an assistant professor in food science and human nutrition and member of UF’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, is using pulsed light to inactivate proteins within peanuts that trigger an allergic response. Starting out two years ago using the technique on peanut extract, Yang has now moved onto whole peanuts.
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Cell transplant helps paralyzed man walk with frame

A Bulgarian man who was paralyzed from the chest down in a knife attack can now walk with the aid of a frame after receiving pioneering transplant treatment using cells from his nose.

The technique, described as a breakthrough by a study in the journal Cell Transplantation, involved transplanting what are known as olfactory ensheathing cells into the patient's spinal cord and constructing a "nerve bridge" between two stumps of the damaged spinal column.
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Doctors who helped paralyzed man get back on his feet seek new patients

(Reuters) - A team of doctors who helped a paralyzed man get back on his feet by transplanting cells from his nasal cavity into his spinal cord said they were seeking new patients so they could establish their breakthrough was not a one-off.
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A tiny ultrasound-powered chip to serve as medical device | KurzweilAI

A tiny ultrasound-powered chip to serve as medical device | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Stanford engineers are developing a way to send power — safely and wirelessly — to “smart chips” in the body that are programmed to perform medical tasks and report back the results.

The idea is to get rid of wires and batteries, which would make the implant too big or clumsy.

Their approach involves beaming ultrasound at a tiny device inside the body designed to do three things: convert the incoming sound waves into electricity; process and execute medical commands; and report the completed activity via a tiny built-in radio antenna.
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3D printing enables customized knee replacement surgery

3D printing enables customized knee replacement surgery | Longevity science | Scoop.it
In today's installment of "How 3D Printing is Changing Healthcare Forever," a Massachusetts-based medical device company is forging new ground in knee replacement surgery. A combination of CT imaging, modeling software and 3D printing technology is enabling ConforMIS to offer implants tailored specifically to each patient. The development could help avoid complications that often follow the procedure, such as pain arising from instability of the joint.
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Scientists close in on diabetes cure with production of insulin-producing cells

Scientists close in on diabetes cure with production of insulin-producing cells | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Stem cell researchers at Harvard University have created large quantities of human insulin-producing beta cells, which could soon lead to a cure for type 1 ...
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Mind-controlled mechatronic prosthetics now a reality

Mind-controlled mechatronic prosthetics now a reality | Longevity science | Scoop.it

A Swedish man has recently celebrated a milestone in robotic prostheses by taking advantage of an osseointegrated (bone-anchored), thought-controlled, implant system in his daily life for more than a year and a half.

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Artificial Spleen 'Cleans' Blood of Pathogens

Artificial Spleen 'Cleans' Blood of Pathogens | Longevity science | Scoop.it
While you can live without your spleen, it serves several important functions in the body including making antibodies and maintaining a reservoir of blood. It also works to keep the blood clean by removing old blood cells and antibody-coated pathogens.

Now, scientists from Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering in Boston have developed an artificial spleen that has been shown to rapidly remove bacteria and viruses from blood. The technology could be useful in many scenarios, including protecting people who suffer from immunodeficiencies and those infected with difficult to treat pathogens like Ebola virus.
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Mutant gene prevents worms gaining weight from unhealthy diets

Mutant gene prevents worms gaining weight from unhealthy diets | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Sure, foods that are high in sugar are often the most tempting, but that sugar rush can come at a weighty cost. A new study conducted at the University of South Carolina has suggested that this may not need be the case. Researchers have identified a gene that can dictate how these foods are processed, potentially suppressing the weight problems that go hand-in-hand with unhealthy eating habits.

The research centers on a mutant gene called SKN-1 found in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. The scientists fed a number of these worms a high-sugar diet and observed no difference in weight for those with a hyperactive SKN-1 gene, while those without the gene quickly began to stack on the nanograms.
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A History of Life-Extensionism in the Twentieth Century | KurzweilAI

A History of Life-Extensionism in the Twentieth Century | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
This work explores the history of life-extensionism in the 20th century. The term life-extensionism is meant to describe an ideological system professing that radical life extension (far beyond the present life expectancy) is desirable on ethical grounds and is possible to achieve through conscious scientific efforts. This work examines major lines of life-extensionist thought, in chronological order, over the course of the 20th century, while focusing on central seminal works representative of each trend and period, by such authors as Elie Metchnikoff, Bernard Shaw, Alexis Carrel, Alexander Bogomolets and others.
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Needle Coated Capsules May Soon Replace Injections For IBD Medication Delivery

Needle Coated Capsules May Soon Replace Injections For IBD Medication Delivery | Longevity science | Scoop.it

A team of researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) of Cambridge, Massachusetts and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Harvard Medical School have devised a novel drug capsule coated with tiny needles that can inject drugs directly into the lining of the stomach after the capsule is swallowed. In animal studies, the team found that the capsule delivered insulin more efficiently than injection under the skin, and there were no harmful side effects as the capsule passed through the digestive system.

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Hijacking the bacterial ‘communication system’ to tell cancer cells to stop spreading — or even die | KurzweilAI

Hijacking the bacterial ‘communication system’ to tell cancer cells to stop spreading — or even die | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A molecule used as a bacteria communication system can be hijacked and used to prevent cancer cells from spreading — or even to die on command, University of Missouri researchers have discovered.

“During an infection, bacteria release molecules which allow them to ‘talk’ to each other,” explained Senthil Kumar, an assistant research professor and assistant director of the Comparative Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory at the MU College of Veterinary Medicine, the lead author of the study.
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Mantis shrimp's eyes inspire new cancer-detecting camera

Mantis shrimp's eyes inspire new cancer-detecting camera | Longevity science | Scoop.it

The mantis shrimp is famous for having a punch like a .22 bullet and a perpetual bad attitude, but it also has the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom, which are excellent at detecting polarized light. With this in mind, researchers at the University of Queensland (UQ) are developing new cameras based on the mantis shrimp’s eyes that can detect a variety of cancer tissues.

Polarized light is a non-invasive way of detecting cancers because cancerous tissue reflects light differently from normal tissue. The problem is, the human eye can’t see polarized light and, though cameras that detect polarized light are already being used for detecting cancer, they still leave a lot to be desired. However, the mantis shrimp may help give the technology a major boost because its eyes are better at handling polarized light than anything man made.

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