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On Living Forever

On Living Forever | Longevity science | Scoop.it

“Wouldn’t you eventually get bored?” Like clockwork, the question arises when I tell someone quixotically, arrogantly, that I plan on living forever. From the limited perspective of 20 years, even the prospect of living another six or seven decades in full color can be impossible to envisage. Hedging, I answer that assuming a world where radical life extension is possible, there will be no telling as to how different the human experience will be from what we know—that is to say, where 200-year-olds won’t merely be stuck playing very, very slow mah-jongg.

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Longevity science
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Reinvent Yourself: The Playboy Interview with Ray Kurzweil

Reinvent Yourself: The Playboy Interview with Ray Kurzweil | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Many think author, inventor and data scientist Ray Kurzweil is a prophet for our digital age. A few say he’s completely nuts. Kurzweil, who heads a team of more than 40 as a director of engineering at Google, believes advances in technology and medicine are pushing us toward what he calls the Singularity, a period of profound cultural and evolutionary change in which computers will outthink the brain and allow people—you, me, the guy with the man-bun ahead of you at Starbucks—to live forever. He dates this development at 2045.
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Mitochondria: a new therapeutic target in chronic kidney disease

Mitochondria: a new therapeutic target in chronic kidney disease | Longevity science | Scoop.it
in this manuscript, we reviewed the characteristics of the available mitochondria-targeted anti-oxidant compounds that could be employed routinely in our nephrology, internal medicine and renal transplant centers. Nevertheless, large clinical trials are needed to provide more definitive information about their use and to assess their overall efficacy or toxicity.
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Discovery of fat breakdown trigger opens door for new obesity treatments

Discovery of fat breakdown trigger opens door for new obesity treatments | Longevity science | Scoop.it
While it's known that the brain is responsible for instructing our fat stores to break down and release energy as we need it, scientists haven't yet been able to pin down exactly how this process plays out. Leptin, a hormone produced by our fat cells, travels to the brain to regulate appetite, metabolism and energy, but it hasn't been clear what communication was coming back the other way. New research has now uncovered this missing link for the first time, revealing a set of nerves that connect with fat tissue to stimulate the process in a development that could lead to new types of anti-obesity treatments.
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Next-gen surgical dressing designed to stop the clock for battlefield wounds

Next-gen surgical dressing designed to stop the clock for battlefield wounds | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Severely Injured Limb (ACCSIL), which not only covers wounded limbs, but reduces damage and protects exposed tissues for up to 72 hours.

Dressing wounds in the field, especially traumatic blast wounds, is a very serious and difficult business. Aside from stabilizing the patient by minimizing blood loss and fending off shock, the medic has to cover the wound properly. This keeps the exposed tissues moist so they don't deteriorate, as well as keeping out dirt and bacteria that can lead to infection and conditions like gangrene.
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The Most Over-Hyped Technologies in Healthcare - The Medical Futurist

The Most Over-Hyped Technologies in Healthcare - The Medical Futurist | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Take a look at the most overhyped technologies in healthcare and keep in mind the realistic development opportunities in healing.
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World’s first ciliary microrobots could change the way we take medicine

World’s first ciliary microrobots could change the way we take medicine | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Science fiction is fast becoming reality, with scientists in South Korea developing an astonishingly fast-moving remote-controlled microrobot designed to travel through the human bloodstream to deliver treatment directly to the organs that need it.

Developed by the Department of Robotics Engineering at the Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), the new microrobot is highly maneuverable and moves a least eight times faster than its most recent predecessor, using a propulsion system inspired by the commonly studied ciliated organism, the paramecium.
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Painless light pulses, instead of harsh electric shocks, shown to restore heart rhythms

Painless light pulses, instead of harsh electric shocks, shown to restore heart rhythms | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Current treatments for arrhythmia, a dangerous irregular heartbeat, involve administering an intense burst of electricity from a defibrillator in times of cardiac arrest, but these pulses are painful and potentially harmful. Now, in tests on mice and simulations of the human heart, scientists at Johns Hopkins and the University of Bonn have found that beams of light can restore regular heart function, possibly paving the way to implantable optical defibrillators that provide a gentle and safe alternative to a harsh electric shock.

The research comes from the field of optogenetics, which uses pulses of light to alter electrical activity in cells, thanks to implanted light-sensitive proteins. This field has, in the past, been used to deliver drugs to brain cells, study neurons and modify pain sensitivity. This study builds on previous research from some members of the team from Bonn, who used blue light to trigger arrhythmia in mice to learn about how to treat it.
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Benefit of statins '100 times the harm' - BBC News

Benefit of statins '100 times the harm' - BBC News | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The benefits of the cholesterol-reducing drug statins are underestimated and the harms exaggerated, a major review suggests.

Lead author of the study Rory Collins explains to Today programme presenter Mishal Husain the effectiveness of the drug and why some negative reports may be misleading.
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Here’s How to Convince the Brain That Prosthetic Legs Are Real

Here’s How to Convince the Brain That Prosthetic Legs Are Real | Longevity science | Scoop.it

The carbon fiber legs or “blades” used by lower limb amputee runners have arguably become one of the most iconic symbols of the Paralympic Games. Although different lower-limb sports prostheses are used for running, jumping, and other activities, they share a single common aim: they are designed to help paralympians run faster and jump higher or further than other competitors. Form follows function.
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Whereas modern running blades have a distinctive hook shape, one of the most promising engineering approaches for everyday prostheses is to closely model the biological design of a leg, ankle and foot. This approach is referred to as “biomimicry."

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Malaria stopped with single dose of new compound - BBC News

Malaria stopped with single dose of new compound - BBC News | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Scientists say they have found a new compound that stops malaria in animal studies with a single, low dose.

Tests in mice showed the one-off treatment prevented infection for the full 30 days of the study.

The chemical compound fought early infection in the liver, as well as malaria parasites that were circulating in the blood.

The researchers hope their early work, published in the journal, Nature, could lead to new drugs for people.
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Robot operates inside eye in world first - BBC News

Robot operates inside eye in world first - BBC News | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Surgeons have used a robot to operate inside the eye and restore sight - in a world first.

A team at Oxford's John Radcliffe Hospital used the device, controlled via a joystick, to remove a membrane one hundredth of a millimetre thick.

Patient Bill Beaver, 70, a curate in Oxford, said it was "a fairytale".

Surgeons hope the procedure will pave the way for more complex eye surgery than is currently possible with the human hand.

The BBC had exclusive access to the procedure.
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The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ attenuates liver fibrosis in mice. - PubMed - NCBI

Oxidative stress plays an essential role in liver fibrosis. This study investigated whether MitoQ, an orally active mitochondrial antioxidant, decreases liver fibrosis. Mice were injected with corn oil or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1:3 dilution in corn oil; 1 µl/g, ip) once every 3 days for up to 6 weeks. 4-Hydroxynonenal adducts increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating oxidative stress. MitoQ attenuated oxidative stress after CCl4. Collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating increased collagen formation and deposition. CCl4 caused overt pericentral fibrosis as revealed by both the sirius red staining and second harmonic generation microscopy. MitoQ blunted fibrosis after CCl4. Profibrotic transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA and expression of smooth muscle α-actin, an indicator of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, increased markedly after CCl4 treatment. Smad 2/3, the major mediator of TGF-β fibrogenic effects, was also activated after CCl4 treatment. MitoQ blunted HSC activation, TGF-β expression, and Smad2/3 activation after CCl4 treatment. MitoQ also decreased necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation after CCl4 treatment. In cultured HSCs, MitoQ decreased oxidative stress, inhibited HSC activation, TGF-β1 expression, Smad2/3 activation, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activation. Taken together, these data indicate that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species play an important role in liver fibrosis and that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are promising potential therapies for prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.
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Designing In Vitro Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier | The Scientist Magazine®

Designing In Vitro Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A molecular force field protects the human brain. Aided by support cells such as astrocytes and pericytes, endothelial cells lining brain capillaries produce junction-forming proteins to create a barricade with a high electrical resistance, as well as a range of transporters and receptor proteins that keep molecules in the blood from crossing into the brain. This blood-brain barrier protects the brain and spinal cord from infections, toxins, and inflammation—but also blocks drugs from reaching injured or dysfunctional neurons, hampering efforts to treat brain injury or disease.

Since the early 1970s, researchers have tried to mimic this protective layer of cells in vitro, first attempting to isolate intact brain capillaries, and, later, working to isolate and culture endothelial cells from animal tissue in single-layer sheets. Such static, two-dimensional cultures are still widely used, particularly in screening new drug molecules. As cell culture techniques have advanced in the last decade, however, more-sophisticated models that better reflect the structure’s physiological roles have begun to emerge. Some rely on human stem cells, while others incorporate multiple cell types, often from different animal sources, grown together in various arrangements. Microfluidic models with a variety of 3-D structures are also gaining in popularity as systems in which to study the functions of a range of cell types or biological processes such as metastasis.
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Human neurons implanted in mice plug into spinal cord to help heal injury

Human neurons implanted in mice plug into spinal cord to help heal injury | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Treatments for symptoms of spinal cord injuries may be a step closer, as researchers at University of California San Francisco (UCSF) have transplanted human neurons into mice with these injuries, and found that over time they made new connections in the spine, reducing chronic pain and helping the mice regain some bladder control.

Difficulties with walking may seem like the most obvious symptom of spinal cord injury, but according to a 2004 study, bladder control was ranked as the top priority for treatment by almost 20 percent of paraplegics, and 10 percent of quadriplegics. Like chronic pain, loss of bladder control is a symptom of inflammation following spinal injury, which damages inhibitory spinal circuits that use the neurotransmitter, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). When GABA is lessened, the spine's ability to inhibit pain and control bladder function decreases.
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A thought-controlled robotic exoskeleton for the hand | KurzweilAI

A thought-controlled robotic exoskeleton for the hand | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A lightweight exoskeleton that extends the patient’s hand

The problem: existing exoskeletons are heavy, so patients can’t lift their hands, Gassert says, and patients have difficulty feeling objects and exerting the right amount of force. “That’s why we wanted to develop a model that leaves the palm of the hand more or less free, allowing patients to perform daily activities that support not only motor (movement) functions but somatosensory functions as well.”

The initial solution, developed with Professor Jumpei Arata from Kyushu University (Japan), was a mechanism for the finger featuring three overlapping leaf springs. A motor moves the middle spring, which transmits the force to the different segments of the finger through the other two springs. The fingers thus automatically adapt to the shape of the object the patient wants to grasp. But the motors brought the weight of the exoskeleton to 250 grams, which in clinical tests proved too heavy for patients.
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New Smart Tattoos Let You Control Your Phone Using Your Skin

New Smart Tattoos Let You Control Your Phone Using Your Skin | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Created by MIT PhD student Cindy Hsin-Liu Kao in conjunction with Microsoft Research, the Duoskin tattoos transfer onto your skin with water, and they can be customized for both aesthetic and functional purposes. Hsin-Liu Kao presented her paper about the tattoos at the International Symposium on Wearable Computers in Heidelberg, Germany last week.
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Sequencing Reveals Genomic Diversity of the Human Brain | The Scientist Magazine®

Sequencing Reveals Genomic Diversity of the Human Brain | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Somatic mosaicism—the variation of the genome between individual cells—is particularly consequential in the brain. Neuroscientists have found that small changes to the genome of even a few neurons can have neurological consequences. In a study published in Nature Neuroscience this week (September 12), scientists set their sights on one source of this variation. Using single-cell sequencing and machine learning algorithms, they have examined the extent of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1, or L1) retrotransposition in the healthy human brain.

In the 1940s, Barbara McClintock and colleagues discovered transposons, or “jumping genes,” scraps of DNA able to move from one position in the genome to another. By 2005, Fred “Rusty” Gage of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and colleagues identified L1 transposons as a source of genomic mosaicism in human neurons. Now, Gage and his colleagues have shown that L1s don’t just jump around: these mobile elements can also spontaneously trigger the deletion of certain genes.
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These six plant extracts could delay aging | KurzweilAI

These six plant extracts could delay aging | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Six previously identified plant extracts can delay aging by affecting different signaling pathways that set the pace of growing old, researchers from Concordia University and Idunn Technologies have found, in a study recently published (open-access) in Oncotarget.

Using yeast — a favored cellular aging model — Vladimir Titorenko, a biology professor and the study’s senior author, and his colleagues monitored how the information flowing through signaling pathways was affected by each of the six aging-delaying plant extracts.
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Genetic matching technique means no rejection for transplanted cells

Genetic matching technique means no rejection for transplanted cells | Longevity science | Scoop.it
In research that could significantly improve the viability of human retinal cell transplant methods and help restore eyesight in patients with diseases such as macular degeneration, a team at Japan's RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology (CDB) has used a genetic matching technique to overcome the problems of rejection and the use of immunosuppressant drugs when transplanting retinal pigment cells derived from the stem cells of one monkey into the eyes of other monkeys.

Whilst a great deal of promise is shown in the reprogramming of adult human cells into stem cells which can then be used to grow into any number of new and different cells, rejection of cells not taken from the original recipient means that immune-suppressing drugs or a lot of expensive, time-consuming cell matching and manipulation techniques are required.
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Using CRISPR to Edit Genes in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | The Scientist Magazine®

Using CRISPR to Edit Genes in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The past decade has seen the birth of two incredibly useful biological tools, and now scientists are beginning to marry them. The first is human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Nobel Prize–winning advances, beginning with mice in 2006 and subsequently in humans, showed that it was possible to revert adult skin cells to pluripotent stem cells, which can in turn be coaxed to become nearly any cell type. These cells are the cell-scale embodiment of a person’s genome, and provide researchers with the ability to create cell types that would be otherwise impossible to cull from the living body. iPSCs offer powerful new ways to model monogenetic and complex human diseases and to tailor cell-based therapies.

The second tool is the CRISPR-Cas9 system, which allows easy and precise editing of any region of the genome.
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Robot gives surgeons steady hand for in-eye surgery

Robot gives surgeons steady hand for in-eye surgery | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Now, for the first time, surgeons at the University of Oxford have used a remote-controlled robot to perform a delicate operation inside the eye with sub-millimeter precision not normally afforded by the human hand.

Keyhole surgery techniques are making procedures less invasive for patients, reducing recovery times and the risk of infection. Needle-thin instruments can enter the body through small incisions or orifices like the ear and allow finely-tuned operations beyond the scope of human ability, like operating on a heart while matching the rhythm of its beating, removing the need to stop the heart completely.
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Could 3D-printed organs be medicine’s next grisly black market?

Could 3D-printed organs be medicine’s next grisly black market? | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The dearth of organs for transplant is an international crisis, and one that has produced some grisly makeshift solutions. After exposing China’s state-sponsored system of harvesting organs from prisoners in 2007, human rights lawyer David Matas and activist David Kilgour recently updated their incendiary report to claim that the practice continues to this day, despite the state’s claims to the contrary.
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Mangoes help fight obesity and diabetes, according to research

Mangoes help fight obesity and diabetes, according to research | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The superfood boosts gut bacteria that help to combat the conditions, according to new research.

In experiments, scientists observed that feeding mice mango prevented the loss of bugs caused by a high-fat diet.

It is believed specific bacteria in the intestinal tract play a role in obesity and related health conditions, such as Type 2 diabetes.
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Panel Issues 10 Scientific Recommendations for

A panel of scientific experts assembled to advise Vice President Joe Biden’s National Cancer Moonshot issued 10 recommendations this week (September 7) on how to accomplish the initiative’s goal of accelerating cancer research and breaking down barriers to progress. The panel recommended expanding research into immunotherapy and drug resistance, mining patient data to predict therapy outcomes, and boosting data sharing through national cancer databases. The report also emphasized the need for wider implementation of prevention strategies, including “tobacco control, colorectal cancer screening, and HPV vaccination.”
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The rise of mitochondria in medicine. - PubMed - NCBI

The rise of mitochondria in medicine. - PubMed - NCBI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Novel mitopathogenic mechanisms are being uncovered across a number of medical disciplines including genetics, oncology, neurology, immunology, and critical care medicine. Increasing knowledge of the bioenergetic aspects of human disease has provided new opportunities for diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and in connecting various domains of medicine. In this article, we overview specific aspects of mitochondrial biology that have contributed to - and likely will continue to enhance the progress of modern medicine.

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Monkeys in captivity start to resemble humans – in their guts

Monkeys in captivity start to resemble humans – in their guts | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Turns out humans aren't the only ones who need more fiber. Researchers have found that monkeys in captivity lose so much of the diversity of their natural gut microbes, that the bacteria in their digestive tracts starts resembling those of modern, Western humans. And no, it's not because of antibiotics – it seems that in captivity, they don't get the diverse, plant-based diet they do in the wild.
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