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Nose cell transplants allow paralyzed dogs to walk again

Nose cell transplants allow paralyzed dogs to walk again | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Scientists from the University of Cambridge’s Veterinary School, working with colleagues from the UK Medical Research Council’s Regenerative Medicine Centre, have got disabled dogs walking again.

 

More specifically, they’ve used the dogs’ own cells to repair their spinal cord injuries, and at least partially restored the functionality of their back legs. The researchers believe that the process shows promise for use on physically challenged humans.

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Reinvent Yourself: The Playboy Interview with Ray Kurzweil

Reinvent Yourself: The Playboy Interview with Ray Kurzweil | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Many think author, inventor and data scientist Ray Kurzweil is a prophet for our digital age. A few say he’s completely nuts. Kurzweil, who heads a team of more than 40 as a director of engineering at Google, believes advances in technology and medicine are pushing us toward what he calls the Singularity, a period of profound cultural and evolutionary change in which computers will outthink the brain and allow people—you, me, the guy with the man-bun ahead of you at Starbucks—to live forever. He dates this development at 2045.
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Caloric Restriction Turns White Fat Brown | The Scientist Magazine®

Caloric Restriction Turns White Fat Brown | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
In mice, severely restricting caloric intake promotes the transformation of white fat into brown fat, which contains cells that burn energy faster, according to a study published today (August 25) in Cell Metabolism. The innate immune system, researchers from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and their colleagues reported, mediates this fat cell-transforming effect.

“The paper nicely characterizes this phenomenon,” said Ajay Chawla of the University of California, San Francisco, who was not involved in the work. “And it mechanistically seems to identify a pathway that we had identified.”
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Google's Verily is developing surgical robots

Google's Verily is developing surgical robots | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Verily Life Sciences - formerly known as Google Life Sciences - has partnered with Johnson & Johnson medical devices subsidiary Ethicon to form Verb Surgical Inc. The new company "aims to develop a comprehensive surgical solutions platform that will incorporate leading-edge robotic capabilities and best-in-class medical device technology for operating room professionals".

Verily CEO Andrew Conrad told WIRED.com that although Verb Surgical represented the Alphabet subsidiary's first partnership, it won't be the last. "We expect to work closely with pharma, biotech, medical device and diagnostic companies, patient advocacy groups, and academic researchers in different ways for a long time to come," he said.
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Designing new ultrasound imaging tools with Lego-like proteins | KurzweilAI

Designing new ultrasound imaging tools with Lego-like proteins | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The next step in ultrasound imaging will let doctors view specific cells and molecules deeper in the body, such as those associated with tumors or bacteria in our gut.

A new study from Caltech outlines how protein engineering techniques might help achieve this milestone. The researchers engineered protein-shelled nanostructures called gas vesicles (which reflect sound waves) to exhibit new properties useful for ultrasound technologies. In the future, these gas vesicles could be administered to a patient to visualize tissues of interest.
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Ultrasound used to "jump-start" coma patient's brain

Ultrasound used to "jump-start" coma patient's brain | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) have used an ultrasound pulsation treatment to stimulate neurons in the thalamus of a 25-year-old coma patient, leading to a marked improvement in his condition. Once verified with other patients, it's possible that the method could provide a low-cost treatment for severe brain injuries.

The technique used by the research team is called low-intensity focused ultrasound pulsation. Pioneered by UCLA professor Alexander Bystritsky, it involves the use of a small, coffee cup saucer-sized device that produces acoustic energy, which can be targeted at different regions of the brain, exciting tissue. The amount of energy delivered is quite small – less than that of a conventional Doppler ultrasound.
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Safe, edible battery designed to power ingestible medical devices

Safe, edible battery designed to power ingestible medical devices | Longevity science | Scoop.it
a team of researchers has developed a tiny battery that's entirely non-toxic, providing just enough power for tiny sensing or diagnostic devices to get their jobs done.

According to the team, which is headed by Carnegie Mellon University's Christopher Bettinger, the batteries currently used in ingestible medical devices aren't entirely safe. Being of an "off-the-shelf" nature, such batteries often contain toxic materials that, if trapped inside the body, could cause harm to the patient.
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Can a short, high-intensity workout replace your longer, more moderate routine?

Can a short, high-intensity workout replace your longer, more moderate routine? | Longevity science | Scoop.it
If you had a choice, would you exercise really hard for one minute or moderately for 45 minutes?

Pressed for time, you probably picked the first option . According to a recent study, the two options — high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and endurance/aerobic training — yield some of the same health and fitness benefits.

How is that possible? Is the rise of HIIT the end of endurance training?

Nope.
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Tiny particles make a big difference in controlling internal bleeding

Tiny particles make a big difference in controlling internal bleeding | Longevity science | Scoop.it
While there are already ways of controlling bleeding from external wounds, surgery is typically the only option when it comes to stopping internal bleeding. That could be about to change, however, thanks to research being conducted at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). Scientists there are developing injectable nanoparticles, that speed the clotting of blood at internal wound sites.

Each particle contains a molecule that binds with a certain glycoprotein, which is found only on activated platelets.

This means that when administered intravenously (such as would be done at an accident site or on a battlefield), the nanoparticles travel through the bloodstream until they get to a wound site where platelets are already at work
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What Is Living With An Artificial Pancreas Like? - The Medical Futurist

What Is Living With An Artificial Pancreas Like? - The Medical Futurist | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Traditionally, to monitor blood sugar levels successfully, diabetes patients use insulin pumps and monitors, which send alarms if the glucose levels are too low or too high. More often than not, however, these alarms are quite inefficient. For example, they are often unable to wake up diabetes patients during the night to correct their glucose levels, risking death in their sleep.

This is exactly the reason why diabetes patients have been waiting for a long time for the so-called artificial pancreas – a closed-loop system that constantly measures blood glucose levels, that is able to administer insulin and glucagon in the right amount at the right time – so patients with this chronic illness are able to go to sleep without any worries.
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Excessive antioxidant use may interfere with cell stress response, study finds

Excessive antioxidant use may interfere with cell stress response, study finds | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Antioxidants’ effects may not be altogether beneficial as a study shows the reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecule that antioxidants are so efficient at eliminating may aid in maintaining health. 
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Harvard Biologists Just Demonstrated the Most Extensive Reengineering of a Genome Yet

Harvard Biologists Just Demonstrated the Most Extensive Reengineering of a Genome Yet | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Researchers at Harvard Medical School have "radically rewritten" the genome of bacteria E. coli. The team has replaced 7 of its 64 codons (3-letter sequences which correspond usually to a single animo acid.) The lab, led by George Church, had already proven it is possible to recode single amino acids, but this project is the first to introduce so many functional changes to a genome.

Why is this such a big step? Church says it demonstrates the kind of radical reengineering that is possible with emerging genetic engineering tools. This kind of experiment would not even have been possible just a few short years ago.
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The Oldest of Them All | The Scientist Magazine®

The Oldest of Them All | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Greenland sharks roam the cold, dark waters off the of the coasts of northeastern North America, Greenland, and northern Europe. There, they have an unusual talent for staying alive, according to a study published this week (August 11) in Science.

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Drones take medical samples to the sky in Madagascar

Drones take medical samples to the sky in Madagascar | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Many of the remote villages in the Ifanadiana district of Madagascar aren't linked to the outside world by decent roads. Among other things, this means that it can be very difficult getting medical samples to labs in a timely fashion. That's where a project led by New York-based Stony Brook University comes in. It's been using autonomous drones to get biological samples from those villages to a central testing center, where they can be checked for diseases such as tuberculosis.

The GPS-guided drones were made by project partner Vayu, Inc. They take off and land vertically, like a helicopter, but switch to faster and more efficient fixed-wing flight once they reach altitude.
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Tasmanian Devils Developing Resistance to Transmissible Cancer | The Scientist Magazine®

Tasmanian Devils Developing Resistance to Transmissible Cancer | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
During the last 20 years, a contagious cancer has decimated Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) populations. Cancer cells, which are spread by biting, grow deadly tumors on the faces and mouths of the aggressive marsupials. Because devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) has been observed in almost all known populations and is nearly 100 percent fatal, epidemiological models have suggested that the most long-infected populations are facing extinction.

“But they’re currently surviving,” said Andrew Storfer of Washington State University. Now, he and his colleagues have the start of an explanation as to why. In a study published today (August 30) in Nature Communications, Storfer and an international team of researchers reported genomic evidence to suggest that Tasmanian devils are evolving resistance to DFTD.
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One Antigen Receptor Induces Two T cell Types | The Scientist Magazine®

One Antigen Receptor Induces Two T cell Types | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Each newly-formed T cell bears a unique T cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes a particular antigen. But how a given TCR shapes the fate of its cell and that cell’s progeny was largely unknown. Today (August 26), scientists at MIT report in Science Immunology on their discovery that precursor T cells with precisely the same TCR don’t necessarily follow the same developmental path.

“The main take-home message is that T cells with identical specificity . . . can really differentiate into very distinct subtypes of T cell depending on the environment in which they are located,” said mucosal immunologist Daniel Mucida of Rockefeller University in New York who was not involved in the study.
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Ultrasound jump-starts brain of man in coma | KurzweilAI

Ultrasound jump-starts brain of man in coma | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
UCLA neurosurgeons used ultrasound to “jump-start” the brain of a 25-year-old man from a coma, and he has made remarkable progress following the treatment.

The technique, called “low-intensity focused ultrasound pulsation” (LIFUP), works non-invasively and without affecting intervening tissues. It excites neurons in the thalamus, an egg-shaped structure that serves as the brain’s central hub for processing information.
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One big question: Why can't we 3D print functioning organs today?

One big question: Why can't we 3D print functioning organs today? | Longevity science | Scoop.it
We recently reported on an alliance between four companies that has 3D printed heart structures in a weightless environment. As the first installment of our regular new feature where we put one big question to one really smart person, we asked Euguene D. Boland, the chief scientist of Techshot — one of the companies involved in the research — what the single biggest impediment is to having lab-grown organs available right now.

The single biggest impediment is one familiar to many other engineers in their disciplines as well, it's transport. In our case, we are not moving people or cars or airplanes but nutrients and waste to and from every cell in that organ in a tightly orchestrated balance.
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Face transplant gives ex-firefighter his life back

Face transplant gives ex-firefighter his life back | Longevity science | Scoop.it
One year ago, Patrick Hardison underwent the world's most extensive face transplant at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York. The severely-burned Mississippi firefighter had lost most his facial and head features in the line of duty in 2001, but 15 years later the change is nothing short of dramatic. His doctors call his recovery "unprecedented" and holds promise for the future of similarly injured patients.
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Infrared instrument lets doctors see through eardrums to spot infections

Infrared instrument lets doctors see through eardrums to spot infections | Longevity science | Scoop.it
In the US, an estimated two million children are incorrectly diagnosed with ear infections every year, and unnecessarily prescribed antibiotics. A new device that switches out conventional visible light observations for shortwave infrared could help, letting doctors peer deeper into the ear than normal. It's designed to be similar to existing otoscopes, meaning doctors won't need dedicated training to use it, and should allow for much more accurate diagnoses.
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Can a short, high-intensity workout replace your longer, more moderate routine?

Can a short, high-intensity workout replace your longer, more moderate routine? | Longevity science | Scoop.it
If you had a choice, would you exercise really hard for one minute or moderately for 45 minutes?

Pressed for time, you probably picked the first option . According to a recent study, the two options — high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and endurance/aerobic training — yield some of the same health and fitness benefits.

How is that possible? Is the rise of HIIT the end of endurance training?

Nope.
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PLOS Collections: Article collections published by the Public Library of Science

PLOS Collections: Article collections published by the Public Library of Science | Longevity science | Scoop.it
This Focus Feature led by Rachel Karchin and Ruth Nussinov highlights strategies to predict the phenotypic disease consequences of human germline and somatic variation. The rapid growth in genomic data from large patient cohorts and healthy control populations calls for development of novel, capable and efficient strategies to derive and interpret the phenotypic consequences of germline and somatic variation. The Focus includes network approaches to uncover genotype-phenotype effects in cancer, strategies to bridge the gap between molecular function and the macro level of disease, and in silico methods to predict pathogenic missense variants.
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The Future of Healthcare Is Arriving—8 Exciting Areas to Watch

The Future of Healthcare Is Arriving—8 Exciting Areas to Watch | Longevity science | Scoop.it
As faculty chair for Medicine and Neuroscience at Singularity University and curator of our annual Exponential Medicine conference (apply to join us this Oct 8–11th), I cross paths with many technologies which have potential healthcare applications. Some are still nascent and not yet close to clinical use (nanobots in our blood, 3D printed organs from your own stem cells), but many others are gaining traction and appearing in our homes, our pockets, and entering clinical settings faster than many might imagine.

There remain significant regulatory, reimbursement, data privacy and adoption challenges (to name a few), but below are eight examples of fast moving, often convergent technologies which are already beginning to be applied effectively to health, prevention, diagnosis, therapy, clinical trials and beyond.
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Multivitamins Reduce Risk for Heart Disease and Diabetes

Multivitamins Reduce Risk for Heart Disease and Diabetes | Longevity science | Scoop.it
C-reactive protein, or CRP, is a compound produced primarily by the liver in response to acute inflammatory processes, such as bacterial infections. Studies have shown that blood levels of CRP remain chronically elevated, however, in many inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic (abnormal growth) diseases, including lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.3

CRP levels are now being used to determine the extent of heart damage during and after heart attacks. One recent study showed that a high CRP level in people who suffer their first heart attack is a strong predictor of future heart attacks, while lower CRP levels suggest less chance of having another heart attack.4 Furthermore, it has now been shown that, even in people who have normal cholesterol levels, high CRP levels can help predict asymptomatic heart disease.5
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Heat-responsive bandage helps heal wounds

Heat-responsive bandage helps heal wounds | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Over the years, scientists have come up with bandages to detect bedsores before they appear, paint-on bandages that tell doctors how the healing process is coming along, and dressings that change color when an infection is present. Now, a team of researchers from Northwestern University has created a stem cell-attracting bandage with a single purpose in mind – giving the body a helping hand in healing diabetic wounds.
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Wanted: Transcriptional Regulators | The Scientist Magazine®

Wanted: Transcriptional Regulators | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
REVEALING RIBOSWITCHES: RNA is isolated from bacteria and tagged with a 3’ adapter, to which a complimentary oligonucleotide binds for reverse transcription and sequencing. Sequence analysis then reveals those transcripts that have been fully transcribed versus those prematurely truncated. The reproducible presence of similarly truncated transcripts for a given gene suggests the presence of a riboswitch in the mRNA.
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Ultrasonic wireless ‘neural dust’ sensors monitor nerves, muscles in real time | KurzweilAI

Ultrasonic wireless ‘neural dust’ sensors monitor nerves, muscles in real time | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
University of California, Berkeley engineers have designed and built millimeter-scale device wireless, batteryless “neural dust” sensors and implanted them in muscles and peripheral nerves of rats to make in vivo electrophysiological recordings.

The new technology opens the door to “electroceuticals” — bioelectronic methods to monitor and record wireless electromyogram (EMG) signals from muscle membranes and electroneurogram (ENG) signals from local neuron electrical activity, and to stimulate the immune system, reduce inflammation, and treat disorders such as epilepsy.

The technology could also improve neural control of prosthetics (allowing a paraplegic to control a computer or a robotic arm, for example) by stimulating nerves and muscles directly, instead of requiring implanted wires.
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