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Nose cell transplants allow paralyzed dogs to walk again

Nose cell transplants allow paralyzed dogs to walk again | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Scientists from the University of Cambridge’s Veterinary School, working with colleagues from the UK Medical Research Council’s Regenerative Medicine Centre, have got disabled dogs walking again.

 

More specifically, they’ve used the dogs’ own cells to repair their spinal cord injuries, and at least partially restored the functionality of their back legs. The researchers believe that the process shows promise for use on physically challenged humans.

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Caloric restriction increases monkey lifespan, benefits health

Caloric restriction increases monkey lifespan, benefits health | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Can the lifespan of an animal be increased by restricting their intake of calories? The question has been the subject of study for decades, primarily through two concurrent long-term experiments using rhesus monkeys. Interestingly, these two studies came to conflicting conclusions, but by comparing their results and accounting for other variables, scientists have now determined that the answer is yes – caloric restriction does help monkeys stay healthier and live longer.
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Our Health Data Can Save Lives, But We Have to Be Willing to Share

Our Health Data Can Save Lives, But We Have to Be Willing to Share | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Organ donation has saved countless lives, but could donating our personal data have an even more transformative impact on healthcare?

The potential impact of Big Data and machine learning on healthcare is only just beginning to become apparent. Barely a month goes by without researchers unveiling algorithms giving human doctors a run for their money at diagnostic challenges like detecting skin cancer or identifying congenital cataracts.

The approach is particularly powerful for rare diseases. Human experts are only likely to have seen a handful of cases, which makes it hard for them to notice patterns. But a machine can churn through every historical case report to pick up the subtle cues.
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Talking to a Computer May Soon Be Enough to Diagnose Illness

Talking to a Computer May Soon Be Enough to Diagnose Illness | Longevity science | Scoop.it
In recent years, technology has been producing more and more novel ways to diagnose and treat illness. Urine tests will soon be able to detect cancer. Smartphone apps can diagnose STIs. Chatbots can provide quality mental healthcare.

Joining this list is a minimally-invasive technique that’s been getting increasing buzz across various sectors of healthcare: disease detection by voice analysis.

It’s basically what it sounds like: you talk, and a computer analyzes your voice and screens for illness. Most of the indicators that machine learning algorithms can pick up aren’t detectable to the human ear.
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Scientists create first 3-D synchronized-beating heart tissue | KurzweilAI

Scientists create first 3-D synchronized-beating heart tissue | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
York University scientists have created the first in vitro (lab) 3D heart tissue made from three different types of cardiac cells that beat in synchronized harmony. It may lead to better understanding of cardiac health and improved treatments.*

The researchers constructed the heart tissue from three free-beating rat cell types: contractile cardiac muscle cells, connective tissue cells, and vascular cells. No external scaffold was used and the cells were the only building blocks of the generated cardiac tissue. The researchers believe this is the first 3D in vitro cardiac tissue with three cell types that can beat together as one entity, rather than at different intervals, with high cell density and efficient cell contacts, and without the requirement of external electrical stimulation.
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Toward Killing Cancer with Bacteria | The Scientist Magazine®

Toward Killing Cancer with Bacteria | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A genetically manipulated version of the gastroenteritis-causing bacteria Salmonella typhimurium is a potent destroyer of mouse tumors, according to a report published today (February 8) in Science Translational Medicine. The paper adds to a growing body of research investigating bacterial cancer treatments, and reveals an immunological mechanism that contributes to bacteria-driven, cancer–killing activity.

“I am super excited about applications for microbiota to eliminate cancer,” MIT’s Susan Erdman, who was not involved in the work, wrote in an email to The Scientist. “This work is part of a promising frontier in using bacteria or their products to stimulate beneficial host immune responses to inhibit and suppress cancer development and growth.”
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Award-winning researcher develops "mini-suitcases" for more effective delivery of drugs, fertilizers - Media Relations

Award-winning researcher develops "mini-suitcases" for more effective delivery of drugs, fertilizers - Media Relations | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Medical researchers are making great strides as they design pharmaceuticals that attack a wide range of diseases. Plant researchers are finding ever more efficient ways to increase crop yields. But conventional approaches have their challenges: often, drugs travel to parts of the body where they’re not needed or, worse, to where they can harm healthy tissue. In agriculture, seeds sometimes germinate too early to escape a killing frost, or their growth potential is squandered when fertilizer washes from fields into streams and rivers.

Sometimes the problem, and the solution, is in the packaging.

Now a Western University team led by researcher Prof. Elizabeth Gillies is finding a better way – and delivering medicine or nutrients exactly where and when they will be of most benefit. Her team is building polymer (plastic) coatings custom-designed to biodegrade precisely when their payload will be most effective.
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First stable semisynthetic organism created | KurzweilAI

First stable semisynthetic organism created | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have developed the first stable semisynthetic organism — a bacterium with two new synthetic bases (called X and Y) added to the four natural bases (A, T, C, and G) that every living organism possesses. Adding two more letters to expand the genetic alphabet can be used to make novel proteins for new therapeutics, according to the researchers.

All life as we currently know it contains just four bases that pair up to form two “base pairs” — the rungs of the DNA ladder — which are simply rearranged to create different organisms.
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First blood biomarker for multiple sclerosis discovered

First blood biomarker for multiple sclerosis discovered | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Although there is no known cure for multiple sclerosis (MS), there are treatments that can help prevent new attacks and improve function after an attack. However, there are three subtypes of the disease and determining this, as well as the appropriateness and effectiveness of a patient's current treatment, involves an array of expensive, time-consuming tests. Now, after a search lasting 12 years, an international team of researchers has identified a biomarker that would allow MS subtypes to be determined with a simple blood test.

Currently, when patients are diagnosed with MS they face a wait before the subtype of the disease can be determined.
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A machine that used to be considered punishment is now a $1.4 billion fitness industry

A machine that used to be considered punishment is now a $1.4 billion fitness industry | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The tread wheel, a variation of what we know as the modern treadmill, was used in the 1800s to keep British prisoners from idleness but more so for hard labor.

“I can’t get my head around the fact that we now pay to run on machines that were the harshest form of punishment, short of the death penalty, for about 100 years,” said Vybarr Cregan-Reid, a senior lecturer at the University of Kent in England and author of “Footnotes: How Running Makes Us Human.” The British outlawed the tread wheel as a punishment device near the start of the 20th century after outcries of it being seen as cruel and unusual.

Nevertheless, machines that evolved from those accounted for almost 40 percent of an estimated $3.5 billion in fitness equipment retail sales in North America
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Brain hormone triggers fat burning regardless of food intake

Brain hormone triggers fat burning regardless of food intake | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Although the neurotransmitter serotonin has previously been shown to play a central role in regulating appetite (amongst other things), the reasons for this remained unclear. In an attempt to shed some light on the subject, biologists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) conducted experiments on C. elegans roundworms and identified a brain hormone that selectively triggers fat burning in the gut, regardless of food intake – and the findings could have implications for humans.

TSRI Assistant Professor Supriya Srinivasan, senior author of the new study, and her colleagues made the discovery through a process of elimination. They started with C. Elegans roundworms, which are commonly used in biology as model organisms because their brains produce many of the same signaling molecules as humans. They then systematically deleted one gene after another in the roundworm in an attempt to identify which gene was responsible for fat burning.
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Soft robotic sleeve developed to aid failing hearts | KurzweilAI

Soft robotic sleeve developed to aid failing hearts | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
An international team of scientists has developed a soft robotic sleeve that can be implanted on the external surface of the heart to restore blood circulation in pigs (and possibly humans in the future) whose hearts have stopped beating.

The device is a silicone-based system with two layers of actuators: one that squeezes circumferentially and one that squeezes diagonally, both designed to mimic the movement of healthy hearts when they beat.
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Textile muscles could find use in a literal "power suit"

Textile muscles could find use in a literal "power suit" | Longevity science | Scoop.it
There are many people who could use a bit of help moving their limbs, but they don't necessarily need a full-on exoskeleton. Well, imagine if their clothes could provide that help. Such a thing may one day be possible, thanks to the recent creation of "textile muscles."

In a study conducted at Sweden's Linköping University and University of Borås, scientists coated mass-producible cellulose yarn with a flexible electroactive polymer known as polypyrrole.

When a low voltage is applied to the polymer, it increases in volume, causing the yarn fibers to increase in length accordingly – when the electrical current is switched off, the fibers retract back to their original length. By varying the manner in which those fibers are woven together, it's possible to tune the force of the material toward different tasks.
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The Technological Future of Surgery - The Medical Futurist

The Technological Future of Surgery - The Medical Futurist | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Will we have Matrix-like small surgical robots? Will they pull in and out organs from patients’ bodies?

The scene is not impossible. It looks like we have come a long way from ancient Egypt, where doctors performed invasive surgeries as far back as 3,500 years ago. Only two years ago, Nasa teamed up with American medical company Virtual Incision to develop a robot that can be placed inside a patient’s body and then controlled remotely by a surgeon.

That’s the reason why I strongly believe surgeons have to reconsider their stance towards technology and the future of their profession.
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Vitamin D pills 'could stop colds or flu' - BBC News

Vitamin D pills 'could stop colds or flu' - BBC News | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Vitamin D supplements could spare more than three million people from colds or flu in the UK each year, researchers claim.

The sunshine vitamin is vital for healthy bones, but also has a role in the immune system.

The analysis, published in the British Medical Journal, argues food should be fortified with the vitamin.

But Public Health England (PHE) says the infections data is not conclusive, although it does recommend supplements.
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Researchers find clues to why diet with olive oil is tied lower heart disease risk

Researchers find clues to why diet with olive oil is tied lower heart disease risk | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A traditional Mediterranean diet with added olive oil may be tied to a lower risk of heart disease at least in part because it helps maintain healthy blood flow and clear debris from arteries, a Spanish study suggests.

“A Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil improves the function of high-density lipoproteins, HDL, popularly known as `good’ cholesterol,” said lead study author Dr. Alvaro Hernáez of the Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute in Barcelona.

This type of diet typically includes lots of fruits and legumes that are rich in antioxidants as well as plenty of vegetables, whole grains and olive oil. It also tends to favor lean sources of protein like chicken or fish over red meat, which contains more saturated fat.
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"Molecular lasso" helps bacteria catch-and-clamp onto your heart

"Molecular lasso" helps bacteria catch-and-clamp onto your heart | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Bacteria can be crafty little critters, and a new study from the University of Bristol has unveiled another example of that. Usually a harmless resident of your mouth, Streptococcus gordonii can turn lethal if it enters your bloodstream, where the researchers discovered it uses a "molecular lasso" to attach itself to host cells in what they call a catch-clamp mechanism. Understanding the process could lead to new treatments of a serious condition known as infective endocarditis.

This form of cardiovascular disease is caused by bacteria like S. gordonii creating blood clots on the heart valves, and it's fatal in as many as 30 percent of cases. While the new finding isn't exactly a new treatment, it could be the first step toward one.
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Researchers cast into doubt a tenet of the dominant evolutionary biology model

Researchers cast into doubt a tenet of the dominant evolutionary biology model | Longevity science | Scoop.it
A team of Université Laval researchers has cast into doubt a tenet of evolutionary biology according to which organisms with more than one copy of the same gene in their genome are more resilient to genetic perturbations. In an article to be published tomorrow in Science, the researchers show that this genetic redundancy can also make the genome more fragile, leaving organisms more vulnerable to the effects of harmful mutations.

To reach this finding, Professor Christian Landry and his team at the Faculty of Science and Engineering studied 56 pairs of paralogous genes—copies of a same gene—found in bread yeast. They began by characterizing the normal interactions between the proteins produced by these genes and the other protein complexes found in the yeast. They then repeated this exercise using variants whose genomes had been slightly modified.

In the course of the approximately 5,700 tests conducted by the researchers, they found that for 22 of the 56 gene pairs studies, the paralogous gene took over in the absence of its counterpart. "Gene function is maintained by the paralogous gene still present in the cell, which supports the hypothesis that genetic duplication ensures genome resilience," said Christian Landry. However, for 22 other pairs, the absence of one of the two paralogous genes interfered with cellular function.
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Multifunctional, inexpensive, and reusable nanoparticle-printed biochip for cell manipulation and diagnosis

Multifunctional, inexpensive, and reusable nanoparticle-printed biochip for cell manipulation and diagnosis | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Point-of-care diagnostics in the developing world and resource-limited areas require numerous special design considerations to provide effective early detection of disease. Of particular need for these contexts are diagnostic technologies featuring low costs, ease of use, and broad applicability. Here we present a nanoparticle-inkjet-printable microfluidics-based platform that fulfills these criteria and that we expect to significantly reduce the footprint, complexity, and cost of clinical diagnostics. This reusable $0.01 platform is miniaturized to handle small sample volumes and can perform numerous analyses. It can perform complex, minimally invasive analyses of single cells without specialized equipment and personnel. This inexpensive, accessible platform has broad applications in precision diagnostics and is a step toward the democratization of medical technologies.
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Walker mobility aid gets multifunctional redesign

Walker mobility aid gets multifunctional redesign | Longevity science | Scoop.it
​3D-printing has been used to great effect in the development of prosthetic aids, patient-tailored​​ medical devices and body parts. Now, Eliza Wrobel has used additive manufacturing to make the humble walker even more useful for those suffering from limb disabilities who want to stay active.
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Two cups of grapes a day may keep the Alzheimer's away

Two cups of grapes a day may keep the Alzheimer's away | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Chances are that you already like the taste of grapes. If you're looking for another reason to eat them, though, then how about this … a recent study conducted by the University of California, Los Angeles indicates that consuming them helps protect against Alzheimer's disease.

The study involved 10 test subjects, half of them male and half female, all of whom were in the early stages of cognitive decline.
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Stem cells beat the clock for brain cancer

Stem cells beat the clock for brain cancer | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Glioblastoma is an aggressive form of brain cancer that kills most patients within two years of diagnosis. In tests on mice last year, a team at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill showed that adult skin cells could be transformed into stem cells and used to hunt down the tumors. Building on that, they've now found that the process works with human cells, and can be administered quickly enough to beat the ticking time-bombs.
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Tailored treatment? 107 genes found linked to high blood pressure

Tailored treatment? 107 genes found linked to high blood pressure | Longevity science | Scoop.it
In the US and the UK, high blood pressure (hypertension) affects approximately one in every three adults and is a leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Efforts to combat the condition through customized treatments might have just gotten a big boost thanks to a study led by Imperial College London and Queen Mary University of London that teased out over 100 genes implicated in its development.
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Breath test for stomach and esophageal cancers shows promise

Breath test for stomach and esophageal cancers shows promise | Longevity science | Scoop.it

A new study collected samples from 335 people across four London hospitals. Around half of the group had been diagnosed with stomach or esophageal cancer and the other half had shown no evidence of cancer after having an endoscopy. After analyzing all the samples, the new breath test achieved an 85 percent accuracy rate, correctly identifying those both with and without cancer.

Around 1.4 million people worldwide are diagnosed with stomach or esophageal cancer every year. Both cancers are known to be especially terminal, with a combined five-year survival rate of only 15 percent, as symptoms are often frustratingly abstract resulting in frequent late-stage diagnosis.

"At present the only way to diagnose esophageal cancer or stomach cancer is with endoscopy," points out Dr Sheraz Markar

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Young Blood Offered as Anti-Aging Therapy — But Is It Ready?

When 68-year-old Mark Thompson* walked into a private clinic on the outskirts of Monterey, California, $8,000 in hand, he had one hope in mind: to leave the clinic feeling physically and mentally back in his prime.

The treatment? A single two-liter dose of plasma — the watery part of blood with all the cells removed — collected from anonymous young adult donors aged 25 and younger.

Thompson is one of the 30 healthy elderly adults who have accepted a hefty price tag to participate in a pay-to-play anti-aging clinical trial. The brainchild of Dr. Jesse Karmazin, a DC-based physician and entrepreneur, the trial hopes to use the blood of the young to battle aging — and anyone older than 35 is welcome to try it out.
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Chimeric Pancreas Treats Diabetes in Mice | The Scientist Magazine®

Chimeric Pancreas Treats Diabetes in Mice | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it

By injecting murine pluripotent stem cells into specialized rat blastocysts, scientists at the University of Toyko generated a functional mouse-rat chimeric pancreas, according to a study published this week (January 25) in Nature. Transplanted into a mouse that had been engineered to model diabetes, the chimeric pancreas maintained the rodent’s blood-glucose levels for more than a year. “This is the first time this kind of inter-species organ generation has successfully treated a medical condition,” New Scientist reported.

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A deep learning algorithm outperforms some board-certified dermatologists in diagnosis of skin cancer | KurzweilAI

A deep learning algorithm outperforms some board-certified dermatologists in diagnosis of skin cancer | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Deep learning has been touted for its potential to enhance the diagnosis of diseases, and now a team of researchers at Stanford has developed a deep-learning algorithm that may make this vision a reality for skin cancer.*

The researchers, led by Dr. Sebastian Thrun, an adjunct professor at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, reported in the January 25 issue of Nature that their deep convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm performed as well or better than 21 board-certified dermatologists at diagnosing skin cancer.
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