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Can an aspirin a day keep cancer away? – - CNN.com Blogs

Can an aspirin a day keep cancer away? – - CNN.com Blogs | Longevity science | Scoop.it

"Aspirin is recognized for its effects in heart-attack prevention. And several studies 'have provided evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, may hold promise in helping to prevent cancer,'...

 

In particular, we show that aspirin reduces the likelihood that cancers will spread..."

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Longevity science
Live longer in good health and you will have a chance to extend your healthy life even further
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Caloric restriction increases monkey lifespan, benefits health

Caloric restriction increases monkey lifespan, benefits health | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Can the lifespan of an animal be increased by restricting their intake of calories? The question has been the subject of study for decades, primarily through two concurrent long-term experiments using rhesus monkeys. Interestingly, these two studies came to conflicting conclusions, but by comparing their results and accounting for other variables, scientists have now determined that the answer is yes – caloric restriction does help monkeys stay healthier and live longer.
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Targeting Tregs Halts Cancer's Immune Helpers | The Scientist Magazine®

Targeting Tregs Halts Cancer's Immune Helpers | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Tumors are adept at locally suppressing the body’s immune system, creating a microenvironment that allows unchallenged survival and growth. One way they do this is by recruiting high numbers of regulatory T cells, a type of naturally immunosuppressive T cells known as Tregs or Tregs.

To counter this suppression, scientists are investigating ways to boost cancer patients’ immune systems to encourage tumor destruction. But it’s a delicate balance: too much immune activation and there’s a risk of potentially lethal autoimmune disorders—as has been reported for some patients treated with the immune system–activating drugs ipilimumab (Yervoy) and nivolumab (Opdivo).

Searching for a more refined approach to immunotherapy, Denise Faustman and colleagues at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School have discovered that many tumors recruit a particularly potent type of Treg that expresses a receptor called tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2). These potent Tregs are rare in the rest of the body, but especially abundant within tumors. In some cases, cancer cells themselves express the receptor.
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RNA-Seq Reveals Previously Hidden, Genetic Disorder–Causing Mutations | The Scientist Magazine®

RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of affected tissue can be used to discover mutations likely responsible for Mendelian disorders, according to researchers from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and their colleagues. A team led by Daniel MacArthur of the Broad Institute used RNA-seq on skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with rare, undiagnosed genetic disorders to uncover novel disease-causing mutations that are not easily identified with DNA sequencing, such as pathogenic splice site variants. The study, published in Science Translational Medicine today (April 19), is the largest-to-date application of transcriptome sequencing to a cohort of patients with undiagnosed diseases to identify previously unknown mutations associated with inherited disorders.

“This is a really great study that demonstrates beautifully the use of RNA sequencing in discovering and charactering relevant human disease mutations,” said Tuuli Lappalainen of the New York Genome Center, who collaborates with some of the coauthors in the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Consortium but was not involved in the present study. “This is the first really compelling example of how well this can work.”
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Making CAR T-Cell Therapy Safer | The Scientist Magazine®

Making CAR T-Cell Therapy Safer | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Following a spate of patient deaths in clinical trials testing modified T cells for the treatment of cancer, researchers work to reduce the treatment’s toxicity without sacrificing efficacy.
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Toyota gets elderly back on their feet with robotic brace

Toyota gets elderly back on their feet with robotic brace | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Stepping out of your comfort zone isn't easy, but when you're a Japanese carmaker faced with an aging population that needs more help getting back on their feet than behind the wheel, that's what you do. For the past decade, Toyota has been working on a robotic rehabilitation system to help those with lower-limb paralysis regain the use of their legs and has now begun to rent the system under the name, Welwalk WW-1000.

Comprising a robotic brace and a main interface that includes a monitor and treadmill, the Welwalk is designed to address the problems faced by patients using braces in conventional walk rehabilitation programs.
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Can't get to sleep? The reason may be in your genes

Can't get to sleep? The reason may be in your genes | Longevity science | Scoop.it
If you're naturally inclined to stay awake into the wee hours and have trouble falling asleep at a reasonable hour then your genes may be to blame for your night owl behavior. New research has uncovered a specific gene mutation significantly alters the circadian rhythms of those that carry it.

Our natural in-built circadian clock is what generally governs our sleep and wake cycles. This 24-hour sleep-wake cycle involves several biological processes governing the rise and fall of certain hormones, but many people suffer from disrupted sleep patterns ranging from narcolepsy to chronic insomnia.
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This contact lens could someday measure blood glucose and other signs of disease | KurzweilAI

This contact lens could someday measure blood glucose and other signs of disease | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Transparent biosensors embedded into contact lenses could soon allow doctors and patients to monitor blood glucose levels and many other telltale signs of disease from teardops without invasive tests, according to Oregon State University chemical engineering professor Gregory S. Herman, Ph.D. who presented his work Tuesday April 4, 2017 at the American Chemical Society (ACS) National Meeting & Exposition.
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Stem cell-infused mesh regrows torn rotator cuffs

Stem cell-infused mesh regrows torn rotator cuffs | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The rotator cuff is a grouping of tendons that keep the ball of your upper-arm bone in your shoulder socket – and, as many people will know from first-hand experience, it can get torn away from the bone. Surgery is sometimes required, although the weakened tendons will frequently just tear again after the operation. Now, however, scientists from the University of Connecticut have developed a method of regenerating rotator cuff tendons, using a nanostructured polymer mesh seeded with stem cells.

In lab rat studies, torn rotator cuff tendons were first surgically reattached to the bone (as they would be ordinarily), but then some of them were also wrapped in the stem-cell-seeded "nano-mesh." After a healing period of several weeks, the mesh-wrapped tendons were found to have made a better attachment to the bone than those that weren't wrapped.
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Iron particles and magnetism get soft-bodied robots moving

Iron particles and magnetism get soft-bodied robots moving | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Scientists from North Carolina State University have developed a method of getting soft robotic objects to move using directed magnetic fields. They say that it could be used for applications ranging from remotely-triggered drug-delivery pumps within the body, to the development of remotely deployable structures.

The researchers started by adding iron microparticles to a liquid polymer, then applying a magnetic field to the mixture. This induced the iron particles to arrange themselves into parallel chains. The liquid was then left to dry, forming into an elastic polymer thin film, with the chains of iron particles embedded within it.
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Man with quadriplegia employs injury bridging technologies to move again—just by thinking

Man with quadriplegia employs injury bridging technologies to move again—just by thinking | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Bill Kochevar grabbed a mug of water, drew it to his lips and drank through the straw.

His motions were slow and deliberate, but then Kochevar hadn’t moved his right arm or hand for eight years.

And it took some practice to reach and grasp just by thinking about it.

Kochevar, who was paralyzed below his shoulders in a bicycling accident, is believed to be the first person with quadriplegia in the world to have arm and hand movements restored with the help of two temporarily implanted technologies.
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A Google Exec Just Claimed the Singularity Will Happen by 2029

A Google Exec Just Claimed the Singularity Will Happen by 2029 | Longevity science | Scoop.it
"What's actually happening is [machines] are powering all of us," Kurzweil said during the SXSW interview.

"They're making us smarter. They may not yet be inside our bodies, but, by the 2030s, we will connect our neocortex, the part of our brain where we do our thinking, to the cloud."

This idea is similar to Musk's controversial neural lace and to XPRIZE Foundation chairman Peter Diamandis' 'meta-intelligence' concept. Kurzweil expounded on how this technology could improve human lives.
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Concise Review: Mending a Broken Heart: The Evolution of Biological Therapeutics

HF, a complex clinical syndrome, represents a major global health problem. Significant progress has been made over the past two decades in cell- and gene-based therapies for HF, promising the development of innovative therapeutic strategies for both treatment and prevention (Figure 1). There are, of course, substantial gaps in knowledge that pose obstacles to the realization of the full potential of such novel biological therapies for clinical benefit. There is still a tremendous amount of work to be done, especially in addressing the need for deeper insights into the underlying disease mechanisms (i.e., which cell types, which genes, and at what levels, which pathways are relevant to any given pathogenic process, and which patients to treat).
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Anti-aging therapies targeting senescent cells: Facts and fiction

Anti-aging therapies targeting senescent cells: Facts and fiction | Longevity science | Scoop.it
It's an exciting time to be an elderly mouse. Researchers believe that by removing senescent cells (cells with a persistent damage response), which naturally accumulate with age, senior rodents can regrow hair, run faster, and improve organ function. This strategy may bring us one step closer to the "fountain of youth," but it's important to be cautious and not hype, says researcher of aging Peter de Keizer of the Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands. In an Opinion published December 29 in Trends in Molecule Medicine, he discusses the milestones the field still needs to hit before translation in humans is ready for discussion.
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"Brain age" found to be a predictor of death

"Brain age" found to be a predictor of death | Longevity science | Scoop.it
researchers at Imperial College London have added to the growing toolbox of biological age determinants by examining images of our brains.

About two years ago, researchers developed a test that could determine your biological age by searching for 150 active genes in the blood. That's also about the time that researchers came up with a different way of determining biological age by examining urine samples. Now, the IC London researchers believe they have found yet another way to determine how well we're aging by combining MRI scans of the brain with machine-learning algorithms. If their method is perfected and verified, finding out our biological age might be as simple as getting a picture snapped of our noggins.
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Beetroot juice before exercise might keep brains young

Beetroot juice before exercise might keep brains young | Longevity science | Scoop.it
"We knew, going in, that a number of studies had shown that exercise has positive effects on the brain," said W. Jack Rejeski, study co-author. "But what we showed in this brief training study of hypertensive older adults was that, as compared to exercise alone, adding a beet root juice supplement to exercise resulted in brain connectivity that closely resembles what you see in younger adults."
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Human Cord Plasma Protein Boosts Cognitive Function in Older Mice | The Scientist Magazine®

Human Cord Plasma Protein Boosts Cognitive Function in Older Mice | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Injecting a protein derived from human umbilical cord plasma—tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2)—into aged mice led to improvements in the rodents’ learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity, researchers reported today (April 19) in Nature.
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Vitamin B diminishes effects of air pollution-induced cardiovascular disease

Vitamin B diminishes effects of air pollution-induced cardiovascular disease | Longevity science | Scoop.it
B vitamins can mitigate the impact of fine particle pollution on cardiovascular disease, according to new research conducted at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. Healthy non-smokers who took vitamin B supplements nearly reversed any negative effects on their cardiovascular and immune systems, weakening the effects of air pollution on heart rate by 150 percent, total white blood count by 139 percent, and lymphocyte count by 106 percent.

This is the first clinical trial to evaluate whether B vitamin supplements change the biologic and physiologic responses to ambient air pollution exposure. The study initiates a course of research for developing preventive pharmacological interventions using B vitamins to contain the health effects of air pollution. The findings are published online in the Nature Publishing Group journal, Scientific Reports.
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Eric Larson's curator insight, April 17, 12:55 PM
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ACS Statistics Reveal Continuing Declines in Cancer Mortality | The Scientist Magazine®

ACS Statistics Reveal Continuing Declines in Cancer Mortality | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The beginning of 2017 was a busy time for cancer awareness, with the World Health Organization (WHO) putting out its Guide to Cancer Early Diagnosis in anticipation of World Cancer Day on February 4, and the release of one of the most highly anticipated publications every year: The annual American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Facts & Figures report—a detailed study of population-based cancer incidence and mortality in the U.S. that teases apart trends across cancer types and demographics.

This year, “we found that the cancer death rate is continuing to decline and has in fact dropped by about 25 percent in the past couple of decades,” says the report’s lead author, Rebecca Siegel, strategic director of the ACS’s Surveillance Information Services. “The reason that’s important is that we’ve recently learned that the trends are no longer declining for many other leading causes of death,” such as heart disease and stroke.
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FDA approves home genetic tests for Alzheimer's and other diseases

FDA approves home genetic tests for Alzheimer's and other diseases | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has finally approved a direct-to-consumer genetic screening service into the market, after initially banning the device back in 2013 following concerns about the public health consequences of inaccurate results.
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How Cancers Evolve Drug Resistance | The Scientist Magazine®

How Cancers Evolve Drug Resistance | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Receiving three separate courses of a new class of anticancer immunotherapy agents is not typical for a cancer patient, yet that is what retired Major League Baseball administrator Bill Murray, now 79, endured to treat his melanoma. “When I was told that I might be dying from melanoma, I thought I might as well go for it,” says Murray. In 2011, Murray was given a round of a peptide-based vaccine plus nivolumab (Opdivo), a monoclonal antibody that targets the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) displayed on the surface of T cells, as part of a clinical trial at the Moffitt Cancer Center in Florida. Unfortunately, this two-pronged attack—lasting 12 weeks—didn’t work.
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Precision Medicine Is Our Best Hope In The Fight Against Cancer - The Medical Futurist

Precision Medicine Is Our Best Hope In The Fight Against Cancer - The Medical Futurist | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Precision medicine enables the medical community to fulfill the age-old requirements of healing and doing no harm at the same time. As the National Institutes of Health (NIH) said, it is “an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment and lifestyle for each person.” This approach will allow doctors and researchers to predict more accurately which treatment and prevention strategies for a particular disease will work in which groups of people. If you think about your blood type, the first example of precision medicine, you already have an idea about its importance. Researchers discovered human blood groups in the 1900-1930s, and it is one of the most important medical information ever since.
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Eyeball transplanted onto tail lets blind tadpoles see again

Eyeball transplanted onto tail lets blind tadpoles see again | Longevity science | Scoop.it
While transplants involving organs such as the heart and lungs have been conducted successfully for years now, those involving sensory organs like the eyeballs are yet to become a reality because scientists have not figured out how to reconnect them to the brain. However, a new study, in which blind tadpoles were able to use transplanted eyes on their tails to see, suggests there might be another way to restore sight in human beings.

One of the major challenges in regenerative medicine involves figuring out how to promote innervation, or the supply of nerves, to a body part.
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FDA approves first drug to fight severe forms of MS

FDA approves first drug to fight severe forms of MS | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) is seen as a life sentence, as the disease can seriously affect a sufferer's motor skills and cognitive abilities, but new hope might be on the way. This week, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a new drug, called ocrelizumab, which fights MS by targeting the body's B cells and is the first to have an effect on the more severe form of the disease.

Like electrical wires, the nerve cells in the body are coated with a layer of insulation called myelin, but in cases of MS, the immune system mistakes these cells for invading pathogens and attacks them. As the protective sheaths are damaged, the nerves essentially "short circuit," leading to impairments of a patient's motor skills, visual acuity, and cognition. In its most common form – called relapsing-remission MS – symptoms will flare up on a semi-regular basis, but an unlucky 10 percent of sufferers experience primary progressive MS, where symptoms steadily worsen without letting up.
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Algorithm-aided blood test could help locate cancer early

Algorithm-aided blood test could help locate cancer early | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Patients have better odds in the fight against cancer if it's caught early, but diagnosis often involves invasive biopsies that aren't usually undertaken unless there's already reason to suspect the presence of cancer. But soon it could be as simple as a routine blood test, thanks to a new computer program from UCLA researchers that can spot biomarkers in a patient's blood sample and identify where in the body a tumor might be hiding.

The idea for a cancer-detecting blood test isn't a new one, with research teams tackling the problem by searching for different biomarkers, such as the RNA profiles of platelets, elevated levels of a certain protein, or the telltale battle scars that tumors have left on white blood cells.
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UC Berkeley Receives CRISPR Patent in Europe | The Scientist Magazine®

UC Berkeley Receives CRISPR Patent in Europe | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity science | Scoop.it
The European Patent Office (EPO) yesterday (March 23) announced its intention to award a broad-strokes patent for CRISPR gene-editing technology to the University of California, Berkeley, the University of Vienna, and Emmanuelle Charpentier (formerly of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research). The claims include the use of CRISPR across prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and organisms, hitting upon the point of contention in a recent patent interference decision in the United States. In that case, the US Patent and Trademark Office’s Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) denied UC Berkeley the rights over the use of the technology in eukaryotes—the money-making application for CRISPR—leaving that intellectual property with the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.
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"Immortalized" stem cells produce bigger, better blood batches

"Immortalized" stem cells produce bigger, better blood batches | Longevity science | Scoop.it
Donating blood saves lives, but there's never enough, especially when the difficulties of storage and matching blood types are taken into account. Artificial blood has been in the works for years, but it's held back by the fact that the stem cells it's grown from can only produce so many red blood cells. Now, researchers at the University of Bristol and NHS Blood and Transplant may have busted that barrier, by developing immortalized cell lines that can be cultured indefinitely to produce artificial blood on a much larger scale.
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