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Is CT Analysis of Tumors a Biomarker for Esophageal Cancer?

Is CT Analysis of Tumors a Biomarker for Esophageal Cancer? | Longevity science | Scoop.it
ORLANDO—CT texture analysis of primary tumors may be a potential imaging biomarker in localized esophageal cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, according to research being presented at the 2013 Cancer ...

Via Brian Shields
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Brian Shields's curator insight, February 12, 2013 1:40 AM

Important info for a difficult to treat cancer, esophageal cancer.  The use of imaging may help physicians determine the best treatment choice for patients.

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New device tests multiple chemotherapy drugs in a patient's living tumor

New device tests multiple chemotherapy drugs in a patient's living tumor | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Seattle’s Presage Biosciences has developed a device which introduces small amounts of different chemotherapy drugs into a patient's tumor. The tumor is inspected after removal and the most effective of the drugs are used for post-surgical chemotherapy, resulting in more efficient, personalized cancer treatments. The new device is awaiting FDA approval, but is currently being used to facilitate development of new chemotherapy drugs.

One of the largest challenges faced by oncologists is finding an effective treatment for a particular patient that doesn’t cause the patient undue suffering.

 

 

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Statins may be linked to cancer survival

(Reuters Health) - Danish cancer patients taking cholesterol-lowering statin drugs were 15 percent less likely to die, of cancer or any other cause, than patients who were not on the popular medications, in a new study.

 

The pattern held regardless of a person's age, cancer type, tumor size or whether it had spread. Only patients who had received chemotherapy showed no apparent benefit from taking statins - the most commonly-prescribed drugs in the world.

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Nanoparticles could lead to stronger drugs, fewer side effects for cancer patients | KurzweilAI

Nanoparticles could lead to stronger drugs, fewer side effects for cancer patients | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

One result of the side effects of cancer treatments is that patients often can’t tolerate or survive a combination of different drugs at the same time — which can limit a doctor’s ability to knock out the disease.

 

The head of a Boston-area biotech called Cerulean Therapeutics thinks the solution is nanoparticle-delivered drugs, which have fewer and less severe side effects. They could make it easier for doctors to mount a multipronged attack on tumors and kill the cells before they can develop a resistance to any one compound.

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Glaxo melanoma drugs beat chemo in pivotal trials

Late-stage trials of two experimental skin cancer drugs from GlaxoSmithKline, each designed to block different pathways used by tumor cells, have found the drugs helped patients with fewer side effects than current chemotherapy. Both drugs, trametinib and dabrafenib, were tested in patients with a mutation in a gene known as BRAF. About half of all melanomas, the deadliest form of skin cancer, have the genetic aberration.

 

Cancer occurs through genetic changes in cells allowing tumor growth factor receptors which activate various pathways, including a protein known as MEK. It is believed that BRAF-mutated melanomas should be particularly dependent on MEK, which is needed to amplify the cancer's genetic signal. Roche's Zelboraf, or vemurafenib, is the only BRAF inhibitor currently approved for treating melanoma. Latest results from a pivotal trial of the Roche drug, presented at a meeting in Chicago of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, found that it improved survival by nearly four months.


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How to kill lymphoma cancer cells without chemotherapy | KurzweilAI

How to kill lymphoma cancer cells without chemotherapy | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Northwestern Medicine researchers have developed a nanoparticle that attacks a cancerous lymphoma cell by mimicking HDL.(high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, an essential nutrient for the cell.

 

The nanoparticle tricks the cell by blocking cholesterol from entering the cell. Deprived of an essential nutrient, the cell eventually dies.

 

 

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'Heart resilience' biomarker may help predict chemotherapy-induced cardiac damage earlier

By using a blend of high definition cardiac imaging and biomarkers, Ohio State University cancer and heart researchers think they may have a way to catch early heart damage caused by anthracyclines, a class of chemotherapy drugs commonly used to treat breast and childhood cancers.

 

 

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Gold nanoparticle prostate cancer treatment targets without collateral damage (animal tests) | KurzweilAI

Gold nanoparticle prostate cancer treatment targets without collateral damage (animal tests) | KurzweilAI | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Animal studies have been conducted successfully using gold nanoparticles to target prostate cancer tumors. Next step-- human trials...

 

Current treatments for prostate cancer are not effective in patients who have aggressive prostate cancer tumors. Most of the time, prostate cancers are slow-growing; the disease remains localized and it is easily managed. However, aggressive forms of the disease spread to other parts of the body, and is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths in U.S. men.

 

The MU scientists believe their treatment will be able to shrink aggressive tumors or eliminate them completely. Axiak-Bechtel says this treatment can be safe and effective in dogs as well as humans because dogs are the only other mammal to naturally contract the aggressive form of prostate cancer.

 

 

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Cancer stem cells - the master builders that underlie tumor growth - visually tracked for the first time

Cancer stem cells - the master builders that underlie tumor growth - visually tracked for the first time | Longevity science | Scoop.it

Cancer researchers can sequence tumor cells’ genomes, scan them for strange gene activity, profile their contents for telltale proteins and study their growth in laboratory dishes. What they have not been able to do is track errant cells doing what is more relevant to patients: forming tumors. Now three groups studying tumors in mice have done exactly that. Their results support the ideas that a small subset of cells drives tumor growth and that curing cancer may require those cells to be eliminated. Instead of testing whether a therapy shrinks a tumour, for instance, researchers would assess whether it kills the right sorts of cell.

 

All three research groups tried to address this knowledge gap by using genetic techniques to track cells. Parada and his co-workers began by testing whether a genetic marker that labels healthy adult neural stem cells but not their more specialized descendents might also label cancer stem cells in glioblastoma, a type of brain cancer. When they did so, they found that all tumors contained at least a few labelled cells — presumably stem cells. Tumors also contained many unlabelled cells. The unlabelled cells could be killed with standard chemotherapy, but the tumours quickly returned. Further experiments showed that the unlabelled cells originated from labelled predecessors. When chemotherapy was paired with a genetic trick to suppress the labelled cells, Parada says, the tumors shrank back into “residual vestiges” that did not resemble glioblastoma.

 

The papers provide clear experimental evidence that cancer stem cells exist, says Robert Weinberg, a cancer researcher at the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts. “They have made a major contribution to validating the concept of cancer stem cells,” he says. But cancer cells probably also act in more complex ways than those observed, he warns. For example, non-stem cells within the tumor might de-differentiate into stem cells.

 

The next step, the three groups say, is figuring out how the cells tracked in these experiments relate to putative cancer stem cells identified by years of transplantation studies. Researchers are already busy hunting for ways to kill these cells; now they have more tools to tell whether such a strategy will work.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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