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The World's Healthiest Diets

The World's Healthiest Diets | Longevity | Scoop.it
An infographic about the the Japanese and Mediterranean diets, the healthiest in the world. What are the ingredients and health benefits?

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The Amazing Future of Dentistry and Oral Health - The Medical Futurist

The Amazing Future of Dentistry and Oral Health - The Medical Futurist | Longevity | Scoop.it
Due to new technologies, the future of dentistry, this large and rapidly growing field looks very different from today, with greater emphasis on prevention that will translate into fewer cavities and less periodontal disease; easier access to care; and shorter treatment time.

Just like in the case of other medical specialties, disruptive innovations will have a huge impact on how dentistry will be practiced and how patients will take care of themselves in the future. Can you imagine that you might get your 3D-printed prosthesis in an hour instead of 4-5 sessions at the dentist? Can you imagine having a teledentist? Or being able to grow new teeth at the age of 80?

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CRISPR Gene-Editing Tested in a Person for the First Time

CRISPR Gene-Editing Tested in a Person for the First Time | Longevity | Scoop.it
A Chinese group has become the first to inject a person with cells that contain genes edited using the revolutionary CRISPR–Cas9 technique.

On October 28, a team led by oncologist Lu You at Sichuan University in Chengdu delivered the modified cells into a patient with aggressive lung cancer as part of a clinical trial at the West China Hospital, also in Chengdu.

Earlier clinical trials using cells edited with a different technique have excited clinicians. The introduction of CRISPR, which is simpler and more efficient than other techniques, will probably accelerate the race to get gene-edited cells into the clinic across the world, says Carl June, who specializes in immunotherapy at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia and led one of the earlier studies.

"I think this is going to trigger ‘Sputnik 2.0’, a biomedical duel on progress between China and the United States, which is important since competition usually improves the end product,” he says.

June is the scientific adviser for a planned US trial that will use CRISPR to target three genes in participants’ cells, with the goal of treating various cancers. He expects the trial to start in early 2017. And in March 2017, a group at Peking University in Beijing hopes to start three clinical trials using CRISPR against bladder, prostateand renal-cell cancers. Those trials do not yet have approval or funding.

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Blueberries Boost Longevity Beyond Calorie Restriction - Life Extension

Blueberries Boost Longevity Beyond Calorie Restriction - Life Extension | Longevity | Scoop.it
Blueberries delay the aging process by facilitating DNA repair and favorably modulating genes associated with aging. The ability to repair DNA is an essential longevity mechanism.
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Allen Taylor's curator insight, November 8, 4:57 PM
Eat blueberries!
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Neurons from stem cells replace damaged neurons, precisely rewiring into the brain | KurzweilAI

Neurons from stem cells replace damaged neurons, precisely rewiring into the brain | KurzweilAI | Longevity | Scoop.it
As shown in this in vivo two-photon image, neuronal transplants (blue) connect with host neurons (yellow) in the adult mouse brain in a highly specific

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Allen Taylor's curator insight, October 31, 2:23 PM
Mice receive a partial brain transplant, and it works!
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Medicine Will Advance More in the Next 10 Years Than It Did in the Last 100

Medicine Will Advance More in the Next 10 Years Than It Did in the Last 100 | Longevity | Scoop.it
Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, Priscilla Chan, recently announced a $3 billion effort to cure all disease during the lifetime of their daughter, Max. Earlier this year, Silicon Valley billionaire Sean Parker donated $250 million to increase collaboration among researchers to develop immune therapies for cancer. Google is developing contact lenses for diabetic glucose monitoring, gathering genetic data to create a picture of what a healthy human should be and working to increase human longevity.

The technology industry has entered the field of medicine and aims to eliminate disease itself. It may well succeed because of a convergence of exponentially advancing technologies, such as computing, artificial intelligence, sensors, and genomic sequencing. We’re going to see more medical advances in the next decade than happened in the past century.

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First human clinical trial for nicotinamide riboside | KurzweilAI

First human clinical trial for nicotinamide riboside | KurzweilAI | Longevity | Scoop.it
The new research, reported Oct. 10 in the open-access journal Nature Communications, determined the time and dose-dependent effects of NR on blood NAD+ metabolism in humans. It was led by Charles Brenner, PhD, professor and Roy J. Carver Chair of Biochemistry at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine in collaboration with colleagues at Queens University Belfast and ChromaDex Corp., which supplied the NR used in the trial.**

The human trial involved six men and six women, all healthy. Each participant received single oral doses of 100 mg, 300 mg, or 1,000 mg of NR in a different sequence with a seven-day gap between doses. After each dose, blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed by Brenner’s lab to measure various NAD+ metabolites in a process called metabolomics.

The trial showed that the NR vitamin increased NAD+ metabolism by amounts directly related to the dose, and there were no serious side effects with any of the doses.

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Robotic surgery tech provides users with a sense of touch

Robotic surgery tech provides users with a sense of touch | Longevity | Scoop.it
A new system called HeroSurg, developed by researchers at Deakin and Harvard Universities, is set to increase what surgeons can achieve via robotic surgery, using a haptic feedback system to provide a sense of touch. It also brings other improvements over existing tech, such as collision avoidance, to make robotic surgery safer and more accurate.

Robotic surgery, wherein human-controlled robots perform delicate surgical tasks, has been around for a while. One great example of the tech is the da Vinci robotic surgical system from Intuitive Surgical – a setup made up of numerous robotic arms, a console to operate the instruments, and an imaging system that shows the surgeon what's happening in real time. In 2008, Professor Suren Krishnan, a member of the team behind HeroSurg, became the first surgeon to perform ear, throat and nose operations using the da Vinci robotic surgical system.

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Why prolonged sitting may increase risk of death | KurzweilAI

Why prolonged sitting may increase risk of death | KurzweilAI | Longevity | Scoop.it
The researchers found that compared to participants who watched TV less than 2.5 hours each day, deaths from a pulmonary embolism increased by 70 percent among those who watched TV from 2.5 to 4.9 hours; by 40 percent for each additional 2 hours of daily TV watching; and 2.5 times among those who watched TV 5 or more hours.

...

It is notable that an hour of moderate exercise seemed to be enough to counteract this risk increase. The message is clear- stay active to live longer in good health.


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Gene "reboots" stem cells to slow or reverse the aging process

Gene "reboots" stem cells to slow or reverse the aging process | Longevity | Scoop.it
A new study, centering on an embryonic stem cell gene known as Nanog, was found to restore the regenerative properties of adult stem cells, which naturally diminish over time. According to the researchers, this process has the potential to slow or even reverse the effects of aging, as well as combat premature aging disorders such as progeria.

Previous research into slowing the aging process has involved blocking pathways in the brain that produce certain protein complexes, switching back on genes that have been turned off due to epigenetic regulation, and activating a gene that increased the lifespan of common fruit flies.

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Orlando V. Gonzalez MD's curator insight, July 28, 10:25 AM

Working hard on getting people to slow down their aging!

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Gene "reboots" stem cells to slow or reverse the aging process

Gene "reboots" stem cells to slow or reverse the aging process | Longevity | Scoop.it
A new study, centering on an embryonic stem cell gene known as Nanog, was found to restore the regenerative properties of adult stem cells, which naturally diminish over time. According to the researchers, this process has the potential to slow or even reverse the effects of aging, as well as combat premature aging disorders such as progeria.

Previous research into slowing the aging process has involved blocking pathways in the brain that produce certain protein complexes, switching back on genes that have been turned off due to epigenetic regulation, and activating a gene that increased the lifespan of common fruit flies.

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Orlando V. Gonzalez MD's curator insight, July 28, 10:25 AM

Working hard on getting people to slow down their aging!

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Menopause reversal restores periods and produces fertile eggs

Menopause reversal restores periods and produces fertile eggs | Longevity | Scoop.it
MENOPAUSE need not be the end of fertility. A team claims to have found a way to rejuvenate post-menopausal ovaries, enabling them to release fertile eggs, New Scientist can reveal.

The team says its technique has restarted periods in menopausal women, including one who had not menstruated in five years. If the results hold up to wider scrutiny, the technique may boost declining fertility in older women, allow women with early menopause to get pregnant, and help stave off the detrimental health effects of menopause.

“It offers a window of hope that menopausal women will be able to get pregnant using their own genetic material,” says Konstantinos Sfakianoudis, a gynaecologist at the Greek fertility clinic Genesis Athens.

“It is potentially quite exciting,” says Roger Sturmey at Hull York Medical School in the UK. “But it also opens up ethical questions over what the upper age limit of mothers should be.”

Women are thought to be born with all their eggs. Between puberty and the menopause, this number steadily dwindles, with fertility thought to peak in the early 20s. Around the age of 50, which is when menopause normally occurs, the ovaries stop releasing eggs – but most women are already largely infertile by this point, as ovulation becomes more infrequent in the run-up. The menopause comes all-too-soon for many women, says Sfakianoudis.

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Do humans have the silent potential to regrow their limbs like salamanders?

Do humans have the silent potential to regrow their limbs like salamanders? | Longevity | Scoop.it

New study shows that the same cellular machinery exists in humans.

 

The ability to grow a new limb may seem like something straight out of science fiction, but new research shows exactly how animals like salamanders and zebrafish perform this stunning feat—and how humans may share the biological machinery that lets them do it. Scientists have long known of the regenerative powers of some species of fish and amphibians: To recreate a limb or fin lost to a hungry predator, they can regrow everything from bone to muscle to blood vessels with stem cells that form at the site of the injury. But just how they do it at the genetic level is a mystery.

 

To figure out what might be happening, scientists amputated the appendages of two ray-finned fish—zebrafish and bichir—and a salamander known as the axolotl, all of which can regrow their legs and fins. They then compared RNA from the site of the amputation. They found 10 microRNAs—small pieces of RNA that regulate gene expression—that were the same in all three species. What’s more, they seemed to function in the same way, despite the structural difference between the axolotl (pictured above) and the fishes.

 

The finding supports an existing idea that the three master limb-replacers last shared a common ancestor about 420 million years ago, and it suggests that the evolutionary process of growing limbs is saved over time, not developed independently in separate species, the researchers report today in PLOS ONE. What does this mean for humans? If these microRNAs can be programmed to work like they do in salamanders and fish, humans could enhance their ability to heal from serious injuries. But don’t expect to get Wolverine-like powers just yet—scientists say such modifications are still a long way off.


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The World's Healthiest Diets

The World's Healthiest Diets | Longevity | Scoop.it
An infographic about the the Japanese and Mediterranean diets, the healthiest in the world. What are the ingredients and health benefits?

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Artificial Spinal Cord Wirelessly Restores Walking in Paralyzed Monkeys

Artificial Spinal Cord Wirelessly Restores Walking in Paralyzed Monkeys | Longevity | Scoop.it
Until a few years ago, reversing paralysis was the stuff of movie miracles.

Yet according to Dr. Andrew Jackson, a neuroscientist at Newcastle University in the UK, as early as the end of this decade, we may witness patients with spinal cord injuries regain control of their own two legs and walk again.

By implanting a wireless neural prosthetic into the spinal cord of paralyzed monkeys, a team led by Dr. Grégoire Courtine at the Swiss Federal institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland achieved the seemingly impossible: the monkeys regained use of a paralyzed lower limb a mere six days after their initial injury without requiring any training.

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Paralysed people could walk again instantly after scientists prove brain implant works in primates 

Paralysed people could walk again instantly after scientists prove brain implant works in primates  | Longevity | Scoop.it
Paralysed people could walk again instantly after scientists developed a brain implant which turns thought into electrical signals in the spine so that lost feeling can be restored after injury.

Currently people who break their backs or suffer a spinal trauma are unable to stand or move even though their legs still work, because the signal which connects their brains to their muscles is disconnected.

But an international team of scientists have shown it is possible to bypass the injury and reconnect the brain signals to electrodes at an undamaged part of the spine.

Two monkeys who were temporarily paralysed in one leg were able to walk again instantly using the technique, which could be available for humans within a decade.

"For the first time, I can imagine a completely paralysed patient able to move their legs through this brain-spine interface, said neurosurgeon Jocelyne Bloch of the Lausanne University Hospital.

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New gene-editing technology successfully cures a genetic blood disorder in mice

New gene-editing technology successfully cures a genetic blood disorder in mice | Longevity | Scoop.it
A next-generation gene-editing system developed by Carnegie Mellon University and Yale University scientists has successfully cured a genetic blood disorder in living mice using a simple IV treatment. Unlike the popular CRISP

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Allen Taylor's curator insight, October 31, 11:56 AM
A gene editing technology better than CRISPR?
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Techniques for Assessing Genomic Copy Number Variations | The Scientist Magazine®

Techniques for Assessing Genomic Copy Number Variations | The Scientist Magazine® | Longevity | Scoop.it
A decade ago, scientists studying the human genome found 1,447 copy number variable regions, covering a whopping 12 percent of the genome (Nature, 444:444-54, 2006). Ranging in size from 1 kilobase to many megabases, the number of repetitive DNA sequences scattered throughout the human genome can expand and contract like an accordion as cells divide. Extra—or too few—copies of these repeats, known as copy number variations (CNVs), can explain inherited diseases or, when the copy number change occurs sporadically in somatic cells, can result in cancer. Today, a growing number of scientists are making links between CNVs, health, and disease.

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Use of controversial prostate cancer test may be holding steady

Orders for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests didn't significantly change at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas after 2012, when the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against it, warning with "moderate certainty" that the benefits of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer do not outweigh the harms.

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New catheter lets doctors see inside arteries for first time | KurzweilAI

New catheter lets doctors see inside arteries for first time | KurzweilAI | Longevity | Scoop.it
A new safer catheter design that allows cardiologists to see inside arteries for the first time and remove plaque from only diseased tissue has been used by interventional cardiologists at UC San Diego Health.

The new image-guided device, Avinger’s Pantheris, allows doctors to see and remove plaque simultaneously during an atherectomy — a minimally invasive procedure that involves cutting plaque away from the artery and clearing it out to restore blood flow.

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Milk and Other Surprising Ways to Stay Hydrated

Milk and Other Surprising Ways to Stay Hydrated | Longevity | Scoop.it
Most Americans have heard that they should drink eight glasses of water a day to stay hydrated, but there is surprisingly little data to support this advice.

But now, a new “beverage hydration index” provides evidence-based suggestions for how to most efficiently hydrate. The index was developed from a British study published in December that tracked how long 13 common beverages remain in the body after being consumed.

“In the last 25 years, we’ve done many studies on rehydration after exercise,” said Ronald J. Maughan, a hydration expert from Loughborough University, and lead author of the study. “We thought it was time to look at hydration in typical consumers who aren’t exercising.”

The hydration index is modeled after the well-known glycemic index, which measures how the body responds to the carbohydrate content of different foods. (The glycemic index is used to help individuals keep their glucose-insulin response under control.) The guiding principle behind the new hydration index is that some fluids last longer in your body than others, providing more hydration. After all, if you drink a cup of water and then immediately excrete half that amount in your urine, you haven’t added eight ounces to your water supply, but only four.

The British study determined the hydration index of 13 common beverages by having the participants, 72 males in their mid-20s, drink a liter of water as the standard beverage. The amount of water still remaining in subjects’ bodies two hours later — that is, not voided in urine — was assigned a score of 1.0. All other beverages were evaluated in a similar manner, and then scored in comparison to water. A score higher than 1.0 indicated that more of the beverage remained in the body as compared to water, while a score lower than 1.0 indicated a higher excretion rate than water.

The results showed that four beverages — oral rehydration solution, like Pedialyte; fat-free milk; whole milk and orange juice — had a significantly higher hydration index than water. The first three had hydration index scores around 1.5, with orange juice doing slightly better than water at 1.1. Oral rehydration solutions are specifically formulated to combat serious dehydration such as that resulting from chronic diarrhea.

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Menopause reversal restores periods and produces fertile eggs

Menopause reversal restores periods and produces fertile eggs | Longevity | Scoop.it
MENOPAUSE need not be the end of fertility. A team claims to have found a way to rejuvenate post-menopausal ovaries, enabling them to release fertile eggs, New Scientist can reveal.

The team says its technique has restarted periods in menopausal women, including one who had not menstruated in five years. If the results hold up to wider scrutiny, the technique may boost declining fertility in older women, allow women with early menopause to get pregnant, and help stave off the detrimental health effects of menopause.

“It offers a window of hope that menopausal women will be able to get pregnant using their own genetic material,” says Konstantinos Sfakianoudis, a gynaecologist at the Greek fertility clinic Genesis Athens.

“It is potentially quite exciting,” says Roger Sturmey at Hull York Medical School in the UK. “But it also opens up ethical questions over what the upper age limit of mothers should be.”

Women are thought to be born with all their eggs. Between puberty and the menopause, this number steadily dwindles, with fertility thought to peak in the early 20s. Around the age of 50, which is when menopause normally occurs, the ovaries stop releasing eggs – but most women are already largely infertile by this point, as ovulation becomes more infrequent in the run-up. The menopause comes all-too-soon for many women, says Sfakianoudis.

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Why prolonged sitting may increase risk of death | KurzweilAI

Why prolonged sitting may increase risk of death | KurzweilAI | Longevity | Scoop.it
The researchers found that compared to participants who watched TV less than 2.5 hours each day, deaths from a pulmonary embolism increased by 70 percent among those who watched TV from 2.5 to 4.9 hours; by 40 percent for each additional 2 hours of daily TV watching; and 2.5 times among those who watched TV 5 or more hours.

...

It is notable that an hour of moderate exercise seemed to be enough to counteract this risk increase. The message is clear- stay active to live longer in good health.


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Middle-age-plus memory decline may just be a matter of changing focus | KurzweilAI

Middle-age-plus memory decline may just be a matter of changing focus | KurzweilAI | Longevity | Scoop.it
Are you middle-aged or older and having problems remembering details, like where you left the keys or parked your car?

Cheer up, it may simply be the result of a change in what information your brain focuses on during memory formation and retrieval, rather than a decline in brain function, according to a study by McGill University researchers.

In the study, published in the journal, NeuroImage, 112 healthy adults ranging in age from 19 to 76 years were shown a series of faces. Participants were then asked to recall where a particular face appeared on the screen (left or right) and when it appeared (least or most recently). The researchers used functional MRI to analyze which parts of brain were activated during recall of these details.

Different parts of the brain involved

Senior author Natasha Rajah, Director of the Brain Imaging Centre, and colleagues found that young adults activated their visual cortex while successfully performing this task.

But for middle-aged and older adults, their medial prefrontal cortex was activated instead. That’s a part of the brain known to be involved with information having to do with one’s own life and introspection. This may reflect changes in what adults deem “important information” as they age, she said.

Rajah says middle-aged and older adults can improve their recall abilities by learning to focus on external rather than internal information, using mindfulness meditation, for example.*

Rajah is currently analyzing data from a similar study to discern if there are any gender differences in middle-aged brain function as it relates to memory. “At mid-life women are going through a lot of hormonal change. So we’re wondering how much of these results is driven by post-menopausal women.”

The research was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and by a grant from the Alzheimer’s Society of Canada.

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Penn Engineers Develop $2 Portable Zika Test

Penn Engineers Develop $2 Portable Zika Test | Longevity | Scoop.it

University of Pennsylvania engineers have developed a rapid, low-cost genetic test for the Zika virus


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