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Linux FAQ
FAQs and tips on Linux and open-source tools. Tutorials on Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, CentOS and RHEL. Hands-on guides on cloud computing and virtualization software and platforms.
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How to configure a mail server with Postfix and Dovecot for different requirements - Xmodulo

How to configure a mail server with Postfix and Dovecot for different requirements - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Mail server admins may often have to deal with different types of requirements based on service policies or customer-specific requests. This tutorial will cover common cases of mail server administration. More specifically, it will show how different mail server requirements can be met by tuning parameters of Postfix and Dovecot. Useful Postfix Commands Before we …Continue reading...
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How to use logrotate to manage log files in Linux - Xmodulo

How to use logrotate to manage log files in Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Log files contain useful information about what is going on within the system. They are often inspected during troubleshooting processes or as part of server performance analysis. For a busy server, log files may grow quickly into very large sizes. This becomes a problem as the server will soon run out of space. Besides, opening …Continue reading...
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How to edit your documents collaboratively on Linux - Xmodulo

How to edit your documents collaboratively on Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
"Developed many years before by some high-strung, compulsive assistant, the Bulletin was simply a Word document that lived in a shared folder both Emily and I could access. Only one of us could open it at a time and add a new message, thought, or question to the itemized list. Then we'd print out the …Continue reading...
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How to mount an LVM partition on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to mount an LVM partition on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I have an external USB drive which contains several LVM partitions on it. I want to access some of those LVM partitions on my Linux. How can I mount an LVM partition on Linux? LVM is a logical volume management tool which allows you to manage disk space using the notion of logical volumes …Continue reading...
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How to fix "404 Not Found" error with "apt-get update" on old Ubuntu - Ask Xmodulo

How to fix "404 Not Found" error with "apt-get update" on old Ubuntu - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I have old Ubuntu 13.04 (Raring Ringtail) installation on my PC. When I run "sudo apt-get update" on it, it throws a bunch of "404 Not Found" errors, and I cannot install or update any package using apt-get or aptitude. Due to this error I cannot even upgrade it to a newer release. How …Continue reading...
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What is the Apache error log location on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

What is the Apache error log location on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I am trying to troubleshoot Apache web server errors on my Linux system. Where is the Apache error log file located on [insert your Linux distro]? Error log and access log files are a useful piece of information for system admins, for example to troubleshoot their web server, protect it from various malicious activities, …Continue reading...
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How to view torrent file content on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to view torrent file content on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I have a torrent file downloaded from the web. Is there a tool that allows me to view the content of a torrent on Linux? For example, I want to know what files are included inside a torrent. A torrent file (i.e., a file with .torrent extension) is a BitTorrent metadata file which stores …Continue reading...
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How to install Shrew Soft IPsec VPN client on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to install Shrew Soft IPsec VPN client on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I need to connect to an IPSec VPN gateway. For that, I'm trying to use Shrew Soft VPN client, which is available for free. How can I install Shrew Soft VPN client on [insert your Linux distro]? There are many commercial VPN gateways available, which come with their own proprietary VPN client software. While …Continue reading...
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How to disable entering password for default keyring to unlock on Ubuntu desktop - Ask Xmodulo

How to disable entering password for default keyring to unlock on Ubuntu desktop - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: When I boot up my Ubuntu desktop, a pop up dialog appears, asking me to enter a password to unlock default keyring. How can I disable this "unlock default keyring" pop up window, and automatically unlock my keyring? A keyring is thought of as a local database that stores your login information in encrypted …Continue reading...
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How to configure a Linux bridge with Network Manager on Ubuntu - Ask Xmodulo

How to configure a Linux bridge with Network Manager on Ubuntu - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I need to set up a Linux bridge on my Ubuntu box to share a NIC with several other virtual machines or containers created on the box. I am currently using Network Manager on my Ubuntu, so preferrably I would like to configure a bridge using Network Manager. How can I do that? Network …Continue reading...
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How to analyze Squid logs with SARG log analyzer on CentOS - Xmodulo

How to analyze Squid logs with SARG log analyzer on CentOS - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Squid provides many useful proxy features such as caching, access control, anti-virus, load balancing, authentication, rate-limiting, and so on. However, analyzing a raw Squid log file is not straightforward. For example, how could you analyze the time stamps and the number of hits in the following Squid log? 1404788984.429 1162 172.17.1.23 TCP_MISS/302 436 GET http://facebook.com/ …Continue reading...
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How to install and configure Cacti on Linux - Xmodulo

How to install and configure Cacti on Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Any system admin working in a service provider network would certainly agree that Cacti is one of the most widely used tools in network management solutions. It is open source, has built in user authentications and user permission features, shipped with frequently used graph templates like bandwidth, 95th percentile, hard disk usage, CPU usage, load …Continue reading...
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How to manage remote MySQL databases on Linux VPS using a GUI tool - Xmodulo

How to manage remote MySQL databases on Linux VPS using a GUI tool - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
If you need to run a MySQL server on a remote VPS instance, how will you manage databases hosted by the server remotely? Perhaps web-based database administration tools such as phpMyAdmin or Adminer will first come to mind. These web-based management tools require a backend web server and PHP engine up and running. However, if …Continue reading...
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How to remove file metadata for your privacy on Linux - Xmodulo

How to remove file metadata for your privacy on Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
A typical data file often has associated "metadata" which is descriptive information about the file, represented in the form of a set of name-value pairs. Common metadata include creator's name, tools used to generate the file, file creation/update date, location of creation, editing history, etc. EXIF (images), RDF (web resources), DOI (digital documents) are some …Continue reading...
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How to replicate a MySQL database on Linux - Xmodulo

How to replicate a MySQL database on Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Database replication is a technique where a given database is copied to one or more locations, so that the reliability, fault-tolerance or accessibility of the database can be improved. Replication can be snapshot-based (where entire data is simply copied over to another location), merge-based (where two or more databases are merged into one), or transaction-based …Continue reading...
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Raspberry Pi vs. Raspberry Pi 2 vs. CuBox: performance comparison - Xmodulo

Raspberry Pi vs. Raspberry Pi 2 vs. CuBox: performance comparison - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Ever since Raspberry Pi was introduced to the world, the consumer market for inexpensive, pocket-size mini computers has been growing rapidly. The huge popularity of these tiny computers in the mainstream stems from a variety of DIY projects powered by these affordable hardware, as well as many readily available open-source software packages. While the first …Continue reading...
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How to set up a Replica Set on MongoDB - Xmodulo

How to set up a Replica Set on MongoDB - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
MongoDB has become the most famous NoSQL database on the market. MongoDB is document-oriented, and its scheme-free design makes it a really attractive solution for all kinds of web applications. One of the features that I like the most is Replica Set, where multiple copies of the same data set are maintained by a group …Continue reading...
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How to block specific user agents on nginx web server - Ask Xmodulo

How to block specific user agents on nginx web server - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I notice that some robots often visit my nginx-powered website and scan it aggressively, ending up wasting a lot of my web server resources. I am trying to block those robots based on their user-agent string. How can I block specific user agent(s) on nginx web server? The modern Internet is infested with various …Continue reading...
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How to view threads of a process on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to view threads of a process on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: My program creates and executes multiple threads in it. How can I monitor individual threads of the program once they are created? I would like to see the details (e.g., CPU/memory usage) of individual threads with their names. Threads are a popular programming abstraction for parallel execution on modern operating systems. When threads are …Continue reading...
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How to convert MP3 ID3 tag encodings on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to convert MP3 ID3 tag encodings on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: When I load MP3 files on Rhythmbox music player, song titles and artist names appear as gibberish and unreadable characters. I suspect this is an ID3 tag's character encoding problem. How can I fix this problem? If your music player does not display some MP3 tracks correctly (e.g., with garbled symbols), it is most …Continue reading...
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How to access a Linux server behind NAT via reverse SSH tunnel - Xmodulo

How to access a Linux server behind NAT via reverse SSH tunnel - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
You are running a Linux server at home, which is behind a NAT router or restrictive firewall. Now you want to SSH to the home server while you are away from home. How would you set that up? SSH port forwarding will certainly be an obvious option. However, port forwarding can become tricky if you …Continue reading...
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How to install autossh on Linux - Ask Xmodulo

How to install autossh on Linux - Ask Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Question: I would like to install autossh on [insert your Linux distro]. How can I do that? autossh is an open-source tool that allows you to monitor an SSH session and restart it automatically should it gets disconnected or stops forwarding traffic. autossh assumes that passwordless SSH login for a destination host is already setup, …Continue reading...
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How to deploy a web application quickly with Ubos on Raspberry Pi - Xmodulo

How to deploy a web application quickly with Ubos on Raspberry Pi - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
Ubos, which translates to "You are the boss", is a platform to help intermediately skilled users set up a home server and deploy web apps on it in a most automated way. Ubos puts you in the driver seat without knowing the details of the motor. On the other hand, it does not keep you …Continue reading...
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What are good open-source log monitoring tools on Linux - Xmodulo

What are good open-source log monitoring tools on Linux - Xmodulo | Linux FAQ | Scoop.it
In an operating system, logs are all about keeping track of events, be it critical system errors, resource usage warnings, transaction history, application status, or user activities. These logs, which are stored as (text or binary) files in the system, are useful for system auditing, debugging and maintenance. However, with so many different system entities …Continue reading...
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How to hide/show toolbar in response to scrolling on Android - Xmodulo

The Toolbar is a new android widget, introduced in API 21 (Lollipop), designed and intended to replace the ActionBar. The ActionBar was introduced in API 11 (Honeycomb), to appear at the top of an activity's window. The Toolbar, on the other hand is more powerful than the ActionBar. For example, the Toolbar can be placed …Continue reading...
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