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Whole brain cellular-level activity mapping in a second

Whole brain cellular-level activity mapping in a second | Lentivirus | Scoop.it

It is now possible to map the activity of nearly all the neurons in a vertebrate brain at cellular resolution. What does this mean for neuroscience research and projects like the Brain Activity Map proposal?

In an Article that just went live in Nature Methods, Misha Ahrens and Philipp Keller from HHMI’s Janelia Farm Research Campus used high-speed light sheet microscopy to image the activity of 80% of the neurons in the brain of a fish larva at speeds of a whole brain every 1.3 seconds. This represents—to our knowledge—the first technology that achieves whole brain imaging of a vertebrate brain at cellular resolution with speeds that approximate neural activity patterns and behavior. (...) - by erika pastrana, Nature Methods, 18 Mar 2013


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Academy and PML Consortium to Host Conference on Serious Neurological ... - The New York Academy of Sciences

Academy and PML Consortium to Host Conference on Serious Neurological ...
The New York Academy of Sciences
PML is caused by infection of the JC polyomavirus (JCV), of which 60% percent of the population has been exposed.
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Karen Soucie's curator insight, June 23, 2013 9:52 PM

60% percent of the population has been exposed.

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Vaccinia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vaccinia virus

Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family.[1] It has a linear, double-stranded DNA genome approximately 190 kbp in length, and which encodes approximately 250 genes. The dimensions of the virion are roughly 360 × 270 × 250 nm, with a mass of approximately 5-10 fg.[2] Vaccinia virus is well known for its role as a vaccine (its namesake) that eradicated the smallpox disease, making it the first human disease to be successfully eradicated by science. This endeavour was carried out by the World Health Organization under the Smallpox Eradication Program. Post eradication of smallpox, scientists study Vaccinia virus to use as a tool for delivering genes into biological tissues (gene therapy and genetic engineering).

In the early 21st century, due to concerns about smallpox being used as an agent for bioterrorism, there was renewed interest in studying the Vaccinia virus.

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One Health Talk: Neglected Zoonotic Diseases | University of ...

A zoonosis is an infectious disease that can be transmitted from an animal to humans. A neglected zoonotic disease is a zoonosis that is “neglected” because it not adequately addressed nationally and internationally.
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Mars had oxygen 4 Billion years ago, and was wet, warm and rusty long before Earth had oxygen

Mars had oxygen 4 Billion years ago, and was wet, warm and rusty long before Earth had oxygen | Lentivirus | Scoop.it
Four billion years ago called, and they want their oxygen-rich atmosphere back, finds new research from Oxford University.

 

t all hinges on the differences between rocks that have traveled from Mars to Earth and rocks analyzed byNASA's Spirit Mars rover, a vintage robot that roamed the planet's surface from 2004 to 2010. The surface rocks examined by Spirit show more signs of oxidation than the Martian meteorites.

 

The meteorites are relatively young – between 180 million and 1.4 billion years old – compared to the surface rocks, which are thought to be 3.7 billion years old. The researchers believe that the surface rocks were drawn into the planet's interior through a process known as subduction, and then subsequently blasted back to the surface via volcanic eruptions. The meteorites, by contrast, originated from deeper inside the planet, and were therefore less affected by the atmospheric oxygen.

 

"As oxidation is what gives Mars its distinctive colour it is likely that the 'red planet' was wet, warm and rusty billions of years before Earth's atmosphere became oxygen rich," said Oxford professor and study co-author Bernard Wood, in press release.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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EFSA publishes report on Schmallenberg virus

EFSA publishes report on Schmallenberg virus | Lentivirus | Scoop.it
The European Food Safety Authority has published its overall assessment of the impact of infection by the so-called Schmallenberg virus (SBV) on animal health, animal production and animal welfare.
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Bluetongue virus non-structural protein 1 is a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the Reoviridae family, which encodes its genes in ten linear dsRNA segments.

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Molecular Mechanism of Arenavirus Assembly and Budding

Molecular Mechanism of Arenavirus Assembly and Budding | Lentivirus | Scoop.it
Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome, which encodes four viral proteins: GP and NP by the S segment and L and Z by the L segment.

 

And we want to make antigens in plants - starting with Lassa virus.  Graphic for Lassa courtesy of Russell Kightley Media


Via Ed Rybicki, Roberto Fernández Crespo
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3-Year Search Uncovers Novel Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

3-Year Search Uncovers Novel Hemorrhagic Fever Virus | Lentivirus | Scoop.it

Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Lassa fever, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, and dengue are well known viruses from four different viral families that can cause hemorrhagic fever. But an international team of researchers report in PLoS Pathogens today that the rhabdovirus family, which typically causes brain swelling or flulike disease, can join the club of hemorrhagic fever agents, which are among the most virulent pathogens known to humans.

 

Using sophisticated RNA sequencing technology, the researchers discovered evidence that links a rhabdovirus to acute hemorrhagic fever in three people from the village of Mangala between 25 May and 14 June 2009. The first two people afflicted with the frightening disease died. But a third, a male nurse who treated both patients at a health center, survived.

 

The researchers did not actually isolate a rhabdovirus, but instead plucked out RNA sequences from the surviving man's blood sample and reconstructed what they contend is the genome of the pathogen that caused the disease. "It looks fairly solid," says Thomas Ksiazek, an epidemiologist and virologist who specializes in hemorrhagic disease at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. "Clearly, they have identified a virus in one of the three patients they describe. But trying to make more out of this is speculative. Is the disease due to the agent? You can speculate all you want, but until you have a virus in hand it's hard to answer that."

 

Delwart's group randomly amplified genetic material with the polymerase chain reaction, sequenced the products, and then checked what they created against databases of known genomes. "We got one very intriguing read," Delwart says. "It was clearly a rhabdovirus." But his team couldn't amplify any more meaningful sequence, so they passed the sample on to Charles Chiu, head of a viral discovery center at the University of California, San Francisco. Chiu sequenced 140 million fragments of genetic material and then merged related fragments to assemble the genome of the Bas-Congo virus.

 

Virologist Joseph Fair, who works with Metabiota, says the researchers could not isolate the actual virus because it took so long for the nurse's sample to arrive at a lab that could probe for agents. "We do the best we can with what we have here," Fair says, speaking by phone from Isiro, Congo, where he's working on a new Ebola outbreak. "We're trying to build capacity to build cold chains in cases like this."

 

Fair points to several lines of evidence that the Bas-Congo virus is real. He notes that the research teams exhaustively searched for other pathogens. "We found nothing except this rhabdovirus," he emphasizes. Based on genomic copies of Bas-Congo virus, the nurse also had high levels of the bug. The researchers then made a lab tool known as a pseudovirus, which contained the surface protein from Bas-Congo inside of a vesicular stomatitis virus, to run a confirmatory antibody test.

 

Specifically, they showed that antibodies taken from the nurse in January 2012, as well as from an asymptomatic nurse who cared for him, prevented the pseudovirus from infecting cells in a culture dish. Fair and his co-authors also note that another hemorrhagic fever virus, Lujo, was first found in 2009 using similar genetic techniques to those they relied on.

 

But Fair acknowledges the importance of isolating the virus itself. "Since we weren't able to get an isolate, that limits what we can know about how it kills people and the effect it has on the immune system," Fair says. "Along with our Congolese colleagues, our next step will be to mount an expedition to find this virus."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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CineversityTV's curator insight, May 28, 2013 6:22 AM

what we predicted 4 years ago is starting to happen..new SARS found also..AIRBORNE VIRUS..

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Uganda: Marburg outbreak comes just two weeks after Ebola outbreak declared over

Uganda: Marburg outbreak comes just two weeks after Ebola outbreak declared over | Lentivirus | Scoop.it
The Ugandan Ministry of Health is warning the public about another outbreak due to a deadly hemorrhagic fever in the Kibaale district, according to a report fro...

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Hendra virus: Hendra Virus: A new zoonosis and the race for a vaccine

Hendra virus: Hendra Virus: A new zoonosis and the race for a vaccine | Lentivirus | Scoop.it
Katharine Sharon's peer review of Charlie Alex' timeline: This timeline is not only visually stunning, it also clearly and succinctly presents how Hendra virus spread over the nearly two decades since the discovery of the virus ...

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ARS | Publication request: MAEDI-VISNA & CAPRINE ARTHRITIS/ENCEPHALITIS

The Office International Epizootics Manual of Standards is for worldwide distribution and describes the current methods of diagnosing and vaccinating against infectious disease of international importance.
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Diversity of Virophages in Metagenomic Data Sets

Diversity of Virophages in Metagenomic Data Sets | Lentivirus | Scoop.it

Virophages, e.g., Sputnik, Mavirus, and Organic Lake virophage (OLV), are unusual parasites of giant double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, yet little is known about their diversity. Here, we describe the global distribution, abundance, and genetic diversity of virophages based on analyzing and mapping comprehensive metagenomic databases. The results reveal a distinct abundance and worldwide distribution of virophages, involving almost all geographical zones and a variety of unique environments. These environments ranged from deep ocean to inland, iced to hydrothermal lakes, and human gut- to animal-associated habitats.

 

Image from ViralZone, http://viralzone.expasy.org/all_by_species/670.html


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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, March 26, 2013 4:33 AM

So, as one might expect, "virophages" (or big satellite viruses) are everywhere...we shall be looking for them in our Oceanic Viromics study soon!

Karen Soucie's comment, June 25, 2013 10:29 PM
I believe I traced my ancestors to a bump on a log in a hole in the bottom of the sea. ;) Great scoop! If you come across Chi phage send her over!
Ed Rybicki's comment, June 28, 2013 5:37 AM
We all come from the sea...B-) And sure: we will be sharing data.
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Earth is surrounded by a 'bubble' of live bacteria - at 33 000 feet

Earth is surrounded by a 'bubble' of live bacteria - at 33 000 feet | Lentivirus | Scoop.it

Earth’s upper atmosphere—below freezing, nearly without oxygen, flooded by UV radiation—is no place to live. But last winter, scientists from the Georgia Institute of Technology discovered that billions of bacteria actually thrive up there. Expecting only a smattering of microorganisms, the researchers flew six miles above Earth’s surface in a NASA jet plane. There, they pumped outside air through a filter to collect particles. Back on the ground, they tallied the organisms, and the count was staggering: 20 percent of what they had assumed to be just dust or other particles was alive. Earth, it seems, is surrounded by a bubble of bacteria.

 

Scientists don’t yet know what the bacteria are doing up there, but they may be essential to how the atmosphere functions, says Kostas Konstantinidis, an environmental microbiologist on the Georgia Tech team. For example, they could be responsible for recycling nutrients in the atmosphere, like they do on Earth. And similar to other particles, they could influence weather patterns by helping clouds form. However, they also may be transmitting diseases from one side of the globe to the other. The researchers found E. coli in their samples (which they think hurricanes lifted from cities), and they plan to investigate whether plagues are raining down on us. If we can find out more about the role of bacteria in the atmosphere, says Ann Womack, a microbial ecologist at the University of Oregon, scientists could even fight climate change by engineering the bacteria to break down greenhouse gases into other, less harmful compounds.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Karen Soucie
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Ed Rybicki's comment, June 25, 2013 3:39 AM
Hey, it's a microbial world - literally! From way above our heads, to way below our feet.
Dmitry Alexeev's curator insight, June 27, 2013 1:21 AM

we are everywhere)

Dmitry Alexeev's curator insight, July 28, 2013 7:31 AM

we'll have that one in our book as well

 

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You Won’t Finish This Article

You Won’t Finish This Article | Lentivirus | Scoop.it
I’m going to keep this brief, because you’re not going to stick around for long. I’ve already lost a bunch of you. For every 161 people who landed on this page, about 61 of you—38 percent—are already gone.

Via Peg Corwin, Guillaume Decugis, Ally Greer
Karen Soucie's insight:

Soundbites- a lifestyle.

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Terry Patterson's comment, July 20, 2013 12:37 PM
See Brian, there is no "cut off" for good articles, just user ability and interest to finish the read... yes, the medium helps (in your case you mentioned "listen") whatever works. In any case, believing that a user won't read an article because it is too long is a fallacy. Someone who believes that simply is not understanding their audience and not giving them what they need and how they need it in digital format.
Brian Yanish - MarketingHits.com's comment, July 20, 2013 3:07 PM
As platforms change for content exposure with filters such as curation, on site like Scoop.it, writers need to remember that their readers may be looking for more information than a brief 500 word article because they have clicked through from a filtered source, not a random Google search.
Brian Yanish - MarketingHits.com's comment, July 20, 2013 3:14 PM
Terry, when I look an article written by someone like Avinash Kaushik, I know that what I'm going to read is well thought out with sources to back it up. Not just something written as Google bait. eg. http://www.kaushik.net/avinash/analytics-tips-improve-search-social-compound-metrics/
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Earth is surrounded by a 'bubble' of live bacteria - at 33 000 feet

Earth is surrounded by a 'bubble' of live bacteria - at 33 000 feet | Lentivirus | Scoop.it

Earth’s upper atmosphere—below freezing, nearly without oxygen, flooded by UV radiation—is no place to live. But last winter, scientists from the Georgia Institute of Technology discovered that billions of bacteria actually thrive up there. Expecting only a smattering of microorganisms, the researchers flew six miles above Earth’s surface in a NASA jet plane. There, they pumped outside air through a filter to collect particles. Back on the ground, they tallied the organisms, and the count was staggering: 20 percent of what they had assumed to be just dust or other particles was alive. Earth, it seems, is surrounded by a bubble of bacteria.

 

Scientists don’t yet know what the bacteria are doing up there, but they may be essential to how the atmosphere functions, says Kostas Konstantinidis, an environmental microbiologist on the Georgia Tech team. For example, they could be responsible for recycling nutrients in the atmosphere, like they do on Earth. And similar to other particles, they could influence weather patterns by helping clouds form. However, they also may be transmitting diseases from one side of the globe to the other. The researchers found E. coli in their samples (which they think hurricanes lifted from cities), and they plan to investigate whether plagues are raining down on us. If we can find out more about the role of bacteria in the atmosphere, says Ann Womack, a microbial ecologist at the University of Oregon, scientists could even fight climate change by engineering the bacteria to break down greenhouse gases into other, less harmful compounds.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Ed Rybicki's comment, June 25, 2013 3:39 AM
Hey, it's a microbial world - literally! From way above our heads, to way below our feet.
Dmitry Alexeev's curator insight, June 27, 2013 1:21 AM

we are everywhere)

Dmitry Alexeev's curator insight, July 28, 2013 7:31 AM

we'll have that one in our book as well

 

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Evaluation of bluetongue virus (BTV) decontamination techniques for caprine embryos produced in vivo

Author(s): Al Ahmad, M.Z.A. , Bruyas, J.F. , Pellerin, J.L. , Larrat, M. , Chatagnon, G.

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Veterinary Research | Full text | Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe

Veterinary Research | Full text | Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe | Lentivirus | Scoop.it
After the unexpected emergence of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in northern Europe in 2006, another arbovirus, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), emerged in Europe in 2011 causing a new economically important disease in ruminants.

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Deadly Ebola & Lassa Viruses May Be More Common Than Thought - Yahoo! News (blog)

Deadly Ebola & Lassa Viruses May Be More Common Than Thought - Yahoo! News (blog) | Lentivirus | Scoop.it
Deadly Ebola & Lassa Viruses May Be More Common Than ThoughtYahoo!

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3D model of the Ebola virus

3D model of the Ebola virus | Lentivirus | Scoop.it

The Ebola virus and it’s close relative the Marburg virus are members of the Filoviridae family. These viruses are the causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fever, a disease with a fatality rate of up to 90%. The Ebola virus infects mainly the capillary endothelium and several types of immune cells. The symptoms of Ebola infection include maculopapular rash, petechiae, purpura, ecchymoses, dehydration and hematomas.

 

Since Ebola was first described in 1976, there have been several epidemics of this disease. Hundreds of people have died because of Ebola infections, mainly in Zaire, Sudan, Congo and Uganda. In addition, several fatalities have occurred because of accidents in laboratories working with the virus. Currently, a number of scientists claim that terrorists may use Ebola as a biological weapon.

 

In the 3D model presented in this study, Ebola-encoded structures are shown in maroon, and structures from human cells are shown in grey. The Ebola model is based on X-ray analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and general virology data published in the last two decades. Some protein structures were predicted using computational biology techniques, such as molecular modeling.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change

Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change | Lentivirus | Scoop.it

A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment.


Via Nicolas Antoine-M.
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HIV and ‘hot spring’ virus hijack same protein

HIV and ‘hot spring’ virus hijack same protein | Lentivirus | Scoop.it

There’s a surprising connection between HIV, Ebola, and viruses that infect organisms called archaea that grow in volcanic hot springs.

 

The viruses hijack the same set of proteins to break out of infected cells, new research shows.

In eukaryotes—the group that includes plants and animals—and in archaea—tiny organisms with no defined nucleus in their cellular construction—viruses co-opt a group of important protein complexes known as ESCRT.


Via Ed Rybicki
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Chris Upton + helpers's comment, June 17, 2013 2:16 PM
Or coincidence... how many viruses on the planet in the last XX billion years (I should go read the paper)
Chris Upton + helpers's comment, June 17, 2013 2:23 PM
A colleague used to say "If it's not impossible, it's compulsory" about these kind of things....
Ed Rybicki's comment, June 28, 2013 5:41 AM
I think that if you look, you find - with viruses. They very efficiently explore pathospace!