Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions
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Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions
Explores writing, applications of thought and theory, solutions, engineering, design, DIY, Interesting approaches to problems, examples of interdisciplinary explorations and solutions.
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Frontiers | Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control.
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Hearing metaphors activates brain regions involved in sensory experience

Hearing metaphors activates brain regions involved in sensory experience | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
"We see that metaphors are engaging the areas of the cerebral cortex involved in sensory responses even though the metaphors are quite familiar," says senior author Krish Sathian, MD, PhD, professor of neurology, rehabilitation medicine and psychology at Emory University. "This result illustrates how we draw upon sensory experiences to achieve understanding of metaphorical language."
Sharrock's insight:

"George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, in their landmark work 'Metaphors we live by', ...argued that metaphor comprehension is grounded in our sensory and motor experiences."

 
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The Hidden Rules of Bigotry

The Hidden Rules of Bigotry | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Do people, regardless of their own race and religion and age, have favored (and disfavored) groups that they do not publicly -- or consciously -- proclaim?...

 

University of Virginia scientists Jordan Axt, Charles Ebersole and Brian Nosek wondered not only if social hierarchies persist in the American social memory, but if the same unacknowledged hierarchies are widely endorsed by members of different social groups. One would expect group members to favor their own -- old-fashioned favoritism -- but how about beyond that? Do people -- regardless of their own race and religion and age -- have favored (and disfavored) groups that they do not publicly -- or consciously -- proclaim?

 

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The Brain Geek: BRAIN MYTH-BUSTING: Nice pheromones. Wanna date?

The Brain Geek: BRAIN MYTH-BUSTING: Nice pheromones. Wanna date? | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it

A big industry has sprouted up, promising to sell you products guaranteed to make finding the love of your life as easy as making toast. One such product is perfume spiked with pheromones. Squirt on a few pheromones, and the next thing you know, you'll be standing at an altar in a white dress while a handsome tuxedoed gentleman puts a ring on your finger. Supposedly, pheromones bypass all the logic and control centers of the brain and go straight to the areas that control love and attraction. They're a real life love potion! As soon as you smell them, you fall madly in love with someone. That guy/girl is so amazing! You don't know why! There's just something fabulous about him/her! You want to marry him/her now! Or so pheromone perfume ads promise us. And then they charge more money for that perfume, because the pheromones make it super special.

But what are pheromones? And do they work?

Sharrock's insight:

conclusion: "Despite lots of effort, there has never been a scientific study showing that humans can sense pheromones or that pheromones change the way we act and behave. So it doesn't matter if we release them, or how many perfumes we wear. It's like yelling at a fully deaf person and expecting them to respond. It just won't work."

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The Forgotten Childhood: Why Early Memories Fade

The Forgotten Childhood: Why Early Memories Fade | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Childhood amnesia descends gradually — and later than you might think, researchers say. Many 7-year-olds have robust memories of experiences from when they were 3 or even younger.
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Research in Brain Function and Learning

Research in Brain Function and Learning | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
It is important for teachers and parents to understand that maturation of the brain influences learning readiness. For teachers, this is especially important when designing lessons and selecting which strategies to use.
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Neural mechanisms underlying social con - PubMed Mobile

only the abstract here
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The Truth About The Left Brain / Right Brain Relationship

The Truth About The Left Brain / Right Brain Relationship | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Are you right-brained or left-brained? Or is the question itself a little harebrained?
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Scientists find brain region that helps you make up your mind

Scientists find brain region that helps you make up your mind | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
One of the smallest parts of the brain is getting a second look after new research suggests it plays a crucial role in decision making.
Sharrock's insight:

quote from article: "Deep brain stimulation – which is thought to inactivate the lateral habenula—has been reported to improve depressive symptoms in humans," Floresco says. "But our findings suggest these improvements may not be because patients feel happier. They may simply no longer care as much about what is making them feel depressed."

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Single-Neuron Mechanisms Underlying Cost-Benefit Analysis in Frontal Cortex

Effective decision-making requires consideration of costs and benefits. Previous studies have implicated orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in cost-benefit decision-making. Yet controversy remains about whether different decision costs are encoded by different brain areas, and whether single neurons integrate costs and benefits to derive a subjective value estimate for each choice alternative. To address these issues, we trained four subjects to perform delay- and effort-based cost-benefit decisions and recorded neuronal activity in OFC, ACC, DLPFC, and the cingulate motor area (CMA). Although some neurons, mainly in ACC, did exhibit integrated value signals as if performing cost-benefit computations, they were relatively few in number. Instead, the majority of neurons in all areas encoded the decision type; that is whether the subject was required to perform a delay- or effort-based decision. OFC and DLPFC neurons tended to show the largest changes in firing rate for delay- but not effort-based decisions; whereas, the reverse was true for CMA neurons. Only ACC contained neurons modulated by both effort- and delay-based decisions. These findings challenge the idea that OFC calculates an abstract value signal to guide decision-making. Instead, our results suggest that an important function of single PFC neurons is to categorize sensory stimuli based on the consequences predicted by those stimuli.


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Stepanov Sergey Mikhailovich's curator insight, November 3, 2013 11:43 AM

REFLECTION
Teaching Technology for Beginners.
Synapse transmission between neurons in different systems of dimension - how can it improve the music education for beginners ?

Physiological Base
The physiological substantiation on the application of the digital system for coding and decoding of a melody is the following : children begin their contact with digits already in preschool age , when they are taught to count , and this system is learned by children quite firmly , since it is often used in their daily life. But the generally accepted music grammar is new for them and, naturally, requires some additional period of time to be acquired by children.It is for that reason that in the initial period of musical teaching, children inevitably spend a lot of time and efforts to read a melody written down in music signs.Naturally, it slows down rate of training, causes psychoemotional discomfort , lowers the child’s interest to music. Therefore , in the initial stage of teaching , besides work with the generally accepted music grammar , will be useful to replace it with a digital system for a certain period. This does not mean that we want to do without standard music grammar, but at the initial stages of musical education, the system of digital coding and decoding of music sounds is undoubtedly useful , as it speeds up teaching of children.

Neurophysiological Aspect
It is well known that the difficulties in the perception of any information, including musical one, cause strain of the main functional systems in the child’s organism. The developed digital technology of musical training is perspective, has a practical result, but it requires the physiologic and psychology researches devoted to studying of an influence of a recommended method to psychoemotional status and to a condition of the main functional systems of the child’s organism : the central nervous system, the muscular system and others. For this purpose , the experimental researches are to be performed, namely: ENG, EMG, EEG – tests to study the degree of mental load that the child has received in perception of the information recorded in the note signs compared to the load that a child has received in perception of the music information written down in number signs.Test Electronystagmography allows us to investigate eyeshot, positional nystagmus and also to determine the quantity of fluctuations of the eyeballs d