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▶ Is Punishment or Reward More Effective? - YouTube

 

 

The psychologist Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel prize in economics, pointed out that regression to the mean might explain why rebukes can seem to improve performance, while praise seems to backfire.[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regression_toward_the_mean

 

 

I had the most satisfying Eureka experience of my career while attempting to teach flight instructors that praise is more effective than punishment for promoting skill-learning. When I had finished my enthusiastic speech, one of the most seasoned instructors in the audience raised his hand and made his own short speech, which began by conceding that positive reinforcement might be good for the birds, but went on to deny that it was optimal for flight cadets. He said, “On many occasions I have praised flight cadets for clean execution of some aerobatic maneuver, and in general when they try it again, they do worse. On the other hand, I have often screamed at cadets for bad execution, and in general they do better the next time. So please don’t tell us that reinforcement works and punishment does not, because the opposite is the case.” This was a joyous moment, in which I understood an important truth about the world: because we tend to reward others when they do well and punish them when they do badly, and because there is regression to the mean, it is part of the human condition that we are statistically punished for rewarding others and rewarded for punishing them. I immediately arranged a demonstration in which each participant tossed two coins at a target behind his back, without any feedback. We measured the distances from the target and could see that those who had done best the first time had mostly deteriorated on their second try, and vice versa. But I knew that this demonstration would not undo the effects of lifelong exposure to a perverse contingency.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regression_toward_the_mean

Sharrock's insight:

Why do people resist research findings from areas like leadership, education, parenting, and other areas related to psychology and sociology? One reason may result from the confusion between the use and value of controlled experiments and the value of anecdotal evidence. 

 
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Sharrock's curator insight, January 11, 2014 4:49 PM

Why do people resist research findings from areas like leadership, education, parenting, and other areas related to psychology and sociology? One reason may result from the confusion between the use and value of controlled experiments and the value of anecdotal evidence. 

 

Sharrock's curator insight, January 11, 2014 4:50 PM

Why do people resist research findings from areas like leadership, education, parenting, and other areas related to psychology and sociology? One reason may result from the confusion between the use and value of controlled experiments and the value of anecdotal evidence. 

 
Sharrock's curator insight, January 11, 2014 4:50 PM

Why do people resist research findings from areas like leadership, education, parenting, and other areas related to psychology and sociology? One reason may result from the confusion between the use and value of controlled experiments and the value of anecdotal evidence. 

 
Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions
Explores writing, applications of thought and theory, solutions, engineering, design, DIY, Interesting approaches to problems, examples of interdisciplinary explorations and solutions.
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Rescooped by Sharrock from Cognitive science
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The brain is wired in a 3D grid structure. Our brain pathways are organized like woven sheets and not as tangled as once thought

The brain is wired in a 3D grid structure. Our brain pathways are organized like woven sheets and not as tangled as once thought | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it

"The brain appears to be wired in a rectangular 3D grid structure, suggests a new brain imaging study. (...) “Far from being just a tangle of wires, the brain’s connections turn out to be more like ribbon cables — folding 2D sheets of parallel neuronal fibers that cross paths at right angles, like the warp and weft of a fabric,” (...)

 

“The wiring of the mature brain appears to mirror three primal pathways established in embryonic development.” (...) “Before, we had just driving directions. Now, we have a map showing how all the highways and byways are interconnected,” said Wedeen. “Brain wiring is not like the wiring in your basement, where it just needs to connect the right endpoints. Rather, the grid is the language of the brain and wiring and re-wiring work by modifying it.”

//

 

"By looking at how the pathways fit in the brain, we anticipated the connectivity to resemble that of a bowl of spaghetti, a very narrow and discreet object," (...) "We discovered that the pathways in the top of the brain are all organized like woven sheets with the fibers running in two directions in the sheets and in a third direction perpendicular to the sheets. These sheets all stack together so that the entire connectivity of the brain follows three precisely defined directions." (...)
"This is the first time it has ever been determined that the geometry of the brain is described by a three-dimensional grid," (...)

 

"The research took MRI scanners and new mathematical algorithms to determine a geometry to the relationship of nearby pathways in the brain so that each pathway was part of a two-dimensional sheet of pathways that together looked exactly like a woven sheet of fabric," Each pathway was part of a parallel series next to it crossed by a perpendicular series at a right angle, together which formed a woven grid.

 

The structure was part of a three-dimensional scaffold connections of the brain conformed to the extremely simple three-dimensional structure, a single woven grid with fibers in only three axes. By using diffusion MRI and mapping the three-dimension motion of the water molecules in the brain, the scientists ran the maps through mathematical algorithms that inferred from the water motion pattern the fiber architecture of the tissue of the brain." -- http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=123711&org=NSF&from=news


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Your Fingertips Perform Brain-like Calculations - D-brief

Your Fingertips Perform Brain-like Calculations - D-brief | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Their findings, published Sunday in the journal Nature Neuroscience, challenge the long-held belief that neurons in our cerebral cortex performed all the calculations to process touch data. Researchers are conducting more experiments to see if the same fingertip neurons can sense an object’s curvature and direction of motion, which are also typically considered a brain-based function.
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Life Without a Sense of Smell | DiscoverMagazine.com

Life Without a Sense of Smell | DiscoverMagazine.com | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Losing your sense of smell takes away more than scents and flavors — it can fundamentally change the way you relate to other people.
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Five tools to make awesome images for Twitter

Five tools to make awesome images for Twitter | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it

"One of the big takeaways from Social Media Marketing World 2015 was the importance of visual content ...."


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Mood (psychology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mood (psychology)

A mood is an emotional state. Moods differ from emotions, feelings or affects in that they are less specific, less intense, and less likely to be triggered by a particular stimulus or event. Moods generally have either a positive or negative valence. In other words, people typically speak of being in a good mood or a bad mood.

A mood is an emotional state. Moods differ from emotions, feelings or affects in that they are less specific, less intense, and less likely to be triggered by a particular stimulus or event. Moods generally have either a positive or negative valence. In other words, people typically speak of being in a good mood or a bad mood.
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Rescooped by Sharrock from iMOVIEi - MOVIES ・LOCATIONS・BUSINESSES・PEOPLE
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Iceland cements its position as top choice for filmmakers?

Iceland cements its position as top choice for filmmakers? | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it

Iceland, renowned for its out-of-this-world landscapes and extreme, unique environment has confirmed its status as filmmakers favourite as it celebrates a deluge of blockbuster movies and TV productions recently filmed on the island.

With much anticipated Hollywood films including The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, Thor 2: The Dark World and Noah set for release between December and March 2014, Iceland is fast being recognised as the must-go-to location for directors looking for a visual feast of stunning backdrops and diverse scenery.

Iceland, often mistaken as a cold, hard to reach country, but which, in reality is less than 5 hours by plane from New York, is popular with producers and filmmakers who are attracted by its raw, volcanic landscape, geysers, hot springs, lava fields, black deserts and variety of locations. From iconic films such as Die Another Day (2002) to Oblivion, starring Tom Cruise (2013), Iceland has played the part of alien planet, raging battlefield, tropical Pacific Island, the Himalayas in scenes shot all over Iceland, from Stykkishólmur in the Westfjords to Dettifoss, Europe's most powerful waterfall. TV productions including 2013 Emmy nominated Game Of Thrones can also call Iceland their home.


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11 Musicians Who Also Happen To Be Comedy Geniuses | NME.COM

11 Musicians Who Also Happen To Be Comedy Geniuses | NME.COM | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it

Who says rock stars can't be funny, eh? Earlier this week, filmmaker Brett Morgen – the man behind the camera for this year's fantastic Kurt Cobain documentary Montage Of Heck – finally revealed the full details of the accompanying soundtrack album. And among all the snippets of unreleased material and rare tracks that range from "thrash to ragtime and everything in between", there'll also be a "sketch comedy routine". Of course, to anyone who's read any classic interviews with Cobain, this shouldn't be much of a surprise at all - for all the visceral rage and anger to his music, there was always a dry, sarcastic, hilarious side to his personality, too. He's not the only musician who's chanced his hand at comedy, either – here's 11 others who've tried putting down the guitar and to tickle your funny bone... 
Read more at http://www.nme.com/blogs/nme-blogs/11-musicians-who-also-happen-to-be-comedy-geniuses?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=comedy#d6p4FgLCKsqMctqQ.99

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LSU launches cold case website

LSU launches cold case website | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
The site displays the ongoing work of the school's Cold Case Project and includes more than 150,000 pages of FBI findings, resulting stories, photographs and letters from the U.S. Department of Justice to the victims' next of kin. That correspondence details what FBI agents found when they reopened unsolved cases from the 1950s and 1960s some eight years ago.
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How writers can collect and organize string for stories | Poynter.

How writers can collect and organize string for stories | Poynter. | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Fleeting thoughts and observations that seem interesting, if not directly relevant to your article, could someday lead to another story, whether that’s a quick blog post or a book.
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4 Sneaky Signs You're Lonely (And What To Do About It)

4 Sneaky Signs You're Lonely (And What To Do About It) | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Whether it's a move to a new city or school, a breakup or a random rough patch, we all get lonely from time to time. This is pretty normal, but too much loneliness can be taxing on our mental and physical health.
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Encourage Creativity—Keep the Arts in Schools!

Encourage Creativity—Keep the Arts in Schools! | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Research shows that arts classes lead to success in school, work, and life. Students who are involved in the arts are four times more likely to be recognized for academic achievement.
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Entrepreneurs don't have a special gene for risk—they're rich kids with safety nets

Entrepreneurs don't have a special gene for risk—they're rich kids with safety nets | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
The cult of the entrepreneur teaches us the wrong lesson.
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The Most Powerful 3 Words in CRM: “That’s Not Fair”

The Most Powerful 3 Words in CRM: “That’s Not Fair” | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
On the other hand, reactions to unfair treatment are also deeply ingrained in our psychological makeup. What customer gratitude can build up, perceptions of unfairness can destroy in short order. “Lost customer” analyses show that customers will expend substantial effort and cost to switch to another brand—such is the emotional power unleashed by perceptions of unfairness.
Sharrock's insight:

This should be used to compel people to rethink suggestions that "life isn't fair". Fairness is deeply ingrained and evolved. 

 

A powerful statement: "

A better option would be to take a proactive approach to reducing unfairness. For example, firms can develop specific training initiatives that stress the importance of fairness, identify the situations most likely to generate unfairness perceptions, and suggest preventative strategies that employees can implement immediately."

 

A number of "perceptions" or actually "interpretations" are made up of factors. 

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The Sixth Sense You Didn't Know You Had - The Crux

The Sixth Sense You Didn't Know You Had - The Crux | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
We are all familiar with color and brightness, but there is a third property of light: “polarization,” which tells us the orientation in which light waves are oscillating. Animals, like bees and ants, use the polarization patterns in the sky as a navigation aid. But few people, even in the scientific community, are aware that humans can sense the polarization of light with the naked eye.
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Discover Interview: Jaak Panksepp Pinned Down Humanity's 7 Primal Emotions | DiscoverMagazine.com

Discover Interview: Jaak Panksepp Pinned Down Humanity's 7 Primal Emotions | DiscoverMagazine.com | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Panksepp’s work has led him to conclude that basic emotion emerges not from the cerebral cortex, associated with complex thought in humans, but from deep, ancient brain structures, including the amygdala and the hypothalamus. Those findings may show how talk therapy can filter down from the cortex to alter the recesses of the mind. But Panksepp says his real goal is pushing cures up from below. His first therapeutic effort will use deep brain stimulation in the ancient neural networks he has charted to counteract depression. Panksepp recently sat down with DISCOVER executive editor Pamela Weintraub at the magazine’s offices in New York City to explain his iconoclastic take on emotion. His new book, The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotion, will be published in July.
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Sexually Shaming Men

Sexually Shaming Men | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
As I read the latest drama surrounding the Ashley Madison release, I have some perspective to offer, as a female and couples therapist.I remember as a child being told by a close female relative that ‘all men cheat’. This information was provided in such a matter of fact tone with a large degree of acceptance. She was also from the depression era, before every thought, action, and fantasy could be played out for all to see (imagine what secrets we could uncover from our family trees). Now that a
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Types of Depression and Sadness - Symptoms - Depression

Types of Depression and Sadness - Symptoms - Depression | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
Everyone will have their unique version of how they experience the many shades of blue.  It just goes to show you that we are all on a continuum of experiencing human emotion.   There isn't just one type of sadness.  I am most interested in your particular varieties of depression. 
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Lesson I Learned From The Secret Life Of Walter Mitty

Lesson I Learned From The Secret Life Of Walter Mitty | Writing, Research, Applied Thinking and Applied Theory: Solutions with Interesting Implications, Problem Solving, Teaching and Research driven solutions | Scoop.it
'The secret life of Walter Mitty' movie came out at the perfect time in my life, a time wh

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