In terms of selecting a statistical test, the most important question is "what is the main study hypothesis?" In some cases there is no hypothesis; the investigator just wants to "see what is there". For example, in a prevalence study there is no hypothesis to test, and the size of the study is determined by how accurately the investigator wants to determine the prevalence. If there is no hypothesis, then there is no statistical test. It is important to decide a priori which hypotheses are confirmatory (that is, are testing some presupposed relationship), and which are exploratory (are suggested by the data). No single study can support a whole series of hypotheses.