By simulating 25,000 generations of evolution within computers, Cornell University engineering and robotics researchers have discovered why biological networks tend to be organized as modules – a finding that will lead to a deeper understanding of the evolution of complexity. The new insight also will help evolve artificial intelligence, so robot brains can acquire the grace and cunning of animals. From brains to gene regulatory networks, many biological entities are organized into modules – dense clusters of interconnected parts within a complex network.
For decades biologists have wanted to know why humans, bacteria and other organisms evolved in a modular fashion. Like engineers, nature builds things modularly by building and combining distinct parts, but that does not explain how such modularity evolved in the first place. Renowned biologists Richard Dawkins, Günter P. Wagner, and the late Stephen Jay Gould identified the question of modularity as central to the debate over "the evolution of complexity." For years, the prevailing assumption was simply that modules evolved because entities that were modular could respond to change more quickly, and therefore had an adaptive advantage over their non-modular competitors. But that may not be enough to explain the origin of the phenomena. The team discovered that evolution produces modules not because they produce more adaptable designs, but because modular designs have fewer and shorter network connections, which are costly to build and maintain. As it turned out, it was enough to include a "cost of wiring" to make evolution favor modular architectures.
The results may help explain the near-universal presence of modularity in biological networks as diverse as neural networks – such as animal brains – and vascular networks, gene regulatory networks, protein-protein interaction networks, metabolic networks and even human-constructed networks such as the Internet. "Being able to evolve modularity will let us create more complex, sophisticated computational brains," says Clune. Says Lipson: "We've had various attempts to try to crack the modularity question in lots of different ways. This one by far is the simplest and most elegant."
the software make your paper readin more interactive, you can find the references directly, see how many other scientists tweeted the paper, or even quickly browse the figures in a apple-style. it definitely make the paper-reading a enjoying thing. You gonna have it!
The 10th International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP 2013), organized by Chinese Society for Plant Pathology, will be held in Beijing , China , August 25-30, 2013.
Early bird registration for ICPP2013 is open and will be closed on 28th February, 2013. Register before the deadline to receive your discounted rate. Don’t miss the opportunity to meet with friends and colleagues in one of the most beautiful cities in the world and to discuss recent advances and developments in plant pathology!
Please prepare your abstract based on the attached “Abstract Guidelines”. Submissions online are strongly encouraged.
An updated program is available on the Congress website. Please find out all the Congress details by visiting http://www.icppbj2013.org.
Don't forget to register for pre-/post-Congress workshops and post-Congress Excursion. Limited spaces available, so get in early!
Pre- and Post-Congress Workshops:
W1: 4th Workshop of the International Cereal Nematodes Initiative W2: 5th International Phytophthora, Pythium, and Related Genera Workshop W3: 11th International Epidemiology Workshop W4: 11th International Fusarium Workshop W5: Global Root Health Forum W6: International Workshop on Viroids and Satellite RNAs (IWVdS) W7: Plasmodiophorids, Biology, Environment and Control W8: 5th International Symposium on Rhizoctonia: Progress and Challenges in the 21st Century W9: 15th International Sclerotinia Workshop
A great way to review new concepts is to create a Tic Tac Toe game slide in PowerPoint. In the example from a foreign language class to the right, images are used to represent new vocabulary. However, this could be easily applied to other content areas as well: in a math class with formulas, in a history class historical figures or dates, in a science class with symbols from the periodic table...
John Hughes is the co-author of a new video course from OUP called ‘Successful Presentations’. On 25th January, he will be hosting a webinar on this topic. In this post, he sums up the key points of...
Bacterial Effector Proteins and their domains/motifs
Many bacterial pathogens that cause some of the world’s most devastating diseases deliver proteins (called effectors) into the cells of their host - which is a requirement to cause disease.
Over 400 predicted or proven effectors from a wide range of bacterial species have been identified that are delivered by dedicated type three secretion systems ( TTSS / T3SS). Many effector proteins are unique with little sequence similarity to any other known proteins, while others make up large effectors families. Almost all bacterial pathogens possess at least one effector that has a homologue or chimera in another bacterial species.