Learning Differences
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Position Statement on Determination of Specific Learning Disabilities | RTI Action Network

Position Statement on Determination of Specific Learning Disabilities | RTI Action Network | Learning Differences | Scoop.it
RTINetwork.org guides educators and families in the effective implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) as a means to improve educational outcomes for all students.
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The National Center for Learning Disabilities has found that in using and implementing Response to Intervention (RTI) programs across the nation, student that need the adequate learning help have a better chance of receiving it. The position statement cleanly describes the necessary steps in the identification process, comments of the evaluation, and using the RTI data to determine the SLD of the child. Conducting comprehensive evaluations to determine the best plan to achieve through instructional help and accommodation for students. Using Multiple different tools to sufficiently gather necessary information such as class room setting and ruling our factors like lacking proficiency in english. In school throughout the United States, using the RTI framework the extent of children receiving learning help has extended and specifically targets necessary steps. The pivotal step would be to connect IDEA mandates to the beneficial help of RTIs. Using RTIs would greatly improve the SLD diagnosis and implement useful instruction to children in need. 

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Education & Socioeconomic Status Fact Sheet

Education & Socioeconomic Status Fact Sheet | Learning Differences | Scoop.it
This fact sheet explains the impact of socioeconomic status on educational outcomes and ways to reduce risk factors such as slow academic skills development, low literacy, chronic stress, and increased dropout rates.
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This article directly relates socioeconomic status impacting academic developmental rates. It looks at family resources, school environment, academic achievement, and the psychological health of children. The article discusses how lower SES (socioeconomic status) is often correlated to lower education, poverty, and other things; by adding benefits to reduce the gap would allow children to not have to experiences the inequities. Communities that lack financial resources or cannot provide the appropriate academic support often negatively affect the the academic process and progress, which can increase dropout rates. Adult and family support encourage students to put in more towards academics. The climate and school environment makes such a different in students outcomes and achievements; this impacts the the community as well in making it stronger. Lower SES students are often connected to lower academic rates and achievements in comparison to higher SES students. In addition to low SES impacting students, many of these students are impacted by learning disabilities and behavioral disorders. Because these students often cannot receive the adequate help they need, they are more frequently seen to drop out of school. Recognizing the many connection to the education system allows people to make change and a difference in many different manners and impact children's lives. 

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Learning to Overcome | Special Education Degrees

Learning to Overcome | Special Education Degrees | Learning Differences | Scoop.it
Share this infographic on your site! Source: Special-Education-Degree.net Learning Disabilities in the U.S. Many people believe learning
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This guide to understanding learning disabilities provides strong graphics and information to understanding factors in learning disabilities and disorders. Some of the statistics presented such as 4% to 6% of American students have learning disabilities should ignite people and the government to take action and provide the necessities for these children to succeed in school. Other statistic presented in regards to overcoming challenges such as employment and living at or below the poverty line are shocking, which is 43% of those with learning disabilities living at of below the poverty line to 15.1% of the general population. The article additionally lays out the different ages in children's developmental stages in which learning disabilities become present and what parts of the brain different disabilities are localized.  

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Early Learning | U.S. Department of Education

Early Learning | U.S. Department of Education | Learning Differences | Scoop.it
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The US Department of Education is working with federal and states governments to establish equal access to early education (preschool) to every child. This program is targeted to middle class families and eliminating the disparity among higher education. The goal of the program is to provide high-quality education to children across America to promote success in later life. The program: America's Middle Class Promise Begins Early, is a combined efforts in funding from both the state and federal government; the federal funding over 10 years will be $75 billion. For Preschool Development Grants, President Obama is allocating $500 million as well as an additional $250 million to provide security for the program. This program will work closely with Health and Human Services to provide innovative programs and "to deliver on the promise of preschool for all". 

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Racial and ethnic differences in ADHD and LD in young school-age children: parental reports in the National Health Interview Survey.

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This study examined the racial and ethnic discrepancies in children with behavioral (ADHD) and learning differences (LD) specially looking at Hispanics, African American, and while children between the ages of six and eleven years old. The data was reviewed using different variables such as income and insurance coverage to see if their were differences across different races. Analysis of the data showed that race and ethnicities of children did not determine the degree to whether they had ADHD or LD. It was found, however, that Hispanic and African American children were less likely to use medication for ADHD than white children. In relation to use of medication, it would be interesting to determine whether economic status impacts the use of ADHD medication across ethnicities.  

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The President's Early Learning Proposal - YouTube

Early learning programs help kids start healthy, productive lives. Learn how the President's early childhood plan would benefit children from birth to age 5....
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While this video does not directly speak to students with learning disabilities, it shows how the US government is beginning/ working towards a positive impact on children's lives from a young age. As stated in the video, fewer than 5% of students have access to early education; by investing in early education programs, children across the country will have the ability to develop at the same rate as others within their age group. This proposal will help prompt stronger practices for children and by investing in the developmental stages of children's lives and increase enrollment. 

An issue I had with the video was that it did not indicate the kinds of children these statistics applied to such as economically disadvantaged, educationally disadvantaged, other than their age group. 

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Teach For America Launches Special Education and Ability Initiative

Teach For America Launches Special Education and Ability Initiative | Learning Differences | Scoop.it
My ADHD hasn't held me back from a fulfilling personal and professional life. Students who learn differently from the way most schools teach today often aren't so lucky, and the moral and economic costs to our country are staggering. It doesn't have ...
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Teach for America has created the Special Education and Ability Initiative through which all children with learning disabilities will be provided an education to accommodate their different learning profiles in order for them to excel. This program is important to implement around the country because it will be able to improve the lives of these students both in and outside the classroom by building confidence and thereby boosting learning, self-awareness, and acquisition of life skills. Not only is this initiative providing for the students but also establishing meetings for parents and teachers to become educated about learning disabilities and what practices they can adopt to best address them. As sighted by the Department of Education in the article, "students with with disabilities comprise 25 percent of students who've received multiple out-of-school suspensions, and 23 percent of those arrested in-school-- despite constituting just 12 precent of the overall student population". Additionally in schools nationwide, Black, Latino and Native American students are overrepresented within special education programs. Students that get left behind in the classroom loose all confidence and drive to success because they view achievement out of their reach; this promotes the poor behavior which constitutes the presented statistics. 

 

Department of Education funding for these types of programs?

 

What age does not getting adequate help begin? 

 

Why are Black, Latino, and Native American students over represented in special education nationwide? 

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 - The Future of Children -

 - The Future of Children - | Learning Differences | Scoop.it
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While this article uses language that I have an issue with, it clearly synthesizes information regarding different learning disabilities and disorder and how children and people with these disorders are impacted. Each issue such as socioeconomic status, community, and other are discussed as factors that can impacts a childs learning capabilities. It article continues to break down each learning disorder or disabilities and what components of learning are affected by the LD. This provides a strong collected source for people with less knowledge of LDs to understand what circumstances and instances LD students would be affected.
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Ingrum.pdf

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This study was super interesting in that it examined the high school dropouts and how learning disabilities coincide. In addition, the study examined two other disadvantageous factors in finishing high school, which were socioeconomic in conjunction to LDs and students facing poverty together with LDs. 

 An interesting statistic in establishing factors that would prevent dropout was that 68% of dropout interviewed and that changes could have been enacted to help them stay in school. These changes covered "attitudes and efforts, school attendance policies, teacher behavior, discipline policy, and peers". There were many more variables looked at within the study and overall their was a high correlation between high school dropout rates and LDS. 

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guiding-principles.pdf

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This resource was created by the US Department of Education as the guiding principles to establishing improvement and discipline within the educational system. The expectations about the program are:

"(1) Create positive climates and focus on prevention; (2) Develop clear, appropriate, and consistent expectations and consequences to address disruptive student behaviors; and (3) Ensure fairness, equity, and continuous improvement." 

 The conclusion of the document is to make school safe whether that means literally a safer place, or academically safe for children. School that create positive climates for children are able to address LDs and behavior problems at a greater intensity. 

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SpecialEd_ch05.pdf

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This study, Special but Unequal: Race and Special Education, examined the connections between race, poverty, and special education in specific locations across the United States. The study came to four hypotheses regarding the treatment and understanding of learning disabilities. The first hypothesis, "Financial Status: Majority-minority districts provide fewer special education services due to a lack of resources", was tested by investigating three variables and of which they found relations between the size of the class rooms and the salary allocated to the special education teachers. The second hypothesis, "District Competence: Urban districts are less competent in identifying special-needs students", examined the recognition of learning disabilities students within urban environments. The data indicated urban school districts often have under-identified student with needs because of school needs and other priorities. The third hypothesis, "Parental Attitudes: The finding that districts with a high percentage of minority students place fewer pupils in special education programs can be explained by the fact that minority parents are reluctant to place children in special education programs because they fear that their children will be given lower quality instructions, will never return to the regular classroom, and/or will be stereotyped", looked at the impact of parental attitudes in enrolling children in special education programs and how that impact the child's engagement and the effect the program had. The fourth hypothesis, "Social Segregation: The finding that districts with a high percentage of minority students place fewer pupils special education programs can bed plained by the fact that predominately white districts place a higher percentage of their minority sit dents into special enunciation services than do predominantly minority districts", focused on looking at minority districts and factors such as districts revenues and competency and parental attitudes. Overall, this study clearly analyzes factors that attribute to special-education issues, and where those problems are rooted within society. 

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Early Learning: America's Middle Class Promise Begins Early - YouTube

The foundation of a thriving middle class is access to a strong education for every child. But millions of children in this country are cut off from quality ...
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The US Department of Education is working to establish a strong foundation for middle class access to education for every child. By addressing and providing early education to students, it will be able to help students harness the excitement of learning and take the next steps to develop social skills and become confident in themselves as people. As stated in the video:  "students who have high-quality early learning are less likely to repeat a grade, require special education, or commit crimes." Studies have shown exposure to education in a young age will help students grow and thrive to become stronger learners. 

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Background & Analysis

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From the New America Foundation, the Federal Education Budget Project has an annual three grant program called Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. The grant primarily goes to student between k-12 (section part B), while a small portion is allocated to pre-kindergarten programs (section C). For 2014, "total IDEA funding was $12.50 billion, of which $11.47 billion is dedicated to IDEA Part B Section 611 state grants". IDEA is an underfunded federal mandate, which places a ton of pressure on the state and local governments to fulfill the mandate. This causes numerous problems for state and local governments to find the money to allocate to the special education program and to fulfill the mandate, and often this money is taken from general education. In the past 10 years the number of students that need special education services has increased, in part because the definition of who can be allocated special education services has changed. This increase in number of students and the lack of funding from the federal government has placed a huge pressure on small and rural areas, or just areas that generally lack in taxation. This has caused some school and district to stop recognizing learning differences in order to supply the funding to students with severe disabilities. What is the governments process to solve this issue? And or how can the children that cannot be allocated the needs be helped in order for them to be successful in school? 
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