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Common Core came from the states

Common Core came from the states | Leading Schools | Scoop.it

Michael Cohen is president of the education-reform group Achieve.


"If you are reading this now, the chances are pretty high that you already have read something alleging that the Common Core State Standards are the result of a conspiracy led by (1) Bill Gates (2) President Barack Obama (3) Corporate America (4) The United Nations Agenda 21 or (5) all of the above."

Mel Riddile's insight:

"the Common Core is the natural outgrowth of state leadership and, in the great American tradition, states serving as the laboratories of American democracy.  Adopting a clear set of education standards as a basis for improving student achievement was launched in the mid-1980s by governors from both parties who saw the need to improve education."

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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 2016 6:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 2016 11:34 AM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Dorothy Retha Cook's curator insight, April 24, 6:20 AM

Lord God bless these words and their messengers allow it to be understood by man in the manner that is benefitual and for the good purpose of those that read it and bless them even the more that has is or will share it. Lord God have mercy reveal all those things that need be in Jesus name. Amen


 

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Students' Sense of Belonging: What the Research Says

Students' Sense of Belonging: What the Research Says | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Students who are underrepresented in a school setting or who are part of a group that is subject to negative stereotypes may respond differently to failure or criticism from a teacher, psychologists say.
Those students may see such experiences as confirmation that they are less capable than their peers. Schools can counteract those effects by discussing how to learn from failure and by encouraging teachers to be “warm demanders” who set high expectations for students and encourage their potential, psychologists say.
Researchers from Stanford University have found that students whose teachers attached a note to the first draft of their essays that said, “I’m giving you these comments because I have very high expectations and I know that you can reach them,” were more likely to revise that essay than students in a control group who received a note that said, “I’m giving you these comments so that you’ll have feedback on your paper.” And the effects were stronger for black students.
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How teachers get cold calling right - Hack Learning

How teachers get cold calling right - Hack Learning | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Two: Those situations aside, it’s healthy for students to feel on-the-spot. Healthy discomfort leads to growth. This post explores how to push students to participate even if they’re shy in September.

Now, let’s get to it, starting by defining the term: Cold calling is when a teacher asks students to participate, hand up or not. This is powerful, but it usually stirs negative emotions: fear, anxiety, embarrassment.

This connotation comes from practices, discussed below, that teachers use. These practices work against us.
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Student Engagement: Three Lessons On Cold Calling

"Key Points:


Alex uses her Cold Call to ‘backstop’ her Turn and Talk . Students are both engaged in and accountable for the Turn and Talk because, they have come to realize, they may be Cold Called coming out of it. There’s a backstop-an incentive for students to do their best work, to be ready. Cold Call, as Alex shows, is great for bringing that extra layer of incentive to independent activities like writing or small group conversation.
Alex is positive and inclusive. All of her teaching is positive and that makes the mood positive in the room positive- but notice how genuine her Cold Call is. “Let’s go to you, Tyriek,” she says, without a lot of fuss and over-the-top pandering. Just the message that I am asking you to start because I care about what you have to say and your opinion is important to me . A Cold Call, in Alex’s class, is a good thing- a gesture of the teacher’s respect for and interest in her student’s thinking. “Let’s go to you, Tyriek” sounds like something you might hear on Meet the Press . It assumes that Tyriek has something valuable to say.
Alex uses Cold Call in a small group setting. Think about it for a minute. Why are there only six kids in the lesson? Because the school has decided that reading is so important that it is going to reduce five fold the student/teacher ratio during literacy instruction. This is a massive allocation of resources. But ironically when we go to small group we often throw out all of our systems for accountability, engagement and efficiency. We go super casual. No more Cold Calling. And this of curse undercuts the massive investment we are making in this moment. Being in a small group should tell us that what we are doing right now is especially important. So Alex wisely brings all of her get the most out of every second tools to bear."

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Mentors for New Teachers Found to Boost Student Achievement—by a Lot

Mentors for New Teachers Found to Boost Student Achievement—by a Lot | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
If new teachers are paired with high-quality, trained mentors and receive frequent feedback, their students may receive the equivalent of up to five months of additional learning, a new study found. 

The study, conducted by SRI Education, was an independent evaluation of the New Teacher Center's induction program funded through the Investing in Innovation (i3) Validation grant. NTC was one of 20 organizations to receive the Obama-era federal grant in 2012 and has implemented induction programs in three sites: the Chicago school district, Broward County schools in Florida, and the Grant Wood Area Education Agency, which is a consortium of 32 school districts in eastern Iowa. This study reported on the findings from randomized controlled trials in just Broward County and Chicago. 
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Study Suggests That Simple Writing Exercise Gets Big Results

Study Suggests That Simple Writing Exercise Gets Big Results | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Stanford researcher Geoffrey Cohen and others have conducted several experiments over the years having students do a simple writing exercise about their values that has resulted in increased academic achievement over the course of a year.
I’ve written in detail about what they’ve done and how I regularly replicate the exercise in my classroom. You can read about that process in these two pieces, one here in my blog (Useful Writing Exercise For Helping Students Develop Self-Esteem) and the other a guest post at The New York Times Learning Network (Guest Post | Helping Students Motivate Themselves).
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How Managers Drive Results and Employee Engagement at the Same Time

How Managers Drive Results and Employee Engagement at the Same Time | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Is it possible to be a high-standards, results-driven leader while at the same time building an engaged, fun-to-work-with team? Many people would contend that doing either of these things well makes it almost impossible to succeed at the other. And yet our examination of 360-degree assessment data from more than 60,000 leaders showed us that leaders who were rated in the top quartile of both skills ranked in the 91st percentile of all leaders. It seems that not only is it possible to do both things well, but the best leaders are the very ones who manage to do both
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The Coach Approach to Giving and Receiving Feedback in Schools

The Coach Approach to Giving and Receiving Feedback in Schools | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Today's guest blog is written by Shira Leibowitz, Ph.D, co-author of The Coach Approach To School Leadership: Leading Teachers to Higher Levels of Effectiveness and Founding Lower School Director of Portfolio School.

Feedback, among the most impactful, and yet also among the most variable influences on student achievement, matters. It matters profoundly.

Educational researcher and thought leader John Hattie (2009), whose investigation of more than 800 meta-analyses represents the largest collection of evidence-based research into what actually works in schools, has found feedback to be among the top 10 influences on student achievement. While Hattie's  research primarily describes the effect of feedback from teachers to students, he asserts that his findings pertain to professional learning as well. Simply stated, for schools to improve, feedback to both educators and students is essential.

Yet, Hattie offers a cautionary note. While skillfully shared feedback can catapult learning to new heights, poorly offered feedback can have minimal impact, or worse, can potentially have negative impact, leading to disengagement and resentment.
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Dr. Theresa Kauffman's curator insight, June 20, 10:14 AM
Engage your teachers with valuable and effective feedback and your students will be more engaged also. Pertinent suggestions in this article.
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I Want to Get Better at... Classroom Management

I Want to Get Better at... Classroom Management | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Does anyone not want to get better at classroom management? Even the most experienced teachers can find ways to make their classrooms more welcoming and productive places. But for new teachers, classroom management can feel make it or break it.

If you’ve had a rough year, congratulations on getting through it!
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How Great Leaders Transform A Broken Culture

How Great Leaders Transform A Broken Culture | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
It all starts with inspiring a shift in mindset, and moving away from the sentiment of “that’s just how things are around here” to “this is how we are going to think and act from now on.” And that starts at the top. When leaders embrace a new way of thinking and match words and actions with authenticity. Then and only then can they lead change and transform a culture.

A great example can be drawn from my time in Navy SEAL training. The initial six months is called BUD/S (Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL). One of the most fascinating things about BUD/S is the evolution of the students’ mindset. Those that thrive during the worst parts learn to channel all of the pain, shivering and misery into aggression. An aggression so powerful it drives them with an unwavering pursuit to make it to the end. An aggression that fuels the metamorphosis from a young scared tadpole to a strong, bold and confident frogman.
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Intrinsic Motivation: Be Better at Life by Thinking of Yourself Less

Intrinsic Motivation: Be Better at Life by Thinking of Yourself Less | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The motivation Eaton described is a good example of the power of self-transcendence. In a paradoxical twist, the research suggests that the less we think about ourselves, the better we become. Self-transcendence not only allows us to overcome our greatest fears and break through our limits, but it also improves our performance in less heroic, everyday activities. In one study, researchers from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania found that hospital janitors who cleaned bedpans and mopped floors performed better and reported higher levels of satisfaction when their job was framed as being integral to the healing of other people. The janitors were constantly reminded that by keeping the hospital clean, they were minimizing the chance of bacteria spreading and harming the already vulnerable patients. They no longer saw their job as just removing vomit from the floors; they saw it as saving lives. Some hospitals have even eliminated the job titles “janitor” and “custodian” in favor of titles like “health and safety team member” or “environmental health worker.”
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Hidden agendas that can ruin performance conversations

The purpose of performance conversations is to improve employee performance. What often stands in the way of an effective performance conversation is the manager’s hidden agenda. In this article I talk about the five hidden agendas that prevent good performance conversations:
Mel Riddile's insight:

Performance conversations can go wrong when managers have ulterior agendas, such as seeking to punish their reports or only meeting to comply with company policy, writes Marlene Chism. "Take a moment to get clear on what the employee can do or should stop doing in order to improve performance," she writes.

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Why Students Need More Low-Stakes Tests : Retrieval Practice

Why Students Need More Low-Stakes Tests : Retrieval Practice | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
“When your students take more low stakes tests they get more familiar with what they’re struggling with, and so do you, so you can focus more of your teaching and homework on that more challenging content,” Dunlosky said. In many ways he’s describing formative assessment, a practice teachers have always used, but quizzing isn’t just for teachers to take the pulse of the class, it’s good for students’ brains too.

A study conducted by Andrew Butler in 2010 compared how well students performed on a variety of tests when they either restudied material or took practices tests and restudied. He found that not only did students who studied and took a practice test remember more of the specific information than those who merely restudied, they also performed almost two times better on questions that required them to make inferences.

“Students get a really powerful boost in their learning and ability to utilize that knowledge in other contexts,” Dunlosky said. Butler’s study is often cited as an example that retrieval practice can lead to transfer both within a domain and to new ones. “Testing the content, just retrieving the content from memory, allows them to use that content flexibly later,” Dunlosky said.
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Misinterpreting the Growth Mindset: Why We're Doing Students a Disservice

Misinterpreting the Growth Mindset: Why We're Doing Students a Disservice | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Too often I have had to deal with misinterpretations of my work, misappropriation of my name, and over-zealous and incorrect use of the Visible Learning research. I was trained to critique ideas never the person but in these internet days this is continually violated. Recently, I had the chance to meet Carol Dweck, and knew all too well that they had to deal with these same issues when it comes to their work. 

Carol had come to Sydney to address AITSL's Highly Accomplished and Lead Teachers conference. So we dined, talked for hours, and had a very pleasant time together. As I did not agree with many of the claims attributed to Carol, I had done my homework by re-reading all her academic publications. Hence, I was a little terrified as I knew Carol's reputation for exactitude. Indeed, I met a careful, precise, and esteemed colleague.

Over the time we spoke, we discussed our mutual disappointment, not surprising, that so many took her work and applied it in many haphazard ways. Educators, pundits, and researchers have over promoted growth mindsets with no evidence of impact, and she noted how so many critics near bothered to read her academic work.  Instead they often recited secondary sources, believed Twitter and Blogs were peer reviewed rigorous studies, and misappropriated her searching for ideas as if it was all resolved.
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Students' Sense of Belonging at School Is Important. It Starts With Teachers

Students' Sense of Belonging at School Is Important. It Starts With Teachers | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A student's sense of belonging at school is important to academic achievement, say educators who responded to an Education Week Research Center survey.
While most educators who took the survey use routines to help students feel welcome and safe at school—like greeting them at the classroom door each morning—many respondents say they struggle to help address some barriers to belonging.
The survey, administered by the Education Week Research Center, drew input from 528 educators who are registered users of edweek.org.
School Culture and Belonging
Students' Sense of Belonging at School Is Important. It Starts With Teachers
Q&A: Teachers' Cues Shape Students' Sense of Belonging
Students' Sense of Belonging: What the Research Says
Among those respondents, 41 percent say it's challenging or very challenging for them to address "the concerns of students who feel that they might be judged negatively based on their identity (e.g., disability status, gender, race/ethnicity)."
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New Study On Cellphones Helpful To Teachers Everywhere

New Study On Cellphones Helpful To Teachers Everywhere | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Earlier this year I posted Here Are Two Activities I’ll Be Doing With My ELL Students The Day We Come Back From Break, which I included a lesson I did with students sharing research on how having cellphones out hurt cognitive performance.
It ended up being quite effective, probably more so than anything else I’ve done around cellphones. With periodic reminders of the research when students had their phones our when we weren’t using them for class, it seemed to reduce inappropriate phone use and reduced classroom tension (it’s nicer for me to say “Remember what we learned about leaving phones on the desk” instead of “Please put your phone away.”)
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Challenging the status quo in mathematics: Teaching for understanding

Challenging the status quo in mathematics: Teaching for understanding | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Despite decades of reform efforts, mathematics teaching in the U.S. has changed little in the last century. As a result, it seems, American students have been left behind, now ranking 40th in the world in math literacy.

Several state and national reform efforts have tried to improve things. The most recent Common Core standards had a great deal of promise with their focus on how to teach mathematics, but after several years, changes in teaching practices have been minimal.
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America's High Schools Abandoning Valedictorian Award — Over Fear of 'Unhealthy Competition'

America's High Schools Abandoning Valedictorian Award — Over Fear of 'Unhealthy Competition' | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
As Carolyn Thompson of the Associated Press wrote last week, half of the nation's high schools no longer report class rankings to colleges and universities.

Thompson paraphrases Bob Farace, spokesman for the National Association of Secondary School Principles, saying high school administrators are concerned with college prospects for students separated by large differences in class rankings, but small differences in grade-point averages.

Thompson writes that "concerns about intense, potentially unhealthy competition and students letting worries about rank drive their course selections,” has led to a decade-long decline among high schools crowning single valedictorians.
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5 Keys To Authentic Leadership

5 Keys To Authentic Leadership | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
But author Jeff Davis discusses in his new book, The Power of Authentic Leadership: Activating the 13 Keys to Achieving Prosperity Through Authenticity, that authentic leadership prowess is a cornerstone trait needed for success not just at work, but in life as well. Through conversations with Senators, billionaires, New York Times bestselling authors, and extremely successful business owners, coupled with his own research and application, Davis believes that authentic leadership is the essential ingredient for prosperity.

Hardly theoretical, authentic leadership is something that can be used and applied on a day-to-day basis, and it is needed now more than ever. In a nutshell, it’s more about being true to your word and demonstrating by example than it is about getting people to follow you or telling others what to do.
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Guiding student improvement without individual feedback

Guiding student improvement without individual feedback | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Feedback seems extremely powerful.  It is “among the most common features of successful teaching and learning” with an average effect size of 0.79, “twice the average effect of all other schooling effects (Hattie, 2012: 115-6).”  Such meta-analyses are problematic (see, for example, Wiliam, 2016) and more recent reviews have offered lower effect sizes, but the overall picture is clear: “Good feedback can significantly improve learning processes and outcomes (Shute, 2008).”  Anders Ericsson emphasises the importance of feedback and guided improvement in his work on expert performance: “Deliberate practice involves feedback and modification of efforts in response to that feedback (Ericsson and Pool, 2016: 99).”

Providing effective feedback is problematic however.  “While feedback is among the most powerful moderators of learning, its effects are among the most variable (Hattie, 2012: 115).”  Providing feedback successfully is a real challenge: “Get it wrong, and students give up, reject the feedback, or choose an easier goal (Wiliam, 2011: 119).”  This is illustrated most vividly in Kluger and DeNisi’s meta-analysis (1996), which found that studies of feedback showed an average effect size of 0.41, but that over 38% had negative effects.
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How Congress wastes school officials’ valuable time

How Congress wastes school officials’ valuable time | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
By Jay Mathews Columnist June 16
As states gain more power over public education, our state superintendents and education departments have a better chance of improving schools. We should not waste their time, something our elected representatives in Congress have done in a colossally clumsy way.
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Summer Math Loss

Summer Math Loss | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
On average, students lose approximately 2.6 months of learning in math over the summer — and teachers have to give up weeks of class time, or more, to make up for that loss.
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How To Apply The Brain Science Of Resilience To The Classroom

How To Apply The Brain Science Of Resilience To The Classroom | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A nonprofit called Turnaround for Children helps schools meet the needs of children facing poverty and adversity.
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Student-Driven Differentiation: Putting Student Voice Behind The Wheel

Student-Driven Differentiation: Putting Student Voice Behind The Wheel | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
I respect my students, just ask them!
A few months ago, I read The School Voice Report published by The Quaglia Institute. The report disclosed some very thought-provoking numbers. Most notably, after surveying over 60,000 students and 4,000 teachers, researchers found 99% of teachers surveyed reported they respect their students, while 58% of students surveyed reported feeling respected by their teachers. 

Additionally, of those surveyed, 82% of teachers said they actively seek out student opinions and ideas, yet only 47% of students feel teachers are willing to learn from them.

These discrepancies did not surprise me. I often see a disconnect between teachers' and students' perceptions of respect and listening. Many teachers will ask students for input and innocently, yet mistakenly, believe that just asking students questions is a clear indicator of the respect they have for them.  However, students feel respected when their thoughts and questions are heard and addressed accordingly. So, without action (whether that be a change or a valid explanation of why a change cannot occur) students do not necessarily feel respected. 

When differentiating instruction (student-driven or not), teachers are mindful that some students will master content and skills more quickly while some students will struggle to learn the same content and skills. With student-driven differentiation, rather than plan in advance how to address student needs, students' voices (collective and individual) are sought to craft the plan. Student-driven differentiation lends itself to teacher action which produces the ultimate result: students who feel respected, heard, and who learn. 
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Implementation: Follow-up Is the Secret to Effective Delegation

Implementation: Follow-up Is the Secret to Effective Delegation | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Strong leadership isn't just about delegating tasks; it is also about following up on those tasks and making sure they are done to your standards. People on my team sometimes feel like I ride them until things get done. However, I've learned the hard way that if you don't, things all too often get pushed aside. You have to keep reminding, checking and rechecking until you know things have been done the way you want. This is not obsessive-compulsive. It's called experienced.
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Why Teachers Should Help Students Learn Effective Study Strategies

Why Teachers Should Help Students Learn Effective Study Strategies | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
For teachers, the carefully controlled conditions of education research can seem ridiculous when the reality of the classroom involves regular interruptions, absences and general chaos. Professor John Dunlosky is trying to bridge these two worlds, intentionally studying the effectiveness of strategies that lab studies indicate are promising, but that don’t require special technology or extra resources. He is trying to figure out what few strategies could actually make a big difference for learners, and which ones are a waste of time.

“The most difficult aspect of this entire project was deciding which strategies we should evaluate,” Dunlosky said during a presentation at Learning and the Brain in San Francisco. There are hundreds of teaching strategies, most of which can be effective in certain situations. But Dunlosky was looking for strategies that are broadly applicable and don’t just aid memorization; he wanted to find the approaches that deepen understanding and help students transfer learning to new situations.
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